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Full text of "Mackenzie's five thousand receipts in all the useful and domestic arts: containing a complete practical library, relative to agriculture, bees, bleaching .."



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Kay's Improved & Enlarged EdiL 



^ MACKENZIE'S 



FIVE THOUSAIVD RECEIPTS 



IN ALL THE 



Bv Transfer 

'^'^ 3 I9I7 



CONSTITUTING 



A COMPLETE PRACTICAL LIBRARY 







RELATIVE TO 






Agriculture, 


Crayons, 


Gardening, 


Oil Colours, 


Silk, 


Bees, 


Dairy, 


Gilding, 


Oils, 


Silk worms. 


Bleaching, 


Diseases, 


Glass, 


Painting, 


Silvering, 


Brewing, 


Distillation, 


Health, 


Pastry, 


Tanning, 


Calico Printing, 


Dying, 


Inks, &c. 


Perfumery, 


Trees of all kinds 


Carving at Table, 


Enamelling, 


Jewellers' Pastes, 


Pickling, 


Varnishing, 


Cements, 


Engraving, 


Lithography, 


Pottery, 


Water Colours, 


Confectionary, 


Farriery, 


Medicines, 


Preserving, 


Wines, 


Cookery, 


Food, 


Metallurgy, 


Scouring, 


&c. &C. &C. 



^ KeSo i^merican, from t^e latest aontfon 32Trition» 

VFITH NUMEROUS AND IMPORTANT ADDITIONS GENERALLY ; AND THE MEDICAL PART CAREFULLY 

REVISED AND ADAPTED TO THE CLIMATE OF THE U. STATES ; AND ALSO A NEW 

AND MOST COPIOUS INDEX. 

BY AN AMERICAN PHYSICIAN. 



PUBLISHED BT 

JAMES KAY, JUN. AND BROTHER, PHILADELPHIA. 

179 Market Street — between 4th and 5tli. 
PITTSBURGH: C. H. KAY 



, \ -O - 









Eastern Ihstnct of i ennsyivanm, to wic 

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the twenty-fifth day of September, in the fiftv-third year of the lo 
dependence of the United States of America, A. D. 1829, Jamks Kay, Jr. & Co. of "the said District, havs 
deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the wo;"Js following 

" Mackenzie's Five Thousand Receipts in all the useful and domestic arts : coi^tituting a complete practical 
library relative to agriculture, bees, bleaching, brewing, calico printing, carving at table, cements, confec- 
tionary, cookery, crayons, dairy, diseases, distillation, dying, enamelling, engraving, farriery, food, garden- 
ing, gliding, glass, health, inks, &c. jeweller's pastes, lithography, medicines, metallurgy, oil colours, oils, 
pamtmg, pastry, perfumery, pickling, pottery, preserving, scouring, silk, silk worms, silvering, tanning, trees 
ot all kinds, varnishing, water colours, wineg, &c. &c. &c. Fourth Aiaerican, from the latest Lordon 
edition. With numerous and important additions generally ; and the medical part carefully revised and 
adapted to the climate of the U. States ; and also a new and most copious Index. By an American Physician." 

In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled " An Act for the Encouragement 
of Learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such 
copies, during the times therein mentioned;" and also to an Act, entitled, "An Act Supplementary to an 
Act, entitled 'An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, 
to the authors and pFoprietors of such copies, during the limes therein mentioned,' and extending the benefits 
thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching, historical and other prints." 

D. CALDWELL, 
ClerJc of ihe Eastern District of Pennsylvania 



PREFACE 



TO THE LATEST LONDON EDITION. 



As the object of all study, and the 
end of all wisdom, is practical utility, 
so a collection of the most approved Re- 
ceipts, in all the arts of Domestic and 
Social Life, may be considered as a 
volume containing nearly the whole of 
the wisdom of man, worthy of preserva- 
tion. In truth, the present volume has 
been compiled under the feeling, that if 
all other books of Science in the world 
were destroyed, this single volume would 
be found to embody the results of the 
useful experience, observations, and 
discoveries of mankind during the past 
ages of the world. 

Theoretical reasonings and historical 
details have, of course, been avoided, 
and the object of the compiler has been 
to economise his space, and come at 
once to the point. AVhatever men do, 
or desire to do, with the materials with 
which nature has supplied them, and 
with the powers which they possess, is 
here plainly taught and succinctly pre- 
served; whether it regard complicated 
manufactures, means of curing diseases, 
simple processes of various kinds, or the 
economy, happiness, and preservation of 
life. 

The best authorities have been re- 
sorted to, and innumerable volumes con- 
sulted, and wherever different processes 
of apparently equal value, for attaining 
the same end, have been found, they 
have been introduced. 

Among the works consulted have been, 

The Monthly Magazine, 56 vols. 
The Repertory of Arts and Sciences, 60 vols. 
The London Journal of Arts and Sciences. 
The Transactions of the Society of Arts, 30 vols. 
The Magazine of Trade and Manufactures, 6 

vols. 
The Gazette of Health, 9 vols. 
The Series of the Horticultural Society, 5 vols. 



The Series of the Agricultural Society, 30 vols' 

The Farmer's Magazine, 16 vols. 

Young's Farmer's Calendar. 

Loudon on Gardening, 1 vol. 

Jennings's Domestic Cyclopaedia, 2 vols. 

TiNGREY on Varnishing. 

Richardson on the MetalUc Arts. 

Thomas's Practice of Physic. 

Cooper's Dictionary of Surgery. 

Thornton's British Herbal. 

Waller's Ditto. 

Imison's School of Arts. 

Handmaid to the Arts. 

Smith's Laboratory of the Arts. 

Hamilton on Drawing. 

The Editor's Thousand Experiments in Ma 

nufactures and Chemistry. 
Davy's Agricultural Chemistry. 
Henry's Elements of Chemistry. 
Chaptal's Chemistry applied to the Arts. 
Gregory's Cyclopaedia. 
The English and other Cyclopaedias. 

Besides innumei'able treatises. on spe- 
cial subjects, minor journals, and a great 
variety of manuscript communication? 
from friends and connexions of the edi- 
tor and publisher. 

A general, rather than a scientific, 
arrangement has been adopted, because 
the object of the work is popular and 
universal, and, though likely to be use- 
ful to men of sci€2ce, it is more espe- 
cially addressed to the public at large. 
In like manner, as far as possible, tech- 
nical and scientific language has been 
avoided, and popular names and simple 
descriptions have been preferred. 

Every care has been taken in the print- 
ing to avoid errors in quantities, as welt 
as to select the best receipts of each 
kind; but notices of errors, omissions, 
or experimental improvements, will be 
thankfully received by the publisher, for 
the use of future editions. 

The Index will render it easy to refer 
to every article of importance. 



PREFACE 



TO THE FOURTH AMERICAN EDITION. 



In fulfilling the duty of pre}3aring for 
the press a new and enlarged edition of 
the valuable work of Mackenzie, the 
Editor has steadily borne in mind its 
evident aim at general practical utility; 
and consequently he has submitted both 
alterations and additions to its rules. 
While the former will be found but 
few, — a circumstcince arising from the 
nature of the book; the latter are both 
numerous aau important, — amounting 
to about fifW pages, exclusive of those 
contained iu die Miscellaneous Depart- 
ment and ti e Appendix. 

The Me., ical part has been condensed, 
simplified, and adapted to the climate 
and diseases of the United States. A 
short, but complete manual of "Direc- 
tions for rearing the Silk Worm, and the 
Culture of the White Mulberry Tree," 
together with an extensive article on the 
Diseases of the Horse, may be noticed 
as among the important additions. The 
Culinary art has not been neglected — 
the numerous original receipts from 
the best modern authorities of the 
"Kitchen," for preparing various deli- 
cacies of the animal and vegetable king- 
dom, including Pastry, Puddings, &c. 
will no doubt prove acceptable to Ame- 
rican housekeepers. The man of family, 
the Sportsman, the Artist, the Mechanic, 
and the Farmer have all been remem- 
bered. And an unusually large and 
correct Index gives every facility of re- 
ference that could be wished. 

The attention of the Reader is called 
to the "Miscellaneous Receipts." In 
this portion, which is very copious, nu- 
merous receipts have beea, placed, which 
could not with propiiety be elsewhere 



arranged. It has also been made tbp 
receptacle of much valuable matter ob- 
tained from several kind female friends 
and the fruit of researches into many 
curious and rare booksj and which was 
prepared at too late a period for insertion 
in the appropriate departments. The 
Appendix of "Instructions in the Art 
of Carving," with its numerous wood 
cuts, will, it is hoped, prove acceptable 
and useful to our country readers, for 
whose accommodation this work was 
originally designed. 

The Editor more especially notices 
the following works, as sources from 
which he has derived considerable as- 
sistance: The Franklin Journal; Wil- 
lich's Domestic Encyclopaedia, by Pro- 
fessor Cooper; a Tract published by the 
Pennsylvania Society for the Rearing 
of Silk Worms, &c.; and the curious 
work of Colonel Hanger, of sporting 
memory. 

In conclusion, the publishers beg leave 
to state, that neither time nor expense, 
has been considered in endeavouring to 
render this edition cheaper and better 
than any other which has been published, 
and at the same time Vv^orthy of the pa- 
tronage which is solicited for it. They 
have availed themselves of the services 
of a gentleman as Editor, who has been 
for a considerable time engaged in the 
preparatory researches. The type, though 
small, is very legible and distinct; and 
in the selection of the paper, whilst re- 
gard has been had to the colour, it lias 
been deemed of main importance that it 
should be sufficiently durable to resist the 
frequent usage into which a work of this 
description must necessarily be called. 



THE 



PRACTICAL LIBRARY. 



ASSAYING OF METALLIC ORES. 

Before metallic ores are worked upon in the 
large way, it will be necessary to inquire what 
sort of iiietal, and what portion of it, is to be found 
in a determinate quantity of the ore; to discover 
whether it will be worth while to extract it largely, 
afid in what manner the process is to be conducted, 
so as to answer that purpose. The knowledge re- 
quisite for this is called the art of assaying. 
Assay of ores in the dry way. 

The assaying of ores may be performed either 
in the di-y or moist way; the first is the most an- 
cient, and, in many respects, the most advanta- 
geous, and consequently still continues to be mostly 
used. 

Assays are made either in crucibles with tlie 
blast of the bellows, or in tests under a muffle. 
Assay Tveiglits. 

The assay weights are always imaginaiy, some- 
times an ounce represents a hundred weight on the 
large scale, and is subdivided into the same num- 
ber of parts, as that hundred weight is in the great; 
so that the contents of the ore, obtained by the as- 
say, shall accurately determine by such relative 
proportion the quantity to be expected from any 
weight of the ore on a larger scale. 
Roasting the ore. 

In the lotting of the ores, care should be taken 
to have small portions from different specimens, 
wliicli should be pulverized, and well mixed in an 
iron or brass mortar. The proper quantity of the 
ore is now taken, and if it contain either sulphur 
or arsenic, it is put into a crucible or test, and ex- 
posed to a moderate degree of heat, till no vapour 
arises from it; to assist this volatilization, some 
add a small quantity of powdered charcoal. 
Fluxes. 

To assist the fusion of the ores, and to convei-t 
the extraneous matters connected Avith tliem into 
scoria, assayers use different kinds of fluxes. The 
most usual and efficacious materials for the com- 
»■ position of these are, borax, tartar, nitre, sal am- 
moniac, common salt, glass, fluor-spar, charcoal 
powder, pitch, lime, litharge, &e. in different pro- 
portions. 

As the whole process of which we are speaking 
.' t- merely an experiment, made for the purpose of 
ascertaining what is the nature of the metal con- 
tained in the ore, and the proportion the former 
bears to the latter; the little additional expense in- 
curred by employing animal instead of vegetable 
charcoal is not to be regarded, particularly, when 
the increased fusibility of the ore, occasioned there- 
by, is considered. For the mode of preparing it 
see charcoal, article dentifrice. 



Crude or -white Jiux. 

This consists of 1 part of nitre, and 2 of tartai-, 
well mixed together. 

Black Jiux. 

The above crude iiiix detonates by means of 
kindled charcoal, and if the detonation be effected 
in a mortar slightly covered, the smoke that rises 
unites with the alkalized nitre and the tartar, and 
renders it black. 

Vomish reducing Jiux. 

Mix well together 10 ounces of tartar, 3 ounces 
and 6 drachms of nitre, and 3 ounces and 1 drachm 
of borax. 

Cornish rejining Jiux. 

Deflagrate, and afterwai-ds pulverize, 2 parts of 
nitre, and 1 part of tartar. 

The above fluxes answer the pui'pose very weil, 
provided the ores be deprived of all their sulphur; 
or, if they contain much earthy matters, because, 
in the latter case, they unite with them, and con- 
vert them into a tliin glass: but if any quantity of 
sulphur remain, these fluxes unite with it, and 
form a liver of sulphur, which has the power of 
destroying a portion of all the metals; consequent- 
ly, the assay under such circumstances must be 
very inaccurate. The principal difficulty in assay- 
ing appears to be in the appropriation of the pro- 
per fluxes to each particular oi'e, and it likewise 
appears, that such a discriminating knowledge can 
only be acquired from an extensive practice, or 
from a knowledge of the chemical affinities and 
actions of dift'erent bodies upon each other. 

In assaying, we are at liberty to use the most 
expensive materials to effect our purpose, hence 
the use of different saline fluxes, but in the work- 
ing at large, such expensive means cannot be ap- 
plied; as by such processes the inferior metals 
would be too much enhanced in value, especially 
in working very poor ores. In consequence of which, 
in smelting works, where tlie object is the pi'oduc- 
tion of metals in the great way, cheaper additions 
are used; such as lime-stone, feldt-spar, fluor-spar, 
quartz, sand, slate, and slags. These are to be 
chosen according to the different views of the ope- 
rator, and the nature of the ores. Thus iron ores, 
on account of 'the argillaceous earth they contain, 
require calcareous additions, and the copper ores, 
rather slags or vitrescent stones, than calcareous 
earth. 

Humid assay of metallic ores. ' 

The mode of assaying ores for their particular 
metals by the dry way, is deficient so far as relates 
to pointing out the different substances connected 
with them, because they are always destroyed by 
the process for obtaining the assay metal. The as- 
say by the moist way is more correct, because the 



univt':rsal receipt book. 



different substances can be accurately ascertained. 
The late celebrated Sergraann first communicated 
this method. It depends upon a knowledge of the 
cliemical affinities of differentbodies for each other? 
and must bo varied according to the nature of the 
ore; it is very extensive in its application, and re- 
quires great patience and address in its execution. 
To describe the treatment of each variety of me- 
tallic ores virould take up too much of our room; 
but to give a general idea, vre shall describe the 
procedure, both in the dry and the humid way, on 
one species of all the different ores. 
To assay iron ores. 
The ore must be roasted till the vapour ceases 
to arise. Take 2 assay quintals of it, and triturate 
them with one of fluor-spar, | of a quintal of pow- 
dered charcoal, and 4 quintals of decrepitated sea 
salt; thfs mixture is to be put into a crucible, lined 
on the inside with clay and powdered cliarcoal; a 
cover must be luted upon the crucible, and the 
crucible itself exposed to a violent fire for an hour, 
and when it is cool, broken. When, if the opera- 
tion has been well conducted, the iron will be found 
at the bottom of the crucible; to which must be 
added those metallic particles, which may adhere 
to the scoria. The metallic particles so adhering 
may be separated, by pulverizing it in paper, and 
then attracting them with a magn.'-.r. 

Another mode. — ^If the ore should be in a calci- 
form state, mixed with earths, the roasting of it 
previous to assaying, if not detrimental, is at least 
superfluous; if the earths should be of the argilla- 
ceous and siliceous kind, to half a quintal of them, 
add of dry quick lime and fluor-spar of each 1 quin- 
tal and i, reduced to powder, and mix them with 
j^ of a quintal of powdered charcoal, covering the 
whole with one ounce of decrepitated common salt; 
and expose the luted crucible to a strong forge fire 
for an hour and a quarter, then let it gradually cool, 
and let the regulus be struck off" and weighed. 

Another. — If the ore contain calcareous eai'th, 
there will be no occasion to add quick lime; the 
proportion of the ingredients may be as follows: — 
viz. 1 assay quintal of the ore; 1 of decrepitated 
sea-salt; ^ of powdered charcoal; and 1 of fluor- 
'par, and the process conducted as above. 

There is a great difference in the reguli of iron; 
•vhen the cola regulus is struck with a hammer and 
breaks, the iron is called cold short: if it break on 
being struck red-hot, it is called red short: but if 
It resist the hammer, both in its cold and ignited 
state, it is good iron. 

Humid assay of iron ore. 
To assay the calciform ores, which do not con- 
tain much earthy or stony matter, they must be re- 
duced to a fine powder, and dissolved in the marine 
acid, and precipitated by the Prussian alkali. A 
determinate quantity of the Prussian alkali must 
be tried previously, to ascertain the portion of iron 
which it will precipitate, and the estimate made 
accordingly. If the iron contains any considerable 
portion of zinc or manganese, the precipitate must 
be calcined to redness, and the calx treated with 
dephlogisticated nitrous acid, which will then take 
up only the calx of zinc; when this is separated, 
the calx should again be treated either with nitrous 
acid, with the addition of sugar, or with the acetous 
acid, which will dissolve the manganese, if any; 
the remaining calx of iron may then be dissolved 
by the raai-ine acid, and precipitated by the mine- 
ral alkali; or it may be farther calcined, and then 
weighed. 

Zinc ores. 

Take the assay weight of roasted ore, and mix 

it well with l-8th part of charcoal dust, put it into 

a strong luted earthen retort, to which must be 

fi'ted a receiver; place the retort in a furnace, and 



raise the fire, and continue it in a violent heat for 
two hours, suffer it then to cool gradually, and the 
zinc will be found adhering to the neck of the re- 
tort in its metallic form. 

In the humid -way. 
Distil vitriolic acid over calamine to dryness; the 
residuum must be lixiviated in hot water; w'^at re- ■■ 
mains undissolved is siliceous earth; to the solu- 
tionadd caustic volatile alkali, which precipitates 
the vcon and argil, but keeps the zinc in solution. 
The precipitate must be redissolved in vitriolic 
acid, and the iron and argil separated. 
Tin ores. 
Mix a quintal of tin ore, previously washed, pul- 
verized, and roasted, till no arsenical vapour arises, 
with half a quintal of calcined borax, and the same 
quantity of pulverized pitch: these are to be put in 
a crucible moistened with charooal-dust and water, 
and the crucible placed in an air-furnace. After 
the pitch is burnt, give a violent heat for a ^ of an 
hour, and on withdrawing the cnicible, the regulus 
will be found at the bottom. ]f the ore be not well 
washed from earth)'- matters, a larger quantity of 
borax will be requisite, with some powdered glass; 
and if the ore contain iron, some alkaline salt may 
be added. 

In the humid way. 
Theassay of tin ores in the liquid way was looked 
upon as impracticable, till Bergmann devised the 
following ..lethod, which is generally successful. 
Let the tin ore be well separated from its stony 
matrix, by well washing, and then reduced to the 
most subtle powder; digest it in concentrated oil 
of vitriol, in a strong heat for several hours, then, 
when cooled, add a small portion of concentratei' 
marine acid, and suffer it to stand for an hour or 
two; then add water, and when the solution is clear, 
pour it off", and precipitate it by fixed alkali — 131 
grains of this precipitate, well washed and dried, 
are equivalent to 100 of tin in its reguline state, if 
the precipitate consist of pure tin; but if it contain 
copper or iron, it must be Cilcined in a red heat 
for an hour, and then digested in nitrous acid, 
which will take up the copper; and afterwards in 
marine acid, which will separate the iron. 
Lead ores. 
As most of the lead ores contain either sulphur 
or arsenic, they require to be well roasted. ' Take 
a quintal of roasted ore, with the saiue quantity of 
calcined borax, ^ a q-iiutal of fine powdered glass, 
a ^ of a quintal of pilch, and as much clean iron 
filings. Line the crucible with wetted charcoal 
dust, and put the mixture into the crucible, and 
place it before the bellows of a forge-fire. When 
it is red hot, raise the fire for 15 or 20 minutes, 
then withdraw the crucible, and break it when 
cold. 

In the humid xoay. 
Dissolve the ore by boiling it in dilute nitrous 
acid: the sulphur, iuooluble stony parts, and calx 
of iron will remain. l"he iron may be separated by 
digestion in the marine acid, and the sulphur by 
digestion in caustic fixed alkali. The nitrous solu- 
tion contains the lead and silver, which should be * 
precipitated by the mineral fixed alkali, and the 
precipitate well washed in cold water, dried, and 
weighed. Digest it in caustic volatile alkali, which 
will take up the calx of silver; the residuum, being 
again dried and weighed, gives the proportion of 
the calx of lead, 132 grains of which are equal to 
100 of lead in its metallic state. The diff'erence 
of weight of the precipitate before and after the 
application of the volatile alicali, gives the quan- 
tity of silver, 129 grains of which are equal to 100 
of silver in its metallic state. 

Copper ores. 
Take an exact troy ounce of the ore, previoiisl'* 



METALLURGY. 



jiulveiized, and calcine it well- stir it all the time 
with an iron rod, without removing; it from the 
crucible; after the calcination add an equal quan- 
tity ol' borax, half the quantity of fusible glass, one- 
fourth the quantity ot pitch, and a little charcoal 
dust; rub the inner surface of the crucible with a 
paste composed of charcoal-dnst, a little fine pow- 
dered clay, and water. Cover the mass with com- 
mon salt, and put a lid upon die crucible, which is 
to be placed in a furnace: the fire is to be raised 
gradually, tiU it burns briskly, and the ci-ucible 
continued iu it for half an hour, stirring the metal 
frequently with an iron rod, and when the scoria 
which adheres to the rod appears clear, then the 
crucible must be taken out, and suffered to cool; 
after which it must be broken, and the regulus 
separ.ited and weighed; this is called black copper, 
to refine which, equal parts of common salt and 
nitre are to be well mixed togetlier. The black 
copper is brought into fusion, and a tea-spoonful of 
the flux is thrown upon it, which is repeated three 
or foui- times, when the metal is poured iuto an 
ingot mould, and the button is found to be fine 
copper. 

In the humid -way. 

Make a solution of vitreous copper ore, in 5 
times its weight of concentrated vitriolic acid, and 
boil it to dryness ; add as much water as will dis- 
solve the vitriol tlius formed; to this solution add 
a clean bar of iron, which will precipitate the whole 
of die copper in its metallic form. If the solution 
be contaminated widi iron, the copper must be re- 
dissolved in the same manner, and precipitated 
again. The sulphur maybe separated by filtraUon. 

Copper, precipitated from its solutions by any 
agent whatever, is always in the state of a fine 
loose powder. A solid malleii.hle mass of it how- 
ever may be oLtained iu the humid way, by ex- 
posing solutions of the sulphate, obtained from the 
calcination of copper with sulphur, to the air, iti 
tubs. After a certain period, buttons of the pure 
metal, eq-ial in specific gravity to fused copper, will 
be found deposited on the ^sides of the vessel. 
Sismuih ores. 

If the ore be mineralized by sulphur, or sulphur 
and iron, a previous roasting will be necessary. 
The strong ores require no roasting, but only to be 
reduced to a fine powder. Take the assay weight 
and mix it with half the quantity of calcined borax, 
and the same of pouiided glass; line the crucible 
with charcoal; melt it as quickly as possible; and 
when well done, take out the crucible, and let it 
cool gradually. The regulus will l)e found at die 
bottom. 

In the humid -way. 

Bismuth is easily soluble in nitrous acid or aqua 
regia. Its solution i-s colourless, and is precipitable 
by the addidon of pure water; 118 grains of the 
precipitate from nitrous acid, well washed and 
dried, ai-e equal to 100 of bismuth in its metallic 
form. 

Antimonial ores. 

Take a common crucible, bore a nmnber of small 
holes in tiie bottom, and place it in another cruci- 
ble a size smaller, luting them well together; then 
put the proper quantity of ore in small lumps into 
the upper crucible, and lute thereon a cover; place 
these vessels on a health, and surround them with 
stones about six inches distant from them; the in- 
termediate space must be filled with ashes, so that 
the undermost crucible may be covered widi them; 
but upon the upper, charcoal must be laid, and the 
wiiole made red hot by the assistance of hand bel- 
lows. The andmony being of easy fusion is 
separated, and nins tlu'ough Ae holes of the upper 
vessel into the inferior one, w-here it is collected. 
Humid assay of arseniated antimony. 
Dissolve ttie ore iu aqua resia. both the regulus 



and arsenic remain in the solution, the sulphur ia 
Sep .lated by filtration. If the solution be boiled 
with twice its weight of strong nitrous acid, the 
regulus of antimony will be precipitated, and the 
arsenic converted into an acid, which may be ob- 
tained by evaporation to dryness. 
Manganese ores. 

The regulus is obtained by mixing the calx or 
ore of manganese with pitch, making it into a ball, 
and putting It into a crucible, lined with powdefed 
charcoal, 1-lOth of an inch on the sides, and \ of 
an inch at bottom, then filling the empty space 
widi charcoal dust, covering the crucible with an- 
other inverted and luted on, and exposing it to the 
strongest heat of a forge for an hour or more. 
In the humid -way. 

The ores should be first well roasted to dephlo- 
gisticate the calx of manganese and iron, if any, 
and then treated with nitrous acid to dissolve the 
earths. The residuum should now be d-eated with 
nitrous acid and sugar, by which means a colour- 
less solution of manganese will be obtained, and 
likewise of the iron, if any. Precipitate with the 
Prussian alkali, and digest the precipitate in pure 
water; the prussiate of manganese will be dissolveil 
whilst the prussiate of iron will i-emain undissolved. 
Arsenical ores. 

This assay is made by sublimation in close ves- 
sels. Beat the ore into sm^all pieces, and put them 
into a matrass, which place in a sand pot, with a 
proper degree of heat: the arsenic sublimes in this 
operation, and adheres- to the upper part of the 
vessel; when it must be carefully collected with a 
view to ascertain its weight. Sometimes a single 
sublimation will not be sufficient, for the arsenic 
in many cases will melt with the ore, and prevent 
its total volatilization; in which case, it is better 
to perform the first sublimation with a moderate 
heat, and afterwards bruise the remainder again, 
and expose it to a stronger heat. 
In the humid viay. 

Digest the ore in marine acid, adding the nitrous 
by degrees to help the solution. The sulphur will 
be found on the filter; the arsenic will remain in 
die solution, and may be precipitated in its mets'.- 
lic form by zinc, adding spirit of wine to the solu- 
don. 

J^ichel ore. 

The ores must be well roasted to expel the sul- 
phur and arsenic; the greener the calx proves du- 
ring this torrefaction, the more it abounds iu the 
nickel; but the redder it is, the more iron it con- 
tains. The proper quantity of this roasted ore is 
fused in an open crucible, with twice or dirice its 
weight of black flux, and the whole covered with 
common salt. By exposing the crucible to the 
strongest heat of a forge fire, and making the fusion 
complete, a regulus will be produced. This regu- 
lus is not pure, but contains a portion of arsenic, 
cobalt, and iron. Of the first it may be deprived 
by a fresh calcinadon, with the addition ot pow- 
dered charcoal; and of the second by scorification; 
but it is M'ith difficulty that it is entirely freed from 
the iron. 

In the kuTTtid -way. 

By solution in nitrous acid, it is fi-eed from iti 
svdphur; and by adding water to the solution, bis- 
muth, if any, may be precip'.tated; as may silver., 
if contained in it, by the marine acid; and copper, 
when any, by iron. 

To separate cobalt from nickel, when the cobalt 
is in considerable quantity, drop a saturated solu- 
tion of the roasted ore iu nitrous acid into liquid 
volatile alkali; the cobaltie part is instandy redis- 
solved, and assumes a garnet colour; when filtered, 
a grey powder remains on the filter, which is the 
nickel. The cobalt may be precipitated from Ihe 
volatile alkali by any acid. 



8 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



Cobalt ores. 
Free them as much as possible from earthy mat- 
tei s by well washing, and from sulphur and arsenic 
by roasting. The ore thus prepared is to be mixed 
with three parts of black flux, and a little decrepi- 
tated sea-salt; put the mixture in a lined crucible, 
cover it, and place it in a forge fire, or in a hot 
furnace, for this ore is very difficult of fusion. 

When well fused, a metallic regulus will be 
found at the bottom, covered with a scoria of a 
deep blue colour: as almost all cobalt ores con- 
tarn bismuth, this is I'edaced by the same opera- 
tion as the regulus of cobalt; but as they are inca- 
pable of chemically uniting together, they are 
always found distinct from each other in the cruci- 
ble. The regulus of bismuth, having a greater 
specific gravity, is always at the bottom, and may 
be separated by a blow with a hammer. 
In the humid -way. 

Make a solution of the ore in nitrous acid, or 
aqua regia, and evaporate to dryness; the residuum, 
treated with the acetous acid, will yield to it the 
cobaltic part; the arsenic should be first precipi- 
tated by the addition of water. 

MJerciirial ores. 

I'he calciform oi-es of mercury are easily reduced 
without any addition. A quintal of the ore is put 
into a retort, and a receiver luted on, containing 
some water; the retort is placed in a sand bath, and 
a sufiieient degree of heat given it, to force over 
the mercmy which is condensed in the ■ft'ater of the 
receiver. 

Sulphuretted merczirial ores. 

The sulphurous ores are assayed by distillation 
in the manner above, only these ores require an 
equal weight of clean iron filings to be mixed with 
them, to disengage the sulphur, while the heat 
volatilizes the mercury, and forces it into the re- 
ceiver. These ores should likewise be tried for 
cinnabar, to know whether it will answer the pur- 
pose of extracting it from them; for this a deter- 
minate quantity of the ore is finely powdered and 
put into a glass vessel, which is exposed to a gen- 
tle heat at first, and gradually increased till nothing 
more is sublimed. By the quantity thus acquired, 
a judgment may be formed whether the process 
will answer. Sometimes this cinnabar is not of so 
lively a colour as that which is used in trade; in 
this case it maybe refined by a second sublimation, 
and if it be still of too dark a colour, it may be 
brightened by the a»ldition of a quantity of mercury, 
and subliming it again. 

Humid assay of cinnabar. 

The stony matrix should be dissolved in nitrous 
acid, and the cinnabar being disengaged, should be 
boiled in 8 or 10 times its weight of aqua regia, 
composed of3 parts of nitrous, and 1 of marine acid. 
Tlie mercury may be precipitated in its running 
form by ziuc. 

Silver ores. 

Take the assay quantity of the ore finely pow- 
dered, and roast it well in a proper degree of heat, 
frequently stirring it with an iron rod; then add to 
it about double tlie quantity of granulated lead, put 
it in a covered crucible, and place it in a furnace; 
raise the fire gently at first, and continue to in- 
crease it gi-adually, till the metal begins to work; 
if it should appear too thick, make it thinner by 
tlie addition of a little more lead; if the metal 
should boil too rapidly, the fire should be diminish- 
ed. The surface will be covered by degrees with 
a mass of scoria, at which time the metal shotild be 
carefully stirred with an iron hook heated, espe- 
cially towards the border, lest any of the ore should 
remain undissolved; and if wliat is adherent to the 
hook when jaised from the crucible melts quic!dy 
Vgsiin, and the extremity of the hook, after it is 



grown cold is covered with a thin, shining, smooth 
crust, the scorification is perfect; but, on the con- 
trary, if while stirring it, any considerable clammi- 
ness is perceived in the scoria, and when it adheres 
to tlie hook, though red hot, and appears unequally 
tinged, and seems dusty or rough, with grains in- 
terspersed here and there, the scorification is in- 
complete; in consequence of which the fire should 
be increased a little, and what adheres to the hook 
should be gently beaten off, and returned with a 
small ladle into the crucible again. When the 
scorification is perfect, the metal should be poured 
into a cone, previously rubbed with a little tallow, 
and when it becomes cold, the scoria may be sepa- 
rated by a few strokes of a hammer. The button 
is the produce of the assay. 

£y cupellation. 

Take the assay quantity of ore, roast and grind 
it. with an equal portion of litharge, divide it into 
2 or 3 parts, and wrap each up in a small piece of 
paper; put a cupel previous!)' seasoned imder a 
mufile, with about six times the quantity of lead 
upon it. When the lead begins to work, carefully- 
put one of the papers upon it, and after this is ab- 
sorbed, put on a second, and so on till the whole 
quantity is inti-ooaced; then raise the fire, and as 
the scoria is formed, it will be taken up by ths 
cupel, and at last the silver will remain alone. 
This will be the produce of the assay, unless the 
lead contains a small portion of silver, which may 
be discovered by putting an equal quantity of the 
same lead on another cupel, and working it off" at 
the same time; if any silver be produced it must 
be deducted from the assay. This is called the 
witness. 

In the humid -way. 

Boil vitreous silver ore in dilute nitrous acid, 
using about 25 times its weight, until the sulphur 
is quite exhausted. The silver may be precipitat- 
ed from the solution by marine acid, or comm-oa 
salt; 100 grains of this precipitate contain 75 of 
I'eal silver; if it contain any gold it will remain un- 
dissolved. Fixed alkalies precipitate the earthy 
matters, and the Prussian alkali will show if any 
other metal be contained in the solution. 
7'o assay the 'value of silver. 

The general method of examining the purity of 
silver is by mixing it with a quantity of lead pro- 
portionate to the supposed portion of alloy; by test- 
ing this mixture, and afterwards weighing the 
remaining button of silver. This is the same 
process as refining silver by cupellation. 

It is supposed that the mass of silver to be exa- 
mined, consists of 12 equal parts, called peuny- 
weights; so that if an ingot weighs an ounce, each 
of the parts will be l-12th of an ounce. Hence, if 
the mass of silver be pure, it is called silver of 12 
penny-weights; if it contain l-12th of its weight of 
alloy, it is called silver of 11 penny-weights; il'2- 
12ths of its weight be alloy, it is called silver of 
10 penny-weights; which parts of pure silver are 
called 5 penny- weights. It must be observed here, 
that assayers give the name penny-weight to a 
weight equal to 24 real grains, which must not be 
conloundcd with their ideal weights. The assayei-s' 
grains are called fine grains. An ingot of fine sil- 
ver, or silver of 12 penny-weights, contains, then, 
288 fine grains; if this ingot contain l-288th of al- 
loy, it is said to be silver of 11 penny- weights and 
23 grains; if it contain 4-288th3 of alloy, it is said 
to be 11 penny-weights, 20 grains, &c. Now a 
certain real weight must be taken to represent the 
assay-weights: tor instance, 36 real grains repre- 
sent 12 fine penny-weights; this is subdivided into 
a sufficient number of otlier smaller weights, which 
also represent fractions of fine penny-weights and 
grains. Tims, 18 real grains represent C tine pea- 



METALLURGY. 



ny-weights; 3 real grains represent 1 fine penny- 
•weight, or 2-i grains; a real grain and a half repre- 
<■ int 12 fine grains; l-32d of a real grain represents 
I quarter of a fine grain, which is only l-752d part 
)f a mass of 12 penny-weights. 

Double assay of silver. 

It is customaiy to make a double assay. The 

lilver for the assay should be taken from opposite 

.ides of the ingot, and tried on a touch stone. As- 

.ayers know pretty nearly the value of silver merely 

oy the look of the ingot, and still better by the test 

of the touch stone. The quantity of lead to be 

added is regulated by the portion of alloy, which 

being in general copper, will be nearly as follows: 

Of silver 

dwt. gr. dwt.gr. 

"11 6 to 





Requires from 
5 to 6~ 
8 to 9 

12 to 13 

13 to 14 >| ° 

14 to 15 
Oto 16 
to 20 , 



12 to 

19 18 to 9 

8 6 to 7 12 

6 18 to 6 

3 to 1 12 

^ 1 12 to 38 

The cupel must be heated red hot for half an 
hour before any metal is put upon it, by which all 
moisture is expelled. When the cupel is almost 
white by heat, the lead is put into it, and the fire 
increased till the lead becomes red hot, smoking, 
and agitated by a motion of all its parts, called its 
cii-culation. Then the silver is to be put on the 
cupel, and the fire continued till the silver has en- 
tered the lead; and when the mass circulates well, 
the heat must oe diminished by closing more or 
less the door of the assay furnace. Tlie heat should 
be so regulated, that the metal on its surface may 
appear convex and ardent, while the cupel is less 
red; that the smoke shall rise to the roof of the 
nmffle; that undulations shall be made in all direc- 
tions; and that the middle of tlie metal shall appear 
smooth, with a small circle of litharge, which is 
continually imbibed by the cupel. By this treat- 
ment tl)e lead and alloy will be entirely aosorbed 
by the cupel, and the silver become bright and 
shining, when it is said to lighten; after which, if 
the operation has been well performed, the silver 
will be covered with rainbow colours, which quick- 
ly undulate and cross each other, and then the but- 
ton becomes fixed and solid. 

The diminution of weight shows the quantity of 
alloy. As all lead contains a small portion oi sil- 
ver, an equal weight with that used in the assay is 
tested off, and the product deducted from the assay- 
weight. This portion is called the witness. — lii- 
chardsori's Metallic Arts. 

Ores and earths containing gold. 

That which is now most generally used is by 
amalgamation, the proper quantity is taken and 
reduced to a powder; aboat one-tenth of its weight 
of pure quicksilver is added, and the whole tritu- 
rated in an iron mortar. The attraction subsisting 
between the gold and quicksilver, quickly unites 
them in the form of an amalgam, which is pressfed 
tlwough shamoy leather; the gold is easily sepa- 
rated from this amalgam, by exposure to a proper 
degree of heat, which evaporates the quicksilver, 
and leaves the gold. This evaporation should be 
made with luted vessels. 

This is the foundation of all the operations by 
which gold is obtained from the rich mines of P«ru, 
in Spanish America. 

Another method. — Take a quantity of the gold 
sand and heat it red hot, quench it in water; repeat 
this two or three times, and the colour of the sand 
will become a i-eddish brown. Then mix it with 
twice its weight of litharge, and revive the litharge 
into lead, by adding a small portion of charcoal- 
dust, arid exposing it to a proper degree of heat; 



when the lead revives, it separates the gold from 
the sand; and the freeing of the gold from the lead 
must be afterwards performed by cupellsftion. 

Another. — Bergmann assayed metallic ores con- 
taining gold, by mixing two parts of the ore well 
pounded and washed, with 1 and a ^ of litharge, 
and 3 of glass; covering the whole with common 
salt, and melting it in a smith's forge, in a covered 
crucible; he then opened the crucible, put a nail 
into it, and continued to do so till the iron was no 
longer attacked. The lead was thus precipitated 
which contained the gold, and was afterwards sepa- 
rated by cupellatiun. 
Humid assay of gold mixed -with martial pyrites. 
Dissolve the oi-e in 12 times its weight of dilute 
nitrous acid, gradually added; place it in a proper 
degree of heat; this takes up the soluble parts, and 
leaves the gold untouched, with the insoluble ma- 
trix, from which it may be separated by aqua regia. 
The gold may be again separated from the aqua 
regia by pouring ether upon it; the ether takes up 
the gold, and by being burnt off leaves it in its me- 
tallic state. The solution may contain iron, cop- 
per, manganese, calcareous earth, or argil; if it be 
evaporated to diyness, and the residuum heated to 
redness for half an hour, volatile alkali will extract 
the copper; dephlogisticated niti'ousacid theeai'ths; 
the acetous acid die manganese; and die marine 
acid the calx of iron. The sulphur floats on the 
first solution, from which it should be separated by 
filtration. 



ALLOYS OR COMPOUND METALS. 

Metals, in general, will unite with each other by 
fusion or amalgamation, and acquire new proper- 
ties. Brass is a compound of copper and zinc; and 
possesses a different colour to eidier of tlie com- 
ponent parts. 

The attraction of cohesion of the different me- 
tals which are to form the compound must be over- 
come; accordingly, they become intimately mixed 
together. The compound is not formed by a clie- 
mical union of the particles of the different metals, 
but from an equable diffusion throughout each 
other, in mass. As metals fuse in diffei-eut de- 
grees of heat, care should be tiken not to add those 
metals which fuse easily, to others which requii-e 
a greater degree of heat, while they are too hot; 
because the former may evaporate and leave the 
compound imperfect. Or, if they are brought into 
fusion together, it should be under a flux to prevent 
j the volatile metals from evaporating, before the 
union is effected. 

Or mohir—JMosaic gold. 

Melt togetlier equal parts of copper and zine, 
at the loTvest temperature that will fuse the formers 
stir them well to produce an intimate mixture of 
the metals, and add by degrees small quantities of 
zinc; the aUoy first assumes a yellow coloui- like; 
brass, on adding a little more zinc it becomes pur- 
ple, and lastly perfectly white, which is the propei 
appearance of the desired prodact, when fused. 
The quantity of zinc to be used altogether, should 
be from fifty-two to fifty-five parts out of a hun- 
dred. 

Queen's metal. 

Melt together 4^ lb. of tin, i^ lb. of bismuth, ^ 
lb. of antimony, and ^ lb. of lead. A very excel- 
lent alloy will be foi'med by using these propor- 
tions; it is used for making tea-pots and other ves- 
sels which are required to imitate silver. Tliey 
retain their brdliancy to the last. 

Another. — A very fine silver-looking metal is 
composed of 100 pounds of tin, 8 of regulus of an- 
timony, 1 of bismuth, and 4 of copper. 



10 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



Tombac. 
Melt together 16 pounds of copper, 1 pound (^ 
4tn, aud 1 poui»d of zinc. 

Red tombac. 
Put into a crucible 5^ pounds of copper: when 
fused, add \ pound of zinc: these metals will com- 
bine, forming an alloy of a reddish colour, but pos- 
sessing more lustre than copper, aud also greater 
durability. 

Wldte tombac. 
When copper is combined with arsenic, by melt- 
ing them together in a close crucible, and covering 
the surface with muriate of soda, to prevent oxi- 
dation, a white brittle alloy is formed. 
Common pevjter. 
Melt in a crucible 7 pounds of tin, and when 
fused throw in 1 pound of lead, 6 ounces of cop- 
per, and 2 ounces of zinc. This combination of 
metals will form an alloy of great diu'ability and 
tenacity; also of considerable lustre. 
Best pewter. 
The best sort of pewter consists of 100 parts of 
tin, aud 17 of regains of antimony. 
Hard pe-Mer. 
Melt together 12 pounds of tin, Ip' ,md of regu- 
£«s of antimony, and 4 ounces of copper. 
Flute-key valves. 
Fuse in a crucible 4 ounces of lead and 2 ounces 
of antimony, and cast into a bar. This alloy is of 
considerable hardness and lustre, aud is used by 
flute manufacturers, (when turned into small but- 
tons in a lathe,) for making valves to stop the key- 
noles of llutes. 

Common solder. 
Put into a crucible 2 pounds of lead, and when 
melted, throw in 1 pound of tin. This alloy is thst 
generally known by the name of solder. When 
wealed by a hot iron, and applied to tinned iron 
^ith powdered rosin, it acts as a cement or solder; 
i. is also used to join leaden pipes, &c. 
Hard solder. 
Melt together 2, pounds of copper, and I pound 
of tin. 

Soft solder. 
Melt together 2 pounds of tin, and 1 of lead. 

Printers' types. 
Put into a crucible 10 pounds of lead, and when 
it is in a state of fu#on, throw in 2 pounds of anti- 
mony; tliese metals, in such proportions, form the 
alioj" of which common printing types are made. 
The antimony gives a liardness to the lead, with- 
out which the type would sjieedily be rendered 
useless in a printing press. Different proportions 
of lead, copper, brass, and antimony, frequently 
constitute tliis metal. Every anisi has his own 
proportions, so that the same composition cannot 
be obtained from different foundries; each boasts 
of the superiority of his own mixture. 

Small types and stereotype plates. 
Melt 9 pounds of lead, and thro.v into the cru- 
cible 2 [)ound« of antimony and 1 pound of bis- 
muth: these metals will combine, forming an alloy 
of a peculiar quality. This quality is expansion 
as it cools, it is therefore well suited for the forma- 
tion of small printing types (particular!}' when 
many are casttogelher to form stereotype plates,) 
as the whole of tiie mould is accurately filled with 
the alloy; consequently there can be no blemish in 
the letters. If a metal or alloy liable, to contract in 
cooling were to be used, the effect of course would 
bt very different. 

Anotlier. — The proprietors of^difFerent foundries 

adopt different compositions for stereotype plates. 

Some Crni an alloy of 8 parts of lead, 2 parts of 

utimony, and l-8lh part of tin. 

Jilode of casting. 

For die m.iniifactLue of stereotype plates, plaster 



of Paris, of the consistence of a batter-pudding be*- 
fore baking, is poured over the letter-press page 
and worked into the interstices of the types with a 
brush. It is then collected from the sides by a 
slip of iron or wood, so as to lie smooth and com- 
pact. In about two minutes, the whole mass i» 
hardened into a solid cake. This cake, which is 
to serve as the matrix of the stereotj-pe plate, is 
now put upon a rack in an oven, where it under- 
goes great heat, so as to drive off superfluous mois- 
ture. When ready for use, these moulds, accord- 
ingto their size, are placed in flat cast-iron pots, and 
are covered over by another piece of cast-iron per- 
forated at each end, to admit the metallic compo- 
sition intended for the preparation of the stereot) ])e 
plates. The flat cast-iron pots are now fastened 
in a crane, which carries them steadily to the me- 
tallic-bath, or melting pot, where they are immers- 
ed and kept for a considerable time, until all the 
pores and crevices of the mould are completely 
and accurately filled. When this has taken place, 
the pots are elevated from the bath by working 
the crane, and are placed over a water trough, to 
cool gradually. When cold, the Avhole is turned 
out of the pots, and the plaster being separated, by 
hammering and washing, the plates are ready for 
use; having received the most exact and perfect 
impression. 

JMetallic casts from engravings on copper . 
A mostimportant discovery has lately been made, 
which promises to be of considerable utility in the 
fine arts: some very beautiful specimens of metal- 
lic plates, of a peculiar composition, have lately 
appeared under the name of " cast engravings." 
This invention consists in taking moulds from 
every kind of engraving, wlietherline, mezzotinto, 
or aquatinta, and in pouring on this mould an allov 
in a slate of fusion, capable of taking the finest im- 
pression. The obvious utility of this invention, as 
applicable to engravings which meet with a readv 
sale, and of which greiit numbers are required", 
will be incalculable; as it will wholly prevent tlie 
expense of retouching, which forms so prominent 
a charge in all works of an extended sale. No 
sooner is one cast worn out, than anoHier may im- 
mediately be procured from the original plate, so 
that every impression will be a proof. Thus the 
works of our most celebrated artists may be hand- 
ed down, ad infinitum, for the improvement and 
delight of future ages, and will afibrd at the same 
time' the greatest satisfaction to every lover of tha 
fine arts. 

Wkite metal. 
Melt together 10 ounces of lead, 6 ounces of bis- 
muth, and 4 drachms of regulus of antimony. 

Another. — Melt together 2 pounds of regulus of 
antimony, 8 ounces of brass, and 10 ounces of tin. 
Common hardiuhite metal. 
Melt together I pound of brass, 1^ ounce of spel- 
ter, and ^ an ounce of tin. 

Tutenag. 
Melt together 2 parts of tin, and 1 of bismuth. 

Fusible alloy. 
Put into a crucible 4 ounces of bismuth, and 
when in a state of fusion, throw in 2^ ounces of 
lead, and, 1^ ounce of tin; these metal~ will com- 
bine, forming an alloy fusible at the temperature 
of boiling water; the 'iiscnvery of which is ascribed 
to Sir Isaac Newton. Mould this alloy in bars, 
and take them to a silversmith's to be made into 
half a dozen tea-spoons. If one of these be given 
to a stranger to stir his tea, as soon as it is poured 
from t.ie tea-pot, he will be not a little surprised 
to find the spoon melt in tlie tea-cup. 

The fusibility of this alloy is certainly surprising, 
fer the fusing temperature of each of its compo- 
nents, singly is higher than twice that of boiling 



METALLURGY. 



11 



water. Bismuth fuses at 476°, lead at 612% and tin 
at 442°; whilst water boils at 212°. 

Another. — Melt together 1 ounce of zinc, 1 ounce 
of bismuth, and 1 ounce of lead; this alloy will be 
found to be remarkably fusible (although each of 
the metals, separately, requires considerable heat 
to melt it,) and will melt even in hot water: It will 
likewise remain in a fused state on a sheet of paper, 
over the flame of a lamp or candle. 

Metallograpkical application of fusible alloys. 

Paste a piece of white paper at the bottom of a 
china saucer, and lot it dry: then write on it with 
common writing ink, and sprinkle some finely- 
powdered gum arable over the writing, which Avill 
produce a slight relief. When well dried, brush 
off the powder that does not adliere, and pour fusi- 
ble metal into tlie saucer, taking care to cool it 
rapidly, that crystallization may not take place. 
In this way a counterpartof the writing will be ob- 
tained, impressed on the metal. By immersing 
the c»*t in slightly warm water, any adhering gum 
may oe removed, and then, if examined by a glass, 
the writing may easily be read and seen to be per- 
fect. Afterwards, by using common printer's ink, 
impressions may be taken from it, all of which will 
Le true facsimiles of the first -writing. 

The difficulties in this new application of the fu- 
pible alloy are, to avoid unequal thickness in the 
plate of metal, which causes it to alter in form, 
and break under pressure; and to prevent tlie sur- 
face from crystallizing, when the ink will adhere 
where it is not required. 

Casts f'om fusible metal. 

A combination of three parts of lead, witli 2 of 
tm and 5 of bismuth, forms an alloy wliich melts at 
the temperature of 197° F. 

In making casts with this and similar alloys, it 
is important to use die metal at a temperature as 
low as possible; as, if but a few degrees elevated, 
the water which adheres to the things from which 
casts are to be taken, forms vapour, .and produces 
bubbles. The fused metalmust be allowed to cool 
in a tea-cup until just ready to set at the edges, 
and then pour it into the moulds, procuring in this 
way beautiful casts from moulds of wood, or of 
other similar substances. When taking impres- 
sions from gems, seals, Sec. the fused alloy should 
be placed on paper or paste-board, and stii-red 
about till it becomes pasty, from cooling, at which 
moment the gem, die, or seal, should be suddenly 
stamped on it, and a ver}' sharp impression will 
Jien be obtained. Journal of Science, No. 26. 
Metallic injection. 

Melt together equal parts of bismuth, lead, and 
iin, Avith a sufiicient quantity of quicksilver. 

This composition, with tlie addition of a small 
proportion of mercurj', is used for injecting the 
vessels of many anatomical preparations; also for 
taking correct casts of various ca\it)es of the body, 
as those of the ear. The animal structure may be 
corroded and separated by means of a solution of 
potass in water; and the metallic cast will be pre- 
served in an isolated state. 

For cushions of electrical machinery. 

Melt together in a crucible 2 drachms of zinc 
and 1 of tin; when fused, pcur them into a cold 
crucible, containing 5 drachms of mercury. Tlie 
mercuiy will combine with those metals, and form 
an alloy, (or amalgam, as it is called,) fit to be 
rubbed on the cushions which press the plate, or 
cylinder of an electrical machine. Before the 
amalgam is applied, it is proper to rub the cushion 
with a mixture of tallow and bees-wax. 
For varnishing figures. 

Fuse ^ an ounce of tin, with the same quantity 
of bis.Tttuth in a crucible: when melted, add h an 
oimce of mercury. When perfectly combined, 



take the mixture from the fire, and cool it. This 
substance mixed with the white of an egg, forms a 
very beautiful varnish, for plaster figures, &c. 
To plate looking-glasses. 

This art is erroneously termed silvering, for, as 
will be presently seen, there is not a paiticle of 
silver present in the whole composition. 

On tin-foil, fitly disposed on a flat table, mercu- 
ry is to be poured, and gently rubbed with ahare's 
foot: it soon unites itself with the tin, which then 
becomes very splendid, or, as the workmen say, is 
qvickened. A plate of glass is then cautiously to 
be slid upon the tin-leaf, in such a manner as to 
sweep off the redundant mercury, which is not in- 
corporated with the tin; leaden weights are then 
to be placed on the glass, and in a little time the 
quicksilvered tin-foil adheres so firmly to the glass, 
that the weights may be removed -without any 
danger of its falling off. The glass thus coated is 
a common looking-glass. About 2 ounces of mer- 
cury are sufficient for covering three square feet of 
glass. 

The success of this operation depends much on 
the clearness of the glass; and the least dirt or dust 
on its surface will prevent the adhesion of the 
amalgam or alloy. 

Liquid foil for silvering glass globes. 

Melt together 1 ounce of clean lead, and 1 ounce 
of fine tin, in a clean iron ladle; then immediately 
add 1 ounce of bismutli. Skim off* the dross, re- 
move the ladle from the fire, and before it sets, 
add 10 ounces of quicksilver. Now stir the whole 
carefully together, taking care not to breathe ovei 
it, as the fumes of tlie mercury are very pernicious 
Pour this through an earthen pipe into the glass 
globe, which turn repeatedly round. 

Another. — To 4 ounces of quicksilver, add as 
much tin-foil as will become barely fluid when 
mix^d. Let the globe be clean and warm, and in- 
ject the quicksilver by means of a pipe at the 
aperture, tiu'uing it about till it is silvered all 
over. Let the remainder run out, and hang the 
globe up. 

Another. — For this pui-pose, 1 part of mercury 
and 4 of tin have bten used; but if 2 parts of mer- 
cury, 1 ofgin, 1 of lead, and 1 of bismuth, are melt- 
ed togetha", the compound which they form will 
answer the purpose better: either of them must be 
made in an iron ladle, over a clear fire, and must 
bt frequently stirred. 

Bath metal. 

Melt togetlier. 1 pound of brass, and 4^ ounces 
of spelter. 

Brass. 

Put 4^ lbs. of copper into a crucible, expose U 
to heat in a furnace, and when perfectly fused, add 
1^ lb. of zinc. The metals will combine, forming 
that generally used alloy, called brass. 

Another. — For brass which is to be cast into 
plates, from which pans and kettles are to be made, 
and wire is to be drawn, braziers use calamine of 
the finest sort, instead of pure zinc, and in a great- 
er proportion than when common brass is made; 
generally 56 lb. of calamine to 34 lb. of copper. 
Old brass, which has been frequently exposed to 
the action of fire, when mixed with the copper and 
calamine, renders the brass far more ductile, and 
fitter for the making of fine -wire, than it would be 
without it; but the German brass, particrilarly that 
of Nuremberg, is, when dra-wn into wire, said to 
be preferable to any made in England, for the 
strings of musical instruments. 
Pinchbeck. 

Put into a crucible 5 ounces of pure coppej-; 
when it is in a state of fusion, add 1 ounce of zinc. 
These metals combine, forming an alloy not un- 
like jeweller's gold: pour it into a mould of any 



12 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK, 



shape. This alloy is used for inferior jewel- 
lery. 

Some use only half this quantity of zinc, in which 
proportion the alloy is more easily worked espe- 
cially in the making of jewellery. 

Another. — Melt together 1 ounce of brass with 
1^ or 2 ounces of copper, fused under a coat of 
charcoal dust. 

Princess metal. 
Melt together 3 ounces of copper, and 1 ounce 
of zinc: or 8 ounces of brass, and 1 ounce of zinc. 
Another. — Melt in a crucible 4 ounces of cop- 
per, and when fused, add 2 ounces of zinc; they 
will combine and form a very beautiful and useful 
alloy, called Prince Rupert's metal. 
Bronze. 
Melt in a clean crucible 7 lbs. of pure copper: 
■when fused, throw into it 3 lbs. of zinc, and 2 lbs. 
of tin. These metals will combine, forming bronze, 
' which, from the exactness of the impression which 
it takes from a mould, has, in ancient and modern 
times, been generally used in the formation of 
busts, medals, and statues. 

Specula of telescopes. 
Melt 7 lbs. of copper, and when fused, add 3 lbs. 
of zinc, and 4 lbs. of tin. These metals will com- 
bine to form a beautiful alloy of great lustre, and 
of a light yellow colour, fitted to be made into 
specula for telescopes. Mr Mudge used only cop- 
per and grain tin, in the proportion of 2 lbs. to 14^ 
ounces. 

Gun metal. 
Melt together 112 lbs. of Bristol brass, 14 lbs. 
of spelter, and 7 lbs. of block tin. 

Another. — Melt together 9 parts of copper- and 
1 part of tin: the above compounds are those used 
in the manufactui'e of small and great brass guns, 
swivels, &c. 

The pieces of oi'dnance used by the besiegers at 
the battle of Praj^ue, were actually melted by the 
frequency of the tiring; the raixtui-e of which tliey 
were made contained a large portion of lead; it 
would have been less prone to melt, and conse- 
quently preferable, had it contained none. A mix- 
ture of copper and tin is preferred to pure copper, 
not o:iIy tor tlie casting of cannon, buLof statues, 
&:c.; for pure copper, in running tm-ougli the 
various parts of the mould, would lose so much of 
its heat as to set, or become solid too soon. 
Hell metal. 
Melt together 6 parts of copper, and 2 of tin: 
These proportions are the most approved for bells 
throuu;liout Europe, and in China. 

In tlie union of the two metals above mentioned, 
tlie combination is so complete, that tlie specific 
gravity of the alloy is greater than that of the two 
meials unconibined. 

Another. — Some bells are made in the propor- 
tion of 10 parts of copper to 2 of tin. It may be in 
general observed, that a less proportion of tin is 
used for making ciiurch beljs, than clock bells; and 
that a little zinc is added for the bells of repeating 
watches and other small bells. 

Blanched copper. 
Melt together 8 ounces of copper, and ^ an ounce 
of neutral arsenical salt, fused together, under a flux 
composed of calcined borax, charcoid dust, and 
fine powder glass. 

Composition of ancient statues. 
According to Pliny, the metal used by the Ro- 
mans for thoir statues, and for the plates on which 
they engraved inscriptions, was composed in the 
following manner. They first melted a quantity 
of copper, into wliich they put a third of its weight 
of old copper, which had Lieenlongtin use; to every 
lOU lbs. weight of tliis mixture they added 12^ lbs. 
of an a'llay composed ot eiiuul ;>arts of leadaud tin. 



Mock plating. 
Melt together 8 ounces of brass and 5 ounces of 
spelter. 

Fine casting of brass, &c. 
The principal object m fine casting is to have a 
mould that shall receive a beautiful impression, 
and at the same time sufficiently adliesive to resist 
the force of the fluid metal, that shall neither wash, 
nor be injured by the heat. The sand that covers 
or surrounds the model should be fine close sand; 
after removing the mould, the model must be faced 
with burnt rotten stone, and covered with loam, 
each dusted through a bag, and the mould laid 
down upon it— this facing may be repeated, the 
mould must be dried and smoked with a torch, in 
lieu of water, the sand is moistened with a solu- 
tion of tartar, or the lees of wine, or with cream of 
tartar. Care must be taken to loosen the bands 
quickly: viz. loosen the first mould, while the se- 
cond is pouring, &c. On removing the work, every 
particle of the facing should be carefully scraped 
frpm the mould and tlu-own away. Part the moulds 
with coal and black rosin. 

Gilding metal. 
Melt together 4 parts of copper, 1 of Bristol old 
brass, and 14 oz. of tin, to every pound of copper. 
For common jewellery. 
Melt together 3 parts of copper, 1 of Bristol 
old brass, and 4 oz. of tin, to every pound of copper. 
If this alloy is for fine polishing, the tin may be 
omitted, and a mixture of lead and antimony sub- 
stituted. Paler polishing metal is made by reduc- 
ing the copper to two or to one part. 
Yclloxu dipping- metal. 
Melt together 2 parts of Cheadle brass, 1 part ct 
copper, v.'ith a little Bristol old brass, aud^ oz. of 
tin to ever}' pound of copper. 

This alloy is almost of the colour, &e. of i^old 
coin. Cheadle brass is the darkest, and gives'" the 
metal a greenish hue. Old Bristol brass is pale 
and yellow. 

Another. — Good dipping metal may be made ot 
1 pound of copper to 5 oz. of spelter; the copper 
should be tough cake, and not tile. 

When antimony is used instead of tin, it should 
be in smaller quantity, or the metal will be brittle. 

Imitation of silver. 
_ When copper is melted with tin, about ^ oz. of 
tin to a pound of copper, will make a pale bell- 
metal, they will roll and ring very near to sterling 
silver. 

Tuiania or Britanma metal. 
Melt together 4 oz. of plate brass, and 4 oz. tin. 
When in fusion, add 4 oz. bismutli, and 4 oz. re- 
gulus of antimony. 

This is the hardening, which is to be added at 
discretion to melted tin, until it has tlie reqiusite 
colour and hardness. 

Another. — Melt together 2 lbs. of plate brass, 2 
lbs. of a mixture ::)f copper and arsenic, either by 
cementing or melting, 2 Its. of tin, 2 lbs. of bis- 
muth, and 2 lbs. regulus of antinicny. 

This is to be added at discretion, to melted tin. 
_ Another. — Melt together 1 lb. of copper, 1 lb. 
tin, and 2 lbs. regulus of antimony, with or witli- 
out a little bismuth. 

Another. — Melt togetlier 8 oz. Shruff brass, 2 
lbs. regulus of antimony, and 10 lbs. tin. 
This is fit for use as Britannia metal. 

Gennan tuiania. 
Melt together 2 drachms of copper, 1 oz. of re- 
gulus of antimony, and 12 oz. of tin. 
Spanish tutania. 
To 8 oz. of scrap iron or steel, at a white heat, 
add 1 lb. of antimony in small portions, with 3 os;. 
of nitre. Melt and "haiden 1 lb. ot tin with 2 oa. 
of this compound. 



METALLURGY. 



13 



Another. — Melf together 4 oz. of antimony, 1 

«z. arsenic, and 2 lbs. tin. This compouml is 

ready for use. Tlic first of these Spanish alloys 

wffuld be a beautiful metal, if arsenio were added. 

Engeatroom Uitania. 

Melt together 4 ])arts copper, 8 parts regulus of 
antimony, and I pait bismuth. 

When added to 100 parts of tin, this compound 
vill be re.idy for use. 

Ktistitieii's metal fur tiiining. 

To 1 lb. of malleable iron, at a white heat, add 
5 oz. regulus of antimon)-, and 24 lbs. of the purest 
Molucca tin. 

This alloy polishes without the blue tint, and is 
free from lead or arsenic. 

Solder for steel joints. 

Take of fine silver, 19 pennyweights, copper, 1 
<lo. and brass, 2 do. Melt these luider a coat of 
charcoal dust. 

This solder possesses several advantages over the 
usual spelter solder, or brass, wnen employed in 
soldering cast steel, &ij. as it fuses with less heat, 
and its wliiteness has a Letter appeai-ance than 
brass. 

Brans solder for iron. 

Thin plates of brass are to be melted between 
the pieces that are to be joined. If the work be 
very fine, as when two leaves of .a broken saw are 
to be brazed together, cover it with pulverized bo- 
rax, melted with water ; that it may incorporate 
with the brass powder which is added to it : the 
piece must be then exposed to the fire without 
touching the coals, and heated till the brass is seen 
to run. 

Silver solder for jetvellers. 

Melt together 19 pennyweights of fine silver ; 
copper, 1 pennyweight ; and brass, 10 penny- 
weights. 

Silver solder for plating. 

Melt togetlier 10 pennyweights ot brass, and 1 
oz. of pure silver. 

Gold solder. 

Melt together of pure gold, 12 pennyweights ; 
pure silver, 2 penny weights ; and copper, 4 penny- 
weights. 

Useful alloy of gold ivith platimim. 

Put into a clean crucible 7 drachms and a half of 
pure gold, and when perfectly melted, throw in 
half a drachm of platinum. The two metals will 
c.ombine intimately, forming an alloy rather whiter 
than pure gold, but remarkably ductile and elastic; 
it is also less peristeble than pure gold or jewel- 
lers' gold ; but more readily fusible than that 
metal. 

These excellent qualities must render this alloy 
an object of great interest to workers in metals, 
for springs, where steel cannot be used, it will 
prove exceedingly advantageous. 

It is a curious circumstance, that the alloy of gold 
and platinum is soluble in nitric acid, which does 
not act on either of the metals, in a separate state. 
It is remarkable, too, that the alloy has very nearly 
tlie colour of platinum, eveu when composed of 
eleven parts of gold to one of the former metal. 
Ring gold. 

Melt together of Spanish copper, 6 pennyweights 
•and 12 grains ; fine silvei-, S pennyweights and 16 
grains, to one ounce five pennyweights of gold coin. 
This is wortli about 3/. per ounce. 

Gold from 55s. to 40s. per ounce. 

Melt together 8 ounces 8 pennyweights of Spa- 
Tiisli copper, 10 pennyweights of fine silver, to one 
ounce of gold coin. 

j\lanlieim-gold, or similar. 

Melt togetlier .3 ounces and a half of copper, one 
ounce and a half of brass, and 15 grains of pure 



Preparation of foils. 

Foils are thin plates or leaves of metal that ara 
put under stones, or compositions in imitation of 
stones, when ti\ey are set. 

The intention of foils is either to increase the 
lustre or play of the stones, or more generally to 
improve the colour, by .giving an aclditional force 
to the tinge, whether it be natvtral or artificial, by 
thr>t of a ground of the same hue, which the Ibil is 
in tliis case made to be. 

There are consequently two kinds of foils ; the 
one is colourless, where the effect of giving lustre 
or play to the stone is produced by the polish of 
the surface, which makes it act as a mirror, and, by 
reflecting the light, prevents that deadness which 
attends the having a duller ground under the stone, 
and brings it, by the double refraction of the light 
that is caused, nearer to the effect of the diamond. 
The other is coloured witli some pigment or stair? 
of the same hue as the stone, or of some other 
which is intended to modify and change the hue of 
the stone in some degree ; as, where a yellow foi( 
may be put under green, which is too much incli- 
ning to the blue, or under crimson, where it is de- 
sired to have the appearance more orange or scar- 
let. , 

Foils may be made of copper or tin ; and silver 
has been sometimes used, witli which it has been 
advised, for some purposes, to mix gold ; but the 
expense of either is needless, as copper may be 
made to answer the same end. 

To prepare copper for foils. 

Where coloured foils are wanted, copper may 
therefore be best used, and may be prepai'ed for the 
purpose, by the following means. 

Take copper plates beaten to a proper thickness, 
and pass them betwixt a pair of fine steel rollers 
very close set, and draw them as thin as. is possi- , 
ble to retain a proper tenacity. Polish them with 
very fine whiting, or rotten stone, till they shine, 
and have as much brightness as can be given them, 
and they will tlien be fit to receive the colour. 
To -ivhiteii foils. 

Where the yellow, or rather orange-colour of 
the groiuid would be injui-ious to the effect, as in 
the case of purples, or crimson red, the foils should 
be whitened, which may be done in the following 
manner. 

Take a small quantity of silver, and dissolve it in 
aquafortis, and then put bits%f copper into the so- 
lution, and precipitate the sliver ; which being 
done the fluid must be poured off, and fresh water 
added to it, to wash away all the remainder of tha 
first fluid ; after which the silver must be dried, an 
equal weight of cream of tartar and common salt . 
must then be ground with it, till the whole be re- 
duced to a very fine powder ; and with this mix- 
ture, the foils, being first slightly moistened, must 
be rubbed by the finger, or a bit of linen rag, till 
they be of the degree of whiteness desired ; after 
which, if it appear to be wanted, the polish must be 
refreshed. 

The tin foils are only used in the case of colour- 
less stones, where quicksilver is employed ; and 
they may be drawn out by the same rollers, but 
need not be further polished, so that eft'ect is pro- 
duced by other means in this case. 
Foils for crystals, pebbles, or paste, to give the lus- 
tre and play of diamonds. 

The manner of preparing foils, so as to give co- 
lourless stones the greatest degree of play and lus- 
tre, is by raising so high a polisii or smoothness on 
the surface, as to give them the eftect of a mirror, 
which can only be done, in a perfect manner, by 
the use of quicksilver, applied in the same getieral 
way as in the case of looking-glass. The mcUiod 
by which it may be best performed is as fMlows. 

Ji 



14 



UNI\'ERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



Take leaves of tin, prepared in the same manner 
as for silvering looking-glasses, and cut them into 
small pieces of such size as to cover the surface of 
the sockets or the stones that are to be set. Lay- 
three of these then, one upon another, and having 
moistened the inside of the socket with thin gum- 
wpter, and suftered it to become again so dry, that 
only a slight stickiness remains, put the three 
pieces of leaves, lying on each other, mto it, and 
adapt them to the surface in as even a manner as 
possible. When this is done, heat the socket, and 
fill it with warm quicksilver, which must be suf- 
fered to continue in it three or four minutes, and 
then gently poured ou*. The stone must then be 
thrust into the socket, and closed with it, care 
having been taken to give such room for it that it 
may enter without stripping off the tin and quick- 
silver from any part of the furnace. The work 
should be well closed round the stone, to prevent 
the tin and quicksilver contained in the socket from 
being shaken out by any violence. 
_ The lustre of stcnes set in this manner will con- 
tinue longer than when they ai-e set in the common 
way, as the cavity round them being filled, there 
will be no passage found for moisture, which is so 
injurious to the wear of stones treated in any other 
way. 

This kind of foil likewise gives some lustre to 
glass or other transparent matter, which has little 
of itself; but to stones or pastes, that have some 
share of play, it gives a most beautiful brilliance. 
To colour foils. 
Two methods have been invented for colouring 
foils: the one by tinging the surface of the copper 
of the colour required by means of smoke, the 
other by staining or painting it with some pigment 
or other colouring substance. 

The colours used for painting foils may be tem- 
pered with either oil, water rendered duly viscid 
by gum arahic, size, or v.irnish. Where deep co- 
lours are wanted, oil is most proper, because some 
pigments become wholly transparent in it, as lake, 
or Pi-ussian blue; but yellow and green may be 
belter laid on in varnish, as these colours may be 
had in perfection from a tinge wholly dissolved in 
spirit of wine, in the same manner as in the case 
of lacquers; anfl tlie most beautiful green is to be 
|)roduced by distilled verdigrise, which is apt to 
lose its colour and turn black with oil. In com- 
mon cases, however, any of the colours may be, 
with least trouble, laid on with isinglass size, in 
the same manner as the glazing colours used in 
miniature painting. 

Ruby colours. 
For red, where tlje ruby is to be imitated, car- 
mine, a little lake used in isinglass size, or shell- 
lac varnisli, is to be employed, if the glass or paste 
be ct a full crimson, verging towai'ds the purple; 
but if the glass in-line to the scarlet, or orange, 
veiy bright lake (that is, not purple) may be used 
alone in oil. 

Garnet red. — For the garnet red, dragon's blood 
dissolved in seed-lac varnish may be used; and for 
the vinegar garnet, the orange lake, tempered with 
.shell-lac varnisli, will be found excellent. 

A7Hetliyst. — For the amethyst, lake, with a little 
Prussian IjIu'', used with oil, and very thinly spread 
on the foil, will completely answer the end. 

lilue. — For blue, where a deep colour, or the 
,<;ftt;ct of the sapphire is wanted, Prussian blue, 
diat is ;iot too deep, should be used in oil, and it 
should be spread more or less thinly on the foil, 
according to the lightness or deepness of which the 
colour is required to be. 

Edffle marine. — For the eagle marine, common 
verdigrise, witli a little Prussianblue, tempered in 
shiiU-lac varnish, may be used. 



Yellow. — ^Where a full yellow is desired, the 
foil may be coloured with yellow lacquer, laid on 
as for other purposes; and for the slighter colour 
of topazes the burnish and foil itself will be suffi- 
ciently strong without any addition. 

Green. — For green, where a deep hue is required, 
the crystals of verdigrise, tempered in shell-lac 
varnish, should be used, but where the emerald is 
to be imitated, a little yellow lacquer should be 
added, to bring the colour to a truer green, and 
less verging to the blue. 

Other colonics. — The stones of more diluted co- 
lour, such as the amethyst, topaz, vinegar-garnet, 
and eagle-marine, may be very cheaply imitated by 
transparent white glass or paste, even without foils 
This is to be done by tempering the colours abova 
enumerated with turpentine and mastic, and paint- 
ing the socket in which the counterfeit stone is to 
be set with the mixture, the socket and stone itself 
being previously heated. In this case, however, 
the stone should be immediately set, and the socket 
closed upon it before the mixture cools and growj 
hard. The orange lake above-mentioned was in- 
vented for this purpose, in which it has a beautiful 
effect, and was used with great success by a con- 
siderable manufacturer. I'he colour it produces 
is that of the v'negar-garnet, which it affords with 
great brightness. The colours before directed to 
be used in oil should be extremely well ground in 
oil of turpentine, and tempered with old nut or 
poppy oil; or, if time can be given for the drying, 
with strong fat oil; diluted with spirit of turpen- 
tine, which will gain a fine polish of itself. 

The colours used in varnish should be likew-ise 
thoroughly v/ell ground and mixt; at: I, in the.case 
of the dragon's blood in the seed-lac varnish and 
the lacquer, the foils should be warmed before they 
are laid out. All the mixtures should be laid on 
tlie foils with a bro.id soft brush, which must be 
passed from one end to the other, and no part 
should be crossed, or twice gone over, or, at least, 
not till the first coat can be dry; when, if the co- 
lour do not lie strong enough, a second coat may 
be s;iven. 



GILDING, SIL\T1RING, AND TINNING. 

To gild glass and porcelain. 

Drinking, and other glasses are sometimes gilt 
on their edges. This is done, either by an adhe- 
sive varnish, or by heat. The varnish is prepared 
by dissolving in boiled linseed oil an equal weight 
either of copal or amber. This is to be diluted by 
8 proper quantity of oil of turpentine, so as to be 
applied as thin as possible to the parts of the glass 
intended to be gilt. When this is done, which 
will be in about 24 hours, the glass is to be placed 
in a stove, till it is so warm as almost to burn the 
fingers when handled. At this temperature, the 
varnish will become adhesive, and a piece of leaf» 
gold, applied in the usual way, will immediately 
stick. Sweep off the superfluous portions of the 
leaf; and when quite cold, it may be burnished, 
taking care to interpose a piece of very thin paper 
(Indian paper) between the gold and the burnisher. 
If the varnish is very good, this is the best method 
of gilding glass, as the gold is thus fixed on more 
evenly, than in any other way. 

Another method. — It often happens, when the 
varnish is but indifferent, that by repealed washing 
the gold wears off: on this account ttie practice ot 
burning it in, is sometimes had recourse to. 

For this purpose, some gold powder is ground 
with borax, .and in this state applied to the clean 
surface of the glass, by a camel's hair pencil; when 
quite dry, the glass is put into a stove heated tc 



METALLURGY. 



IS 



about the temperature of an arnealing oven; the 
gura burns off', and the borax, by vitrifying-, ce- 
ments the gold with great firmness to the glass; 
after which it raay be burnished. The gilding upon 
porcelain is in I'ke manner fixed by heat and the 
use of borax; and this kind of ware beitig neither 
transparent nor liable to soften, and thus to be in- 
jured in its form in a low-red heat, is free from 
the risk and injury which the finer and more fusi- 
ble kinds of glass are apt to sustain from such treat- 
ment. Porcelain and other wares may be platinized, 
silvered, tinned, and bronzed, in a similar manner. 
To gild leather. 

In order to impress gilt figures, letters, and 
-•ther marks upon leather, as on the covers of books, 
edgings for doors, &o. the leather must first be 
dusted over with very finely powdered yellow resin, 
or mastich gum. The iron tools or stamps are 
now arranged on a rack before a clear fire, so as to 
be well healed, without becoming red hot. If the 
tools are letters, they have an alphabetical ar- 
rangement en the rack. Each letter or stamp must 
be tried as to its heat, by imprinting its mark on 
the raw side of a piece of waste leather. A little 
practice will enable the workman to judge of the 
heat. The tool is now to be pressed downwards 
on the gold leaf; whicli will of course be indented, 
and show the figure imprinted on it. The next 
letter or stamp is now to be taken and stamped in 
like manner, and so on with the others; taking 
care to keep the letters in an even line with each 
other, like those in a book. By this operation, the 
resin is melted; consequently the gold adheres to 
the leather; the superfluous gold may then be rub- 
bed off by a cloth, the gilded impressions remain- 
ing on the leather. In this, as in every other ope- 
ration, adroitness is acquired by practice. 

The cloth alluded to should be slightly greasy, 
to retain the gold wiped oft'; (otherwise there will 
be great waste in a few months,) the cloth will 
thus be soon completely saturated or loaded with 
the gold. When this is the case, these cloths are 
generally sold to the refiners, who burn them and 
recover the gold. Some of these afford so much 
gold by burning, as to be worth from a guinea to a 
guinea and a half. 

To gild -writings, drawings, &c. on paper or parch- 
ment. 

Letters written on vellum or paper are gilded in 
three ways: in the first, a little size is mixed with 
the ink, and the letters are written as usual; when 
they are dry, a slight degree of stickiness is pro- 
duced by breathing on them, upon which the gold 
leaf is immediately applied, and by a little pres- 
sure may be made to adhere with sufficient firm- 
ness. In the second method, some white-lead or 
chalk is ground up with strong size, and the let- 
ters are made with this by means of a brush: when 
the mixture is almost dry, the gold leaf may be 
laid on, and afterwards burnished. The last me- 
thod is to mix up some gold powder with size, and 
to form the letters of this by means of a brush. 
It is supposed that this latter method was that used 
Oy the monks in illuminating their missals, psal- 
ters, and rubrics. 

To gild the edges of paper. 

The edges of the leaves of books and letter paper 
are gilded, whilst in a horizontal position in the 
bookbinder's press, by first applying a composition 
formed of four parts of Armenian bole, and one of 
candied sugar, ground together with water to a 
proper consistence, and laid on by a brush with the 
white of an e,^. Tliis coating, when nearly diy, 
is smoothed by the burnisher, which is generally 
a crooked piece of agate, very smooth, and fixed 
in a handle. It is then slightly moistened by a 
sponge dipped in clean water. «iui3 suticezed in the 



hand. The gold leaf is now taken upon a piece 
of cotton from the leathern cushion, and applied 
on the moistened surface. When dry, it is to be 
burnished by rubbing the agate over it repeatedly 
from end to end, taking care not to wound the sur- 
face by the point of the burnisher. A piece of 
silk or India paper is usually interposed between 
the gold and the burnisher. 

Cotton wool is generally used by bookbinders to 
take the leaf up from the cushion; being the best 
adapted for the purpose on account of its pliabili- 
ty, smoothness, softness, and slight moistiiess. 
To gild silk, satin, ivory, &c. by hydrogen gas. 

Immerse a piece of white satin, silk, or ivory in 
a solution of nitro-muriate of gold, in the propor- 
tion of one part of the nitro-muriate to three of 
distilled water. Whilst the substance to bo gilded 
is still wet, immerse it m a jar of hydrogen gas; 
it will soon be covered by a complete coat of gold. 

Another method. — The foregoing experiment 
may be very prettily and advantageously varied as 
follows: — Paint flowers or other ornaments with a 
very fine, camel hair pencil, dipped in the above 
mentioned solution of gold, on pieces of silk, satin, 
&c. 8cc. &c. and hold them over a Florence fl:iskj- 
from which hydrogen gas is evolved, during the 
decomposition of the water by sulphuric acid and 
iron filings. The painted flowers, Jkc. in a few 
minutes, will shine with all the splendour of the 
purest gold. A coating of this kind will not tar- 
nish on exposure to the air, or in washing. 
Oil gilding on -wood. 

The wood must first be covered, or primed, by 
two or three coatings of boiled linseed oil and car- 
bonate of lead, in order to fill up the pores, and 
conceal the irregularities of the surface, occasidh- 
ed by the veins in the wood. When the priming 
is quite dry, a thin coat of gold-size must be laid 
on. This is prepared by grinding together some 
red oxide of lead with the thickest drying oil that 
can be procured, and the older the better, that it 
may work freely; it is to be mixed, previously to 
being used, with a little oil of turpentine, till it is 
brought to a proper consistence. If the gold-size 
is good, it will be sufficiently dry va twelve hours, 
more or less, to allow tlie artist to proceed to the 
last part of the process, which is the application of 
the gold. For this purpose a leaf of gold is spread 
on a cushion (formed by a few folds of flannel se- 
cured on apiece of wood, about eiarht inches square 
by a tight covering of leather,) and is cut into strips 
of a proper size by a blunt pallet knife ; each rttrip 
being then taken upon the point of a fine brush, 
is applied to the part intended to be gilded and is 
then gently pressed down by a ball of soft cotton , 
the gold immediately adheres to the sticky surface 
of the size, and after a few minutes, the dexterous 
■epplication of a large camel'.s hair brush sweeps 
away the loose particles of the gold-leaf without 
disiurbing the rest. In a day or two the size v; ill 
be completely dried, and the operation wili he 
finished. 

The advantages of this method of gilding are 
that it is very simple, veiy durable, and not reaiii 
ly injured by changes of weather, even when ex 
posed to the open air ; and when soiled it may be 
fleaned by a little warm water and a soft brush : . 
its chief emplojmient is h. outdoor work. Its dis- 
advantage is, that it cannot be burnished, and there- 
fore wants the high lustre produced by the follow- 
ing method : 

To gild by burnishing. 

This operation is chiefly perfonned on picture- 
frames, mouMings, beading's, and fine stucco work 
The surface to be gilt must be carefully covered 
with a strong size, made by boiling down pieces of 
wliite leather, or clippings of parchment, till thej 



16 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



are reduced to a stiff jelly; this coatingteing dried, 
eight or ten more must be applied, consistiag of 
the same size, mixed with fine Paris plaster or 
washed chalk; when a sufficient number of layers 
have been put on, varying according to the nature 
of the work, and the whole is L.ecome quite dry, a 
moderately thick layer must be applied, composed 
of size and Armenian bole, or yellow oxide of lead: 
while this last is yet moist, the gold leaf is to be 
put on in the usual manner; it will immediately 
adhere on being pressed by the cotton ball, and 
before the size is become perfectly dry, those parts 
which are intended to be the most brilliant are to 
be carefully burnished by an agate or a dog's tooth 
fixed in a handle. 
»ln order to save the labour of burnishing, it is a 
common, but bad practice, slightly to burnish the 
brilliant parts, and to deaden the rest by drawing 
a brush over them dipped ^in size; the required 
contrast between the polished and the unpolished 
gold is indeed thus obtained; but the general effect 
is much inferior to that produced in the regular 
way, and the smallest drop of water falling on the 
sized part occasions a stain. This kind of gilding 
can only be applied on in-door work; as rain, and 
even a considerable degree of dampness, will occa- 
sion the gold to peal off. When dirty, it may be 
cleaned by a soft brush, with hot spirit of wine, or 
oil of turpentine. 

The parts to be ournished (in gilding on metals) 
being covered with the usual guarding, the piece 
is fastened bj* five iron wires to the end of an iron 
rod; it is thou to be liigl)ly heated until the guard- 
ing becomes brown, when the gildin,^ will be found 
to have acquired a fine gold colour. It is now to 
be covered with a mixture of common salt, nitre, 
and alum, liquefied in the water of crystallization 
r.hey contain; the piece is to be carried again to 
the fire, and heatecl until the saline coating is in a 
state of fusion, and l)ecomes nearly transparent, 
when it must be withdrawn and suddenly plunged 
into cold water, which removes both coating and 
guarding. Dip it afterwards in very -weak nitric 
Kcid, arid wash it repeatedly in several separate 
tubs of water. It may be dried either by exposure 
to air, or gently v^iping it with clean, soft, dry 
linen. 

To gild copper, &c. by amalgam. 

Immerse a %-erv clean bright piece of copper in 
» dilated solution of nitrate of mercury. By the 
affinity of copper for nitric fxid, the mercury will 
be precipit'^ted: now spread the amalgam of gold, 
rather thinly, over the coat of mercury just given 
to the copper. This coat unites with the amalgam, 
but of course will remain on the copper. Now 
place the piece or pieces so operated on in a clean 
oven or furnace, where there is no smoke. If the 
heat is a little greater than 660°, tbe mercury of 
the amalgam will be volatilized, and the copper 
will be beautifully gilt. 

In the large way of gilding, the furnaces are so 
contrived tJiat the volatilized mercury is again 
condensed, and preserved for further use, so that 
thei'e is no loss in the operation. There is also a 
contrivance by which the volatile particles of mer- 
cury are prevented from injuring the gilders. 
To gild steel. 

Pour some of the ethereal solution of gold into 
a wine glass, and dip therein the blade of a new 
pen-knife, lancet, or razor; withdraw the instru- 
ment, anci allow the ether to evaporate. The blade 
will be found to be covered by a very beautiful 
coat of gold. A clean rag, or small piece of very 
diy sponge, may be dipped in the ether, and used 
to moisten the blade, with the same result. 

in this case there is no occasion to pour the 



liquid into a glass, which must undoubtedly lose 
by evaporation; but the rag or sponge may be 
moistened by it, by applying either to the mouth 
of the phial. This coating of gold will remain on 
the steel for a great length of time, and will pre- 
serve it from rusting. 

This is the way in which swords and other cut- 
lery are ornamented. Lancets too are in this way 
gilded with great advantage, to secure them from 
rust. 

Gold potuder for gilding. 
Gold powder may be prepared in three differ- 
ent ways: — put into an eai-then mortar some gold 
leaf, with a little honey or thick gum-water, and 
grind the mixture till the gold is reduced to ex- 
tremely minute particles. When this is done, a 
little warm water will wash out the honey or gum, 
leaving the gold behind in a pulverulent state. 

Another. — Another way is, to dissolve pure gold, 
(or the leaf,) in nitro-muriatic acid, and then to 
precipitate it by a piece of copper, or by a solution 
of sulphate of iron. The precipitate ( if by copper, ) 
must be digested in distilled vinegar, and then 
washed, (by pouring water over it repeatedly,) and 
dried. This precipitate will be in the form of .1 
•very fine powder: it works better, and is more 
easily burnished than gold leaf ground with honey 
as above. 

Another. — The best method of preparing gold 
po'.vder, is by heating a prepared amalgam of gold, 
in an open clean crucible, and continuing the strong 
heat until the whole of the mercury is evaporated; 
at the same time constantly stirring the ajnalgam 
with a glass rod. When the mercury has com- 
pletely left the gold, the remaining powder is to 
be ground in a Wedgwood's mortar, with a little 
water, and afterwards dried. It istlienfit for use. 
Although the last mode of operating has been 
here given, the operator cannot be too much re- 
minded of the danger attending the sublimation of 
mercury. In the small way here described, it is 
impossible to operate v.ithout danger; it is there- 
fore better to prepare it according to the former 
directions, than to risk the health by the latter. 
To cover bars of copper, &c. iuithgold,so as to be 
rolled out into sheets. 
This method of gilding was invented by IVIr 
Turner of Birmingham. Mr Turner fii'st prepares 
ingots or pieces of copper or brass, in convenient 
lengths and sizes. He then cleans them from im- 
purity, and makes their surfaces level, and pre- 
pares plates of pure gold, or gold mixed with a 
portion of alloy, of the same size as the ingots of 
metal, and of suitable thickness. Having placed a 
piece of gold upon an ingot intended to be plated, 
he hammers and compresses them both together, 
so that they may have their surfaces as nearly 
equal to each other as possible; and then binds them 
together with v/ire, in order to keep them in the 
same position during the process required to at- 
tach them. Afterwards he takes silver filings, 
which he mixes with borax, to assist the fusion of 
the silver. This mixture he lays upon the edge of 
the plate of gold, and next to the ingot of metal. 
Having thus prepared the two bodies, he places 
them on a fire in a stove or furnace, where they 
remain until the silver and borax placed along the 
edges of the metals melt, and until the adhesion 
of the gold with the metal is perfect. He thea 
takes the ingot carefully out of the stove. By this 
process the ingot is plated with gold, and prepared 
ready for rolling into sheets. 

To silve''' copper ingots. 
The principal difliculties in plating copper in- 
gots are, to bring the surfaces of the copper and 
silver into fusion at the same time; and to prevent 
the cop';;>«"r froro "caling; for which purposes fliixe<5 



METALLURGY. 



n 



are used. The surface of the copper on which the 
silver is to be fixed must be made flat bj filing, and 
should be left rough. The silver is first annealed, 
and afterwards pickled in weak spirit of salt; it is 
planished, and then scraped on the surface to be 
fitted on the copper. These prepared surfaces 
are anointed witii a solution of borax, or strewed 
with fine powdered borax itself, and then confined 
•n contact with each other, by binding wire. 
Wlien they are exposed to a sufficient degree of 
heat, the flux causes the surfaces to fuse at the same 
time, and after they become cold, they are found 
firmly united. 

Copper may likewise be plated by heating it, 
and burnishing leaf-silver upon it; so may iron and 
brass. This process is called French plating. 
To gild in coloiirs. 
The principal colours of gold for gilding are red, 
green, and yellow. These should be kei)t in dif- 
ferent amalgams. The jiart which is to remain of 
the first colour, is to be stopped off with a compo- 
sition of chalk and glue; the variety required is 
produced by gilding tlie unstopped parts with the 
proper amalgam, according to thj usual mode of 
gilding. 

Sometimes the amalgam is applied to the surface 
vO be gilt, without any quicking, by spreading it 
with aqua fortis; but this depends on the same prin- 
ciple as a pi-evlous quicking. 

Grecian gilding. 
Equal parts of sal-ammoniac and corrosive sub- 
limate, are dissolved in spirit of nitre, and a solu- 
tion of gold made with this menstrum. Tiie silver 
s brushed over with it, which is turned black, but 
on exposure to a red heat, it a,"=suraes the colour of 
gold. 

To dissolve gold in aqua regia. 
Take an aqua regia, composed of two parts of 
nitrous acid, and one of marine acid; or of one part 
of sal-ammoniac, and four parts of aquafortis; let 
the gold be granulated, put into a sufficient quanti- 
ty of this menstruum, and exposed to a moderate 
degree of heat. During the solution an efferves- 
cence takes place, and it acquires a beautiful yel- 
low colour, which becomes more and more intense, 
till it has a golden or even orange colour. When 
the menstruum is saturated, it is very clear and trans- 
parent. 

To gild iron or steel -with a solution of gold. 
Make a solution of 8 ounces of nitre and com- 
mon salt, with 5 ounces of crude alum in a suffi- 
cient quantity of water; dissolve half an ounce of 
gold thinly plated and cut; and afterwards evapo- 
rate to dr3"ness. Digest the residuum in rectified 
spirit of wine or ether, which will perfectly ab- 
stract the gold. The iron is brushed over with 
this solution and becomes immediately gilt. 
To gild, by clinsolving gold in aqua regt.a. 
Fine linen rags are soaked in a saturated solu- 
tion of gold in aqua regia, gently dried, and after- 
wards burnt to tinder. TJie substance to be gilt 
must be Avell polished; a piece of cork is first dip- 
ped into a solution of common salt in water, and 
afterwards into the tinder, which is well rubbed 
on the surface of the metal to be gilt, and the gold 
appears in all its metallic lustre. 

Amalgam of gold, in the large tvay. 
A quantity of quicksilver is put into a crucible 
or iron ladle, wliich is lined with clay and exposed 
to heat till it begins (o smoke. The gold to be 
mixed should be previously granulated, and heated 
red hot, when it should be added to the ([uicksil- 
ver, and stirred about with an iron rod till it is per- 
fectly dissolved. If thci-e should be any superflu- 
ous mercury, it may be separated by passing it 
ihrough clean soft leather; and the remaining amal- 



gam will have the consisteiicc of butter, and con- 
tain about three parts of mercury to one of gold. 

To gild by amalgamation. 

The metal to be gilt is previously well cleaned 
on its surface, by boiling it in a weak pickle, which 
is a very dilute nitrous acid. A q\iantity of aqua 
fortis is poured into an earthen vessel, and quick 
silver put therein; Mhcn a sufficient quantity of 
mercury is dissolved, the ajticles to be gilt are 
put into the solution, and stirred about with a 
brush till they become wliite. Tiiis is called quick- 
ing. But, as during quicking by this mode, a nox- 
ious vapour continually arises, which proves very 
ik;jurio\!3 to the health of the workman, they have 
adopted another method, by whicli they, in a great 
measure, avoid that danger. Tliey now dissolve 
the quicksilver in a bottle containing aqua fortis, 
and leave it in the open air during tlie solution, so 
that the noxious vapour escapes into the air. Then 
a little of this solution is poured into a basin, and 
with a brush dipped therein, they stroke over the 
surface of the metal to be gilt, which immediately 
becomes quicked. The amalgam is now applied 
by one of the following methods: — viz. 

1st. By pi-oportioning it to ilie quantity of arti- 
cles to be gilt, and putting tliem into a white hat 
togetlier, working them about with a soft brush, till 
tlie amalgam is uniformly spread. 

Or, Silly. By applying a portion of the amalgam 
upon one part, and spreading it on the surface, if 
flat, by working it about with a harder brush. 

The work thus managed is put into a pan, and 
exposed to a gentle degree of heat; when it becomes 
Iiot, it is frequently put into a liat, and worked 
about with a painter's large brush, to prevent an 
irregular dissipation ofthe mercury, till, at last, tbr 
quicksilver is entirely dissipated hy a repetition oi 
the heat, and the gold is attached to the surface of: 
the metal. This gilt surface is well cleaned by » 
wire brush, and then artists lieighten the colour ot 
the gold by the application of various composiuons; 
this part of the process is called colouring. 
To silver by heat. 

Dissolve an ounce of pure silver in aqua fortis, 
and precipitate it with common silt; to whicfi 
add ^ lb. of sal ammoniac, sandiver, and white vi- 
triol, and i oz. of sublimate. 

Another method. — Dissolve an ounce of pui-e sil- 
ver in aqua fortis; precipitate it with common salt, 
and add, after washing, 6 ounces of common salt, 3 
ounces each of sandiver and white vitriol, aiid;|-cz. 
of sublimate. 

These are to be groxmd into a paste upon a fine 
stone with a muller; the substance to be silvei-ed 
must be rubbed over with a sufiicient quantity of 
the paste, and exposed to a proper degree of heat. 
Where the silver runs, it is taken from the fire, 
and dipped into weak spirit of salt to clean -t. 
Silvering on gilt -work, by amalgamation. 

Silver will not attach itself to any metal by amai- 
gamation, unless it be first gilt. The process is ti»e 
same as gilding in colom-s, only ao acid should Uti 
used. 

To silver in the cold -way. 

Take two drachms of each, tartar and common 
salt; -J a drachm of alum, and 20 grains of siWer, 
precipitated from the nitrous acid by copper; make 
them into a paste witli a litdo water. Tliis is to be 
rubbed on the surface to be silvered with a coik, b«c. 

Another met/tod,' — 'Dissoive pure silver in aqua 
fortis, and precipitate the silver with common 
salt; make tliis precipitate into a paste, by adding a 
little more salt and cream of tartar. It is applied 
as in tlie former method. 

To separate the sihvr from plated copper. 
Tills process is applied to recover the silver from 

B2 



18 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



the plated inetal, which has been rolled down for 
buttons, toys, ^c. without destroying any large 
portion of the copper. For this purpose, a men- 
struum is composed of 3 pounds of oil of vitriol, 1^ 
ounce of nitre, and a pound of water. The plat- 
ed metal is boiled in it till tlie silver is dissolved, 
and then the silver is recovered by tlirowing com- 
mon salt into the solution. 

To assay plated metals. 
Take a determinate quantity of the plated me- 
tal; put it into an eartlien vessel, with a sufficient 
quantity of the above menstruum, and place it in a 
gentle heat. When the silver is stripped, it must 
be collected with common salt; the calx must -e 
tested with lead, and the estimate mad^ according 
to the product of silver. 

To plate iron. 
Iron m.iT be plated by three different modes. 
1st. By polishing the surface very clean and 
level with a burnisher; and afterwards by exposing 
it to a blueing heat, a leaf of silver is properly 
placed and carefully burnished down. This is re- 
pe.atef' till a sufficient number of leaves are apiilied, 
to give the silver a ])roper body. 

2d. By the use of a solder; slips of thin solder are 
placed between the iron and silver, with a little 
flux, and secured together by binding wire. It is 
then placed in a clear fire, and continued in it till 
the solder melts; when it is t.^ken out, and on cool- 
mg is found to adhere firmly. 

And 3d. By tinning the iron first, and uniting 
the silver by the intermedia of slips of rolled tin, 
brought into fusion in a gentle heat. 

To heighten the colour of yellow gold. 
Take of salt petre, fi oz. green copperas, 2 oz. 
white vitriol and alum, of each, 1 oz. 

If it be wanted redder, a small portion of blue 
vitriol must be added. Tiiese are to be well mix- 
ed, and dissolved in water as the colour is wanted. 
To heiifhten the colour of green gold. 
Take of salt petre, 1 oz. lOdwts. sal ammoniac, 
1 oz. 4 dwts. Roman vitriol, 1 oz. 4 dwts. verdi- 
gris, 18 dwts. Mix them Well together, and dis- 
solve a portion in water, as occasion requii-es. 

Tlie work must be dipped in these compositions, 
applied to a proper heat to burn tl*em off, and then 
quenched in water or vinegar. 

To heighten the colour of red gold. 
To 4 oz. of melted yellow wax, add, in fine pow- 
der, 1^ oz. of red ochre, Ij oz. of verdigris, cal- 
cined till it yield no fumes, and ^ an oz. of calcin- j 
ed borax; mix them well togetlier. It is necessa- I 
ly to calcine the verdigris, or else, by the heat ap- 
plied in burning the wax, the vinegar becomes so 
concentrated as to corrode the surface, and make 
it appear speckled. 

To separate gold from gilt, copper and silver. 
App.'y a solution of borax, in water, to tlie gilt 
surface, with a fine brush, and sprinkle over it some 
fine powdered suljihur. ilake the piece red hot, and 
quench it in water. The gold may be easily wiped 
off with a scratch-brush, and recovered by testing 
it with lead. 

Gold is taken from the surface of silver by 
spreading over it a paste, made of powdered sal am- 
moniac, with acjua fortis, and heating it till the 
matter smokes, and is nearly dry; when tlie gold 
may be separated by rubbing it with a scratch brush. 
To tin copper and brass. 
Boil SIX pounds of cream of tartar, four gallons 
of water, and eight pounds of grain tin, or tin sha- 
vings. After the materials have boiled a sufficient 
time, the substance to be tinned is put therein, and 
the boiling continued, when the tin is precipitated 
in its metallic form. I 

To tin iron or copper z-essels. 
Iron which is to be tinned!, must be previously 



steeped in acid materials, such as sour whey, dis» 
tillers'wash. Sec; then scoured, and dipped in melt ■ 
ed tin, having been first rubbed over with a solu- 
tion of sal ammoniac. The surface of the tin is 
prevented from calcining, by covering it with a coat 
of fat. Copper vessels mus't be well cleansed; and 
then a sufficient quantity of tin with sal ammoniac 
is put therein, and brought into fusion, and the cop- 
per vessel moved about. A little resin is some- 
times added. The sal ammoniac prevents the cop- 
per from scaling, and causes the tin to be fixe-d 
wherever it touches. Lately, zinc has been pro- 
jiosed for lining vessels instead of tin, to avoid the 
ill consequences which have been unjustly appre- 
hended. 

To prepare the leaden tree. 

Put J an ounce of the super-acetate of lead in 
powder, into a clear glass globe or wine decanter, 
filled to the bottom of the neck with distilled 
water, and 10 drops of nitric acid, and shake the 
mixture well. Prepare a rod of zinc with a ham- 
mer and file, so that it may be a quaiter of an inch 
thick, and one inch long; at the same time form 
notches in each side for a thread, by which it is to 
be suspended, and tie the thread so that the knot 
shall be uppermost, when the metal hangs quite per- 
pendicular. When it is tied, pass the two ends o.' 
the thread through a perforation in the cork, and 
let them be again tied over a small splinter of wood 
wliich may pass between them and the cork. 
When the string is tied, let the length between the 
cork and the zinc be such that the precipitant (the 
zinc) may beat equal distances from the sides, bot- 
tom, and top, of the vessel, when immersed in it. 
When all things arc thus prepared, place the ves- 
sel in a place where it may not be disturbed, and 
introduce the zinc, at the same time fitting in the 
cork. The metal will very soon be covered with 
the lead, which it precipitates from the solution, 
and this will continue to take place until the wliole 
be precipitated upon the zinc, which will assume 
the form of a tree or bush, whose leaves and 
branches are larainal, or plates of a metallic lus- 
tre. 

7'o prepare the tin tree. 

Into the same, or a similar vessel to that used in 
the last experiment, pour distilled water as before, 
and put in three drachms of muriate of tin, addinir 
ten drops of nitric acid, and shake the vessel until 
the salt he completely dissolved. Replace the zino 
(which must be cleared from the eftects of the 
former experiment,) as before, and set the whole 
aside to precipitate without disturbance, in a few 
hours, the effect will be similar to the last, only 
that the tree of tin will have more lustre. In these 
experiments, it is surprising to observe the laminse 
shoot out as it were from nothing ; but this pheno- 
menon seems to proceed from a galvanic action ot 
the metals and the water. 

To prepare the silver tree. 

Pour into a glass globe or decanter, 4 drachms 
of nitrate of silver, dissolved in a pound or more 
of distilled water, and lay the vessel on the cliininey 
piece, or in some place where it may not be dis- 
turbed. Now pour in 4 drachms of mercury. In 
a short time the silver will be precipitated in die 
most beautiful arborescent form, resembling real 
vegetation. This has been generally termed the 
Arbor Dianse. 

Metallic -watering, or for blajic moire. 

This article, of Parisian invention, wliich is mueJ- 
employed to cover ornamental cabinetwork, dress- 
ing boxes, telescopes, opera glasses, Sec. Stc. is pre- 
pared in the following manner. 

Sulphuric acid is to be diluted with from seven 
to nine parts of water ; then dij) a sponge or ra^ 
into it, and wash with it the surface of a sheet o> 



METALLURGY. 



19 



tm. This will speedily exhibit an appearance of 
crystallization, whicn is the moire. 

This effect, howevei", cannot be easily produced 
upon every sort of sheet tin, for if the sheet has 
been much hardened by hammering or rolling, 
then the moire cannot be effected until the sheet 
has been heated so as to produce an incipient fusion 
on the surface, after which the acid will act upon 
it, and produce the moire. Almost any acid will 
do as well as the sulphuric, and it is said that tlie 
citric acid dissolved in a sufficient quantity of wa- 
ter, answers better than any other. 

I'he moire may be much improved by employ- 
ing the blow pipe, to f-^rm small and beautiful 
specks on the surface of the tin, pi'evious to the ap- 
plication of the acid. 

When the moire has been formed, the plate is 
to be varnished and polished, the varnish being 
tinted with any glazing colour, and thus the red, 
green, yellow, and pearl coloured moires are ma- 
nufacturcjd. 

Cldnese sheet lead. 

The operation is cai-ried on by two men ; one 
IS seated on the floor with a large flat stone before 
him, and vitli a moveable flat stone-stand at his 
side. His fellow workman stands beside him with 
a crucible filled with melted lead ; and having 
poured a certain quantity upon the stone, the other 
lifts the moveable stone, and dashing it on the fluid 
lead presses it out into a flat and thin plate, which 
he instantly removes from the stone. A second 
(juantity of lead is poured in a similar manner, and 
a similar plate formed, the process being carried 
on with singular rapidity. The rough edges of the 
plates are then cut off, and they are soldered to- 
getiser for use. 

Mr Waddel lias applied this method witli great 
success to the formation of thin plates of zinc, for 
galvanic purposes. 



PARTING. 



By this process gold and silver are separated from 
each other. These two metals equally resisting 
the action of fire and lead, must therefore be sepa- 
rated by other means. This is effected by differ- 
ent menstrua. Nitrous acid, marine acid, and sul- 
phur, which citnnot attack gold, operate upon sil- 
ver ; and these are the principal agents employed 
in this process. 

Parting by nitrous acid is most convenient, con- 
sequently most used, — indeed, it is the only one 
employed by goldsmiths. This is called simply 
parting. 

That made by the marine acid is by cementation, 
and is called centrated parting ; and parting by 
sulphur is made by fusion, and called drt paht- 

I3fG. 

Parting by aquafortin. 
This process cannot succeed unless we attend to 
some essential circumstances : 1st. the gold and 
silver must be in a proper portion, viz. the silver 
ought to be three parts to one of gold ; though a 
mass containing two parts of silver to one of gold 
may be parted. To judge of the quality of the 
metal to be parted, assayers make a comparison 
upon a touch-stone, between it and certain needles 
composed of gold and silver, in graduated propor- 
tions, and properly marked ; which are called 
FiiooF NEEDIES. If this trial shews that the silver 
is not to the gold as three to one, the mass is im- 
proper for the operation, unless more silver be 
added ; and '2dly, that the parting may be exact, 
the aqua fortis must be very pure, especially free 
from any mixture of the vitriolic cr marine acid. 
For if this were not attended to, a quantity of sil- 



ver proportionable to these two foreign acids would 

be separated during the solution ; and this quanti- 
ty of sulphate of silver would remain mingled witli 
the gold, which consequently would not be entii'elv 
purified by the operation. 

The gold and silver to be parted ought previous- 
ly to be granulated, by melting it in a crucible, and 
pouring it into a vessel of water, giving the water 
at the same time a rapid circular motion, by quick- 
ly stirring it round with a stick. The vessels ge- 
nerally used in this operation are called partmg 
glaoses, which ought to be very well annealed, and 
chosen free from flaws ; as one of the chief incon- 
veniencesattendingthe operation is, tiiatthe glasses 
are apt to crack by exposure to cold, or even wiien 
touched by the hand. Some operators secure the 
bottom of the glasses by a coating composed of a 
mixture of nevv-slaked lime, with beer and whites 
of eggs, spread on a cloth, and wi-apped round the 
glasses at the bottom ; over wliich they a])ply a 
composition of clay and hair. The parting glasses 
should be placed in vesselscontaining water support- 
ed by trivets, with a fire under them ; because if a 
glass should break, the contents are caught in the 
vessel of water. If the heat communicated to the 
water be too great, it may be properly regulated by 
pouring cold water gradually and carefully down 
the side of the vessel into a parting glass 15 inches 
high, and 10 or 12 inches wide at the bottom ; 
placed in a copper pan 12 inches wide at bottom, 
15 laches wide at top, and 10 inches high, there is 
usually put about 80 ounces of metal, with twice as 
much of aqua fortis. 

The aqua fortis ought to be so strong as to act 
sensibly on silver, when cold, but not so strong as 
to act violently. Little heat should be applied at 
first, as the liquor is apt to swell and rise over the ' 
vessel ; but when the acid is nearly saturated, the 
heat may safely be increased. When the solution 
ceases, which is known oy the eft'ervescencc dis- 
continuing, the liquor is to be poured off ; if any 
grains appear entire, more aqua fortis must be 
added, till the silver is all dissolved. If the ope- 
ration has been performed slowl}', the remaining 
gold will have the form of distinct masses. The 
gold appears black after parting ; its parts have no 
adhesion together, because the silver disiolved from 
it has left many interstices. To give them more 
solidity, and improve their colour, they are put 
into a test under a muffle, and made red hot, after 
whicb they contract and become more solid, and 
the gold resumes its colour and lustre. It is then 
called GRAIN GOi-n. If the operation has been per- 
formed hastily, the gold will have the appearance 
of black mud or powder, which, after well washing, 
must be melted. 

The silver is usually recovered by precipitating 
it from the aqua fortis by means ot pure copper. 
If the solution be perfectly satiu-aled, no prt?cipi- 
tation can take place, till a few drops of aqua fortis 
are 'udded to the liquor. The precipitate of silver 
must be well washed with boiling. water, and may 
be fused with nitre, or tested off with lead. 
Parting by cementation. 

A cement is prepared, composed of four parts 
of bricks powdered and sifted ; of one part of 
green vitriol calcined fill it becomes red ; and of 
one part of common salt : this is to be made into 
a firm paste ^vitli a little water. It is called the 

CEMENT KOTAL. 

The gold to be cemented is i educed into plates 
as thin as money. At the bottom of the crucible 
or cementing pot, a sti-atum of cement, of the 
thickness of a finger, is put, which is covered with 
plates of gold ; and so the strata are placed alter- 
nately. The whole is covered with a lid, v.hich 
is luted with a mixture of clay and sand. This 



fO 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



pot nmst be placed in a furnace, or oven, heated 
gradually till it becomes red hot, in which it must 
be continued during 24 hours*. The heat must not 
meit the gold. The pot or crucible is ihen suffered 
to cool; and the gold carefully separated from the 
cement, and boiled at different time? in a large 
quantity of pure water. It is then assayed upon a 
toucVi-stone, or otherwise; and if it be not suffi- 
ciently pure, it is cemented a second time. In this 
process the vitriolic acid of the bricks, and of the 
calcined vitriol, decomposes the common salt du- 
ring the cementation, by uniting to its alkaline 
base, Vi'hile the marine acid becomes concentrated 
by the heat and dissolves the silver alloyed with the 
gold. This is a very troublesome process, tiiongh 
it succeeds -when the portion of silver is so small 
that it would be defended from the action of aqua 
fortis by the superabundant gold; but is little used, 
except to extract silver, or base metals, from the 
surface of gold, and f.hus giving to an alloyed me- 
tal, the colour and appearance of pure gold. 
Dry parting: 

This process is performed by sulphur, vifhich will 
easily unite with silver, but does not attack gold. 
As this dry parting is even troublesome, as well as 
expensive, it ought not to be undertaken but on a 
considerable quantity of silver alloyed with gold. 
The general procedure is as follows. — The metal 
must be granulated; from 1.8 to 1.5 of it (accord- 
ing as it is richer or poorer in the gold,) is reserv- 
ed, and the rest well mingled with an eighth of 
powdered sulphur; and put into a crucible, keeping 
a gentle fire, that the silver, before melting, may 
be thoroughly penetrated by the sulphur; if the 
fire be hastily urged, the sulphur will be dissipated. 
If to sulphurated silver in fusion, pure silver be 
added, the latter falls to the bottom, and forms 
there a distinct fluid, not miscible with the other. 
The particles of gold, having no affinity with the 
sulphurated silver, join themselves to the pure sil- 
ver wherever they come in contact, and are thus 
ti-ansferi-ed from the former into the latter, more 
or less perfectly, according as the pure silver was 
;nore or less thoroughly diffused tiirough the mix- 
ture. It is for this use that a part of the granulated 
silver was reserved. The sulphurated mass being 
brought in o fusion, and kept melting for neai-ly an 
hour in a covered crucible, one-third of the re- 
served grains is thrown in, which, when meUed, 
the whole is well stin-ed, that the fresh silver may 
be distributed through the mixed to collect the 
gold irom it; this is performed with a wooden rod. 
This is repeated till the whole reserved metal be 
introduced. The sulphurated silver appears, in 
fusion, of a dark brown colour; after it has been 
kept in fusion for a certain time, a part of the sul- 
phur having escaped from the top, the surface be- 
comes white, and some bright drops of silver about 
the size of a pea, are perceived on it. When this j 
happens th:. fire must be immediately discontinued, 
for otherwise more and more of the silver thus | 
losing its sulphur, would subside and mingle with I 
the part at the bottom, in which the gold is col- | 
lected. The whole is poured into an iron rnortar | 
greased find duly heated. The gold diffused at fu-st j 
through the whole mass, is now found collected in I 
St part of it at the bottom, (amounting only to about | 

cv\>ich as was reserved an sulphurated from the I 
mass) by a chisel or hammer; or more perfectly by 
placing the whole mass with its bottom upwards 
in a crucible, the sulphurated part quickly melts, 
leaving, unmelted, that which contains the gold. 
The sulphurated silver is assayed, by keeping a 
portion of it in fusion in an open crucible, till 
the sulphur is dissipated; and then by dissolving 
it in aqua fortis. If it should still be found to con- 
tain gold, it must be subjected to the same treat- 



ment as before. The gold thuf, collected may be 
concentrated into a smaller part by repeating the 
whole process, so that at last it may be jiartey by 
aqua fortis without toe much expense. 



IRON AND STEEL. 

Expeditious mode of reducing iron ore into inallc- 
able iron. 

The way of proceeding is by stamping, washing, 
h.c. the calcine and materials, to sepai-ate the ore 
from extraneous matter; then fusing the prepared 
ore in an open furnace, and instead of casting it, 
to suffer it to remain at the bottom of the furnace 
till it becomes cold. 
JYeTV method of shingling aiid manufncluring iron. 

The ore being fused in a reverberating furnace, 
is conveyed, wliile fluid, into an air-furnace, where 
it is exposed to a strong lieat, till a bluish flame is 
observed on the surface, it is then agitated on the 
surface, till it loses its fusibility, and is collected 
into lumps called loops. These loops are then put 
into another air-furnace, brought to a white or 
welding heat, and then shingled into half-blooms 
or slabes. They are again exposed to the aii'-fur- 
nace, and the half-blooms taken out and forged into 
anconies, bars, half flats, and rodsioriairei while 
the slabes are passed, when of a welding heat, 
through the grooved rollers. In this way of pro- 
ceeding, it matters not whether the iron is pre- 
pared from cold, or hoi-short metal, nor is there 
any occasion for the use of finery, charcoal, coke, 
chafery or hollow-fire; or any blast by bellows, or 
otherwise; or the use of fluxes, in any part of the 
process. 

.approved method of welding iron. 

This consists in the skilful bmidling of the iron 
to be welded; in the use of an extraordinarily large 
forge-hammer, in employing a balUng-finiace, in- 
stead of a hollotvfire ov chafery ; ajid in passing 
the iron, reduced to a melting neat, through grooved 
mill rollers of different shapes and sizes, as re- 
quired. — Repertory of Arts, vol. iii. 

Welding steel, or iron and casi-steel. 

Melt borax in an earthen vessel, and add one- 
tenth of pounded sal ammoniac. When well mixed, 
pour it out on an iron plate, and as soon as it is 
cold, pulverize and mix it with an equal quantity 
of unslaked lime. To proceed to the operation, 
the iron or steel must be first heated to a red heat, 
and the powder strewed over it; the pieces of metal 
thus prepared are to be again put in the fire, and 
raised to a heat considerably lotoer than the usual 
welding one, when it is lo be withdi'awn and well 
beaten by a hammer, till the surfaces are perfectly 
united. 

Common hardening. 

Iron by being heated red hot, and plunged into 
cold water, acquires a great degree of hardness. 
This proceeds from the coldness of the water 
which contracts the particles of the iron into less 
space. 

Case-hardening. 

Case-hardening is a superficial conversion of iron 
into steel by cementation. It is performed on small 
pieces of iron, by enclosing them in an iron box, 
containing burnt leather, bone-dust, or any uther 
phlogistic substance; and exposing them for some 
hours to a red heat. The surface of the iron thus 
becomes perfectly metallized. Iron thus treated 
is susceptible of the finest polish. 

To convert iron into steel by cementalion, 

The iron is fornied into bars of a couvement 
size, and then placed in a cementing furnace, with 
sufficient quantity of cement, ".'hich is composed 
of coais of animal or vegetable substances, iQise<3 



METALLURGY. 



21 



with calcined bones, &c. The following are very 
excellent cements: — 1st, one j)art ofpowdet-ed cliar- 
coal, anil luUf a part of wood-ashes well mix^d to- 
gether; or, 2dly, t\vo parts of charcoal, moderately 
powdi-red, one I'Kit of bones, born, hair, or skins 
of animals, b-n-nt in close vessels to blackness and 
jiowdirtd; and hr.lf a jiart of wood-ashes; mix them 
well togcllier. 1 he bars of iron to be converted 
into steel, are placed iipoii a stratum of cement, 
and covered all over with tlie same; and the vessel 
which contains them closely luted, must be exposed 
to a red heat for 8 or 10 houi's, when the iron will 
be converted isilo steel. 

Steel is prepared from bar iron by fusion; which 
consists of plunging a bar into melted iron, and 
Keeping, it there i'or some time, by which process 
it is converted into good steel. 

All iron wiiich becomes harder by sndden.y 
quenching in cold -water is called steel; and that 
steel whicli in quenching acquires the greatest de- 
gree of hardness in the lowest degree of heat, and 
retains the greatest strengtli in and tifter induration, 
ought to be considered as the best. 

Improved process of liardeniv.i;' s'eeA 
Articles manufactured of steel for the purposes 
of cuHiiig, are, almost without an exception, 
liardened from the anvil; ia othei- words, they are 
taken frttm the forger to the liardener without un- 
dergoiiig any intci'mediate process; and such is the 
accQscoiued I'outine, that the mischief arising has 
escaped observation. The act of forging produces 
H sirong scale oi- coating, whicli is spread over the 
wliole of the blade; p.nd to make the evil still moi-e 
formidable, this scale or coatir!gis unequal in sub- 
stance, varying in proportion to'lhe degree of heat 
communicatee! to the steel in forging; it is, pai-tial- 
ly, almost impenetrable to the action of water 
when innnersed for the purpose of hardening. 
Hence it is that different degrees of liardness pre- 
vail in nearly every i-azor manufactured: this is 
evidently a positive defect; and so long as it conti- 
nues to exist, great difference of temperature must 
exist likewise. Razor-blades not unirequently ex- 
hibit tiie fact here stated in a very striking man- 
ner: what are termed clouds, or parts of unequal 
polish, derive their origin from tliis cause; and 
clearly and distinctly, or rather distinctly though 
not clearly, show how far this partial coating has 
extended, and where the action of the water has 
been yielded to, and where resisted. It certainly 
catHiot be matter of astonishment, that so few im- 
provements have been made in the hardening of 
steel, when the evil her^ complained of so univei-- 
sally obtains, as almost to warrant the supposition 
that no attempt has ever been made to remove it. 
The remedy, however, is easy and simple in the 
extreme, and so evidently efficient in its applica- 
tion, that it cannot but excite surprise, that, in the 
present highly improved state of our manufactures, 
such a communication should be made as a disco- 
very entirely new. 

Instead, therefore, of the customary mode of 
hardening the blade from the anvil, let it be passed 
imrc'^liately from the hands of the forger to the 
grinder; a slight application of the stone will re- 
move the whole ot the scale or coating, and the 
razor will then be properly prepared to undergo 
the operation of hardening with advantage. It will 
be easily ascertained, that steel in this state heats 
in the fire with greater regularity, and that when 
immersed, the obstacles being removed to the im- 
raediate action of the water on the i)ody of the 
steel, the latter becomes equally hard from one ex- 
tremity to tbe other. To this may be added, that, 
as the lowest possible heat at tuldch steel becomes 
hard is indubitably the best, the mode here i-ecom- 
caeiiJed will be found Uie only one by which the 



I process of hai-dening can be effected with a less 
portion of fire than is, or can be, required in any 
I other way. These observations are decisive, and 
j will, in all probability, tend to establish in gene- 
I ral use what cannot but be regarded as a very ini- 
.' portant improvement in the manufactui-ing of edged 
steel instnunents. — Rhodes^ J£,ssay on the Manu- 
facture of a Razor. 

Improved mode of hardetung steel by hammering. 
Gravers, axes, and in fact all steel insti-uments 
that require to be excessively liard, may be easily 
rendered so by heating lhen< to the tempering de- 
gree and hammering them till cold. If a graver, 
it is to be heated to a straw colour, hammered on 
the acute edge of the belly, tempei'ed to the straw 
colour agf.in, ground and whetted to a proper shape. 
A graver thus prepared will cut into steel, without 
previous decarbonization. If tlie point should on 
trial be found not sufficiently hard, tlie operation 
of heating, hammering, and tempering, kc. may 
be repeated as often as necessary. 
Enn-Ush cast steel. 

The finest of steel called I^'gUsh cast steel, is 
prepared by breaking to pieces blistered steel, and 
then melting it in a crucible with a flux composed 
of carbonaceous and viti-ifiable ingredients. The 
vitrifiable ingredient is used only inasmuch as it is 
a fusible bod}-, which flows over the surface of the 
metal in the crucibles, and prevents the access of 
the oxygen of the 'tmosphere. Broken glass ij 
sometimes used for this purpose. 

When thoroughly fused it is cast into ingots, 
which, by gentle heating and careful hammering, 
are tilted into bars. By this process, the steel be 
comes more highly carbonized in proportion to the 
quantity of flux, and in consequence is more brittle 
and fusible than befire. Hence it surpasses all 
other steel in uniformity of texture, hardness and 
closeness of grain, and is the material employed in 
all the finest articles of English cutlery. 

To make edge-tools from cast steel and iron. 

This method consists in fixing a clean piece of 
wrought iron, brought to a welding heat, in the 
centre of a mould, and then pouring in melted steel, 
so as entirely to envelope the iron ; and then foi-g- 
ing the mass into the shape required. 
2'o colour steel blue. 

The steel must be finely polished on its surface, 
and then exposed to an uniform degree of heat. 
Accordingly, there are three Mays of colouring : 
first by a flame producing no soot, as spirit of 
wine; secoiidly, by a hot plate of iron ; and third- 
ly, by wood-ashes. As a very regular degree of 
heat is necessary, wood-ashes for fine work bears 
tlie preference. The work must be covered over 
with them, and carefully watched; when the coloui- 
is sufficiently heightened, the work is perfect. This 
colour is occasionally taken off with a very dilute 
marine acid. 

To distingidsh steel from iron. 

The principal characters by which steel may be 
distinguished from iron, are as follows : — 

1. After being polished, steel appears of a whiter 
light grey hue, without tbe blue cast exhibited by 
iron. It also takes a higher polish. 

2. The hardest steel, when not annealed, apjiears 
granulated, but dull, and without shining fibres. 

3. When steeped in acids tlie harder the steel is, 
of a darker hue is its surface. 

4. Steel is not so much inclined to rust as iron. 

5. In general, steel has a greater specific gra- 
vity. 

6. By being hardened and wrought, it may be 
rendei'ed much more elastic than iron. 

7. It is not attracted so strongly b}' the magnet as 
soft iron. It likewise acquires magnetic projier- 
ties more slowly, but retains tnem longer ; for 



22 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



wliicla reason, stoel is used in making needles foi' 
compasses and artificial magnets. 

8. Steel is ignited sooner, and fuses with less de- 
gree of heat, than malleable iron, which can scarce- 
ly be made to fuse without the addition of powder- 
ed charcoal ; by which it is converted into steel, 
and afterwards into crude iron. 

'J. Polished steel is sooner tinged by heat, and 
tliat with higher colours than iron. 

10. In a calcining heat, it suffers less loss by 
burning, than soft iron does in the same heat, and 
the same time. In calcination a light blue flame 
hovers over the steel, either with or without a sul- 
phureous odour. 

11. The scales of steel are harder and sharper 



than those of iron ; and consequently more fit for 
polishing with. 

12. In a wliite heat, when exposed to the blast 
of the bellows among the coals, it begins to sweat, 
wet, or melt, partly with liglit-coloured and bright, 
and partly with red sparkles, but less crackling 
than those of iron. In a melting heat too, it con- 
sumes faster. 

13. In tlie vitriolic, nitrous, and other acids, 
steel is violently attacked, but is longer in dissolv- 
ing than iron. After maceration, according as it 
is softer or harder, it appears of a lighter, or dark- 
er grey colour ; while iron on the other hand is 
white. 



VAHMISHES. 



To give a drying quality to poppy oil. 

Into 3 lbs. of pure water, put I oz. of sulphate 
of zinc, (white vitriol) and m-x. the whole with 2 
l)0unds of oil of pinks, or poppy oil. Expose this 
mixture in an earthen vessel capable of standing the 
fire, to a degree of heat sufficient to maintain it in 
a slight state of ebullition. When one half or two- 
thirds of the water lias evaporated, pour the whole 
into a large glass bottle or jar, and leave it at rest 
till the oil becomes clear. Decant the clearest part 
by means of a glass funnel, the beak of which is 
stopped with a piece of cork : when the separation 
of the oil from the water is completely effected, 
remove the cork stopper, and supply its place by 
the fore-finger, which must be applied in such a 
manner as to suffer the water to escape, and to re- 
tain only the oil. 

Poppy-oil when prepared in this manner be- 
comes, after some weeks, exceedingly limpid and 
colourless. 

To give a drying quality to fat oils. 

Take of nut-oil, or linseed-oil, 8 lbs. white lead, 
slightly calcined, yellow acetate of lead, (salsatur- 
ni) also calcined, sulphate of zinc, (white vitriol) 
each 1 oz. vitreous oxide of lead, (litharge) 12 oz. 
a head of garlic, or a small onion. 

When the diy substances are pulverized, mix 
them with the garlic and oil, over a fire capable of 
maintaining the oil in a sliglit state of ebullition : 
continue it till the oil ceases to throw up scum, till 
it assumes a reddish colour, and till the head of 
garlic becomes brown. A pellicle will then be 
soon formed on tlie oil, which indicates that tlie 
operation is completed. Take the vessel from the 
fire, and the pellicle, being precipitated by rest, 
will carry with it all the unctuous parts which ren- 
dered the oil fat. When the oil becomes clear, 
separate it from the deposit, and put it into wide- 
moutlied bottles, where it will completely clarify 
itself in time, and improve in quality. 

AnotJier method. — 'I'ake of vitreous oxide of lead, 
(Htliarge) 1^ oz. sulphate of zinc, (white vitriol y 
."i-S of an oz. or 3 gros. linseed, or nut-oil, 16 oz. 
The operation must be conducted as in the preced- 
ing case. 

The choice of the oil is not a matter of indiffer- 
ence. If it be destined for painting articles exposed 
to tiie impression of the external air, or for deli- 
cate painting, nut-oil or poppy-oil will be requi- 
site. Linseed oil is used for coarse painting, and 
that sheltered from the effects of the rain and of the 
sun. 



A little negligence in the management of the fire, 
has often an influence on the colour of the oil, to 
which a drying quality is communicated; in this 
case it is not proper for delicate painting. This in- 
convenience may bT avoided by tying up the dry- 
ing matters in a small bag; but the dose of the lith- 
arge must then be /loubled. The bag must be sus- 
pended by a piece of packthread fastened to a stick, 
which IS made to rest on the edge of the vessel in 
such a manner as to keep tlie bag at the distance 
of an inch from the bottom of the vessel. A pel- 
licle will be formed as in the fii-;-. operation, but it 
will be slower in making its appearance. 

Another. — A drying quality may be communi- 
cated to oil by treating, in a heat capable of main- 
taining a slight ebullition, linseed or nut-oil, to 
each pound of which is added 3 oz. of vitreous ox- 
ide of lead, (litharge) reduced to fine powder. 

The preparation ot floor-cloths, and all paintings 
of large figures or ornaments, in which argillaceous 
colours, such as yellow and red boles, Dutch pi-nk, 
&c. ai-e employed, i-equire ttiis kind of prepara- 
tion, that the desiccation may not be too slow; but 
painting for which metallic oxides are used, such 
as preparations of lead, copper, kc. require only 
the doses before indicated, because these oxides, 
contain a great deal of oxygen, and the oil, by their 
contact, acquires more of a fh-ying quality. 

Another: — Take of nul-oU, 2 lbs. common wa- 
ter, 3 do. sulphate of zinc, (white vitriol) 2 oz,. 

Mix these matters, and subject them to a slight 
ebullition, till little water remains. Decant the 
oil which will pass over with a small quantity of 
water, and separate the latter by means of a fun- 
nel. The oil remains nebulous for sometime; after 
whicii it becomes clear, and seems to be veiy little 
coloured. 

Another. — Take of nut oil, or linseed oil, 6 lbs. 
common water, 4 lbs. sulphate of zinc, 1 oz. garlic, 
one head. 

Mix these matters in a large iron or copper pan; 
then place them over the fire, and maintain the 
mixture in a state of ebullition during the whole 
day; boiling water must frcm time to time be ad- 
ded, to make up for the loss of that by evapora- 
tion. The garlic will assume a brown appearance. 
Take the pan tV -m ihe fire, and having suft'ered a 
deposit to be formed, decant the oil, which will 
clarify itself in the vessel. By this procest. the 
drying oil is rendered sumewliat more coloured, 
it is reserved for delicate colours. 



VARNISHES. 



23 



Rednoxis drying ml. 

Take 10 lbs. of drj'ing nut oil, if the paint is 
destined for external articles, or 10 lbs. of dry- 
ing linseed oil, if for internal, resin, 3 lbs. turpen- 
tine, 6 oz. 

Cause the resin to dissolve the oil by means ot 
a gentle heat. When dissolved and incorporated 
wkh the oil, add the turijentine: leave the varnish 
at I est, by which means it will often deposit por- 
tions of resin and other impurities; and then pre- 
serve it in wide mouthed bottles. It must be used 
I'resh; when suffered to grow old it abandons some 
of its resin. If this resinous oil assumes too much 
consistence, dilute it with a little essence, if in- 
tended for articles sheltered from the bun, or witli 
oil of poppies. 

In Switzerland, where the principal part of the 
mason's woi-k consists of stone subject to crumble 
to pieces, it is often found necessary to give them 
a coating of oil paints to stop the effects of this de- 
composition. This painting has a great ded of 
lustre, and when the last coating is applied with 
resinous oil, it has the effect of a varnish. To 
give it more durability, the first ought to be ap- 
plied exceedingly warm and with plain oil, or oil 
very little charged, with the grey colour, which is 
added to tlie two following. — 

Fat copal varnish. 

Take picked copal, 16 ounces, prepared linseed 
oil, or oil of poppies, 8 do. essence of turpentine, 
J6 do. 

Liquefy the copal in a matrass over a common 
fire, and then add the linseed oil, or oil of poppies, in 
a state of ebullition; when these matters are in- 
corporated, take the matrass from the fire, stir the 
matter till the greatest heat is subsided, and then 
add the essence of turpentine warm. Strain the 
whole, while still warm, through a piece of linen, 
and put the varnish into a wide-mouthed bottle. 
Time contributes towards its clarification; and in 
this manner it acquires a better quality. 
Varnish for -watch cases in imitation of tortoise^ shell. 

Take copal of an amber colour, 6 oz. Venice 
turpentine, H oz. prepared linseed oil, 24 oz. es- 
sence of tuv-pentine, 6 oz. 

It is customary to place the turpentine over the 
copal, reduced to small fragments, in the bottom 
of an earthen or metal vessel, or in a matrass ex- 
poses! to such a heat as to liquefy the copal: but it 
is more advantageous to liquefy the latter alone, 
to add the oil in a state of ebullition, then the tur- 
pentine liquefied, and in the last place the essence. 
If the varnish is too thick, some essence may bi 
added. The latter liquor is a regulator for the 
consistence in the hands of an artist. 

To make a co'owless copal varnish. 

As all copal is not fit for this purpose, in order 
to ascertain such pieces as are good, each must be 
taken separately, and a single drop of ^lure essen- 
tial oil of rosemary, not altered by keeping, must 
be let fall on it. Those pieces which soften at the 
part that imbibes the oil, are good; reduce them 
to powder, which sift tlirough a very fine hair sieve, 
and put it into a glass, on the bottom of wliich it 
must not lie more than a finger's breadth thick. 
Pour upon it essence of rosemary to a similar height; 
fitir the whole for a few minutes, when the copal 
will dissolve into a viscous fluid. Let it stand for 
two hours, and then pour gently on it two or three 
drops of veiy pure alcohol, which distribute over 
the oily mass, by inclining the bottle in different 
directions with a very gentle motion. Repeat this 
operation by litHe and little, till the incorporation 
is effected, and tac varnish reduced to a proper de- 
gree of fluidity. It must then be left to stand a 
lew days, and v hen very clear be decanted otf. 
TLis varnish, th is made without heat, may be ap- 



plied with equal success to pasteboard, wood, and 
metals, and takes a better polish than any other. 
It may be used on paintings, the beauty of which 
it greatly heightens. — Monthly Mag. Oct. 1809. 
Gold coloured copal varnish. 

Take copal in powder, 1 ounce, ess ...ial oil of 
lavender, 2 do. essence of turpentine, 6 do. 

Put tiie essential oil of lavender into a matrass 
of a proper size, placed on a sand-batft heated by 
an Argand's lamp, or over a moderate coal fire. 
Add to the oil while very warm, and at several 
times, tne copal powder, and stir the mixture with 
a stick of wliite wood rounded at the end. \\ hen 
the copal has entirely disappeared, add at thrci; 
different times the essence almost in a state of ebul- 
lition, and keep continually stirring the mixture. 
When the solution is completed, the result will be 
a varnish of a gold colour, exceedingly durable and 
brilliant, but less drying than the preceding. 

Another method.— Tq obtain this varnisli colour- 
less, it will be proper to rectify the essence of the 
shops, which is often higlily coloured, and to give 
it the necessaiy density by exposure to the sun in 
bottles closed with cork stoppers, leaving an inter- 
val of some inches between the stopper and the 
surface of the liquid. A few months are thus suf- 
ficient to communicate to it the required qualities. 
Besides, the essence of the shops is rarely possess- 
ed of that state of consistence, without having at 
the same time a strong amber colour. 

The varnish residting from the solution of copal 
in oil of turpentine, brought to such a state as to 
produce the maximum of solution, is exceedingly 
durable and brilliant. It resists the shock of liai-d 
bodies much better than the enamel of toys, which 
often becomes scratched and wliitened by tlie im- 
pression of repeated friction; it is susceptible also 
of a fine polish. It is applied with the greatest suc- 
cess to philosophical instruments, and tlie paintings 
with which vessels and other utensils of metal are 
decorated. 

Another. — Take copal, 4 ounces, clear turpen- 
tine, 1 oz. 

Put the copal, coarsely pulverized, into a varnish 
pot, and give it the form of a pyramid, which must 
be covered with turpentine. Sliut the vessel close- 
Iv, and placing it over a gentle fire, increase the 
heat gradually that it raay not attack the copal; as 
soon as the matter is well liquefied, pour it upon 
a plate of copper, and when it has resumed its con- 
sistence reduce it to powder. 

Put half an ounce of this powder into a matrass 
with four ounces of the essence of tui-pentine, and 
stir the mixture till the solid matter is entirely dis- 
solved. — Journal de Physique. ' 

Camphorated copal vaimi-sh. 

This varnish is destined for articles which re- 
quire durability, pUableness, and transparency, 
such as the varnished wire-gauze, used in ships in- 
stead of glass. 

■ Take of pulverized copal, 2 oz. essential oil of 
lavender, 6 do. camphor 1-8 of an oz. essence ot 
turpentine, a sufficient quantity, according to the 
consistence require J to be given to the varnish. 

Put into a phial of thin glass, or into a small ma- 
trass, the essential oil ot ^avender and the camphor; 
and place the mixture on a moderately open fire, 
to bring the oil and the camphor to a shglit state 
of ebullition; then add the copal powder in small 
portions, which must be renewed as they disaiipear 
in the liquid. Favour the solution, by continually 
stirring it with a stick of white wood; and when the 
copal is incorporated with the oil, add the essence 
of turpentine boiling; but care must be taken to 
j pour in, at first, only a small portion. 
'; This varnish is little coloured, and by rest it ac- 
I. auires a U'auspareucy which, united to the solidilv 



24 



UlSITVTEKSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



observed in almost every kind of copal varnishes, 
renders it fit to be applied with great success in 
many cases, and particularly in the ingenious in- 
vention of substituting varnished metallic gauze in 
the room of Muscovy tale, a kind of mica, in large 
laminoe, used for the cabin windows of ships, as 
presenting more resistance to the concussion of the 
air during the firing of the guns. Varnished me- 
tallic gauze, of this kind, is manufactured at Rouen. 
Ethereal copal varnish. 

Take of amherry copal, \ ounce, ether, 2 ditto. 

Reduce the copal to a very fine powder, and in- 
troduce it by small portions into the flask which 
contains the etlier; close the flask with a glass or a 
cork stopper^ and having shaken the mixture for 
half an hour, leave it at rest till the next morning. 
In shaking tlie flask, if the sides become covered 
with small undulations, and if the liquor be not ex- 
ceedingly clear, the solution is not complete. In 
this case, add a little ether, ami leave the mixtui'e 
at rest. The varnish is of a wliite lemon colour. 
The largest quantity of copal united to ether may 
be a fourth, and the'least a fifth. The use of copal 
varnish made with ether seems, by the expense at- 
tending it, to be confined to repairing those acci- 
dents which frequently happen to the enamel of 
toys, as it will supply the place of glass to the co- 
loured varnishes employed for mending fractures, 
or to restoring the smooth surface of paintings 
which have been cracked and siiattered. 

The great volatility of ether, and in particular 
its high price, do not allow the application of this 
varnish to be recommended, but for the purpose 
here indicated. It has Ijeen applied to wood with 
complete success, and the glazing it produced unit- 
ed lustre to solidity. In consequence of the too 
speedy evaporation of the liquid, it often boils un- 
der the brush. Its evaporation, however, may be 
retarded, by spreading over the wood a slight stra- 
tum of essential oil of rosemaiy, or lavender, or 
even of •turpentine, which may afterwards be re- 
moved by a piece of hnen rag; what remains is suf- 
ficient to retard t!;e evaporation of the ether. 
Turpentine copal varnish. 

Take of copal, of an amber colour, and in pow- 
der, 1^ ounce, best oil of turpentine, 8 ditto. 

Expose the essence to a balneum mariie, in a 
wide-mouthed matrass with a short neck; as soon 
as the water ot tlie bath begins to boil, throw iuto 
the essence a large pinch of cojial powder, and keep 
the matrass in a state of circular motion. When 
the powder is incorporated with the essence, add 
new doses of it; and continue in this manner till 
you observe that there is formed an insoluble de- 
posit. Then take the matrass from the bath, and 
leave it at rest for some days. Draw off" the clear 
varnish, and filter it through cotton. 

At the moment when tlie first portion of the co- 
pal is thrown into the essence, if the powder pre- 
cipitate itself under the form of lumps, it is need- 
less to proceed any further. This effect arises from 
two causes: either the essence does not possess the 
proper degree of concentration, or it has not been 
suflicietitly deprived of water. Exposure to the 
sun, employing the same matrass, to which a cork 
stopper ought to be added, will give it the quali- 
ties requisite for the solution of the copal. This 
effect will be announced by the disappearance of 
the portion of copal already put into it. 

Another copal x"«r?ws/i.— Take of copal, liquefi- 
ed, 3 oz. essence of turpentine, 20 do. 

Pkice the matrass containing the oil in a balneum 
mariee, and when the water boils add the pulveriz- 
ed copal in small doses. Keep stirring the mixture 
and add no more copal till tlie former be incorpo- 
rated with the oil. If the oil, inconsequence of its 
4>articul!U' dispositiouj can take tip tlu-ee ounces of 



I it, add a little more; tut stop if the liquid becomes 
I nebulous; then leave the varnish at rest. If it be 
i too thick, dilute it with a little warm essence, after 
having heated it in the balneum marite. When 
I cold, filter it through cotton, and preserve it in a 
; clean l)ottle. 

[ This varnish has a good consistence, and is as 
free from colour as the best alcoholic varnish. 
j When extended in one stratum over smooth wood, 
j which has undergone no preparation, it forms a 
very brilliant glazing, which, in the course of two 
days, in summer, acquires all the solidity that may 
be required. 

The facility wliich attends the preparation of this 
varnish l)y the new method here indicated, v/ill ad- 
mit of its being applied to all coloured grounds 
whichrequire solidity, pure whites excepted; paint- 
ed boxes, therefore, and all small articles, colour- 
ed or not coloured, where it is required to make 
the veins appear in all the richness of their tones, 
call fc:" the application of this varnish, which pro 
duces the most beautiful effect, and which is more 
durable than tiu-pentine varnishes composed with 
other resinous substances. 

Fat amber varnish. 
Take of amber coarsely powdered, 16 oz. Venice 
turpentine, or gum lac, 2 do. prepared linseed oil, 
10 do. essence of turpentine, 15 or 16 do. 

The circumstances of the process are the same as 
those prescribed for the preparation of the cam- 
phorated copal varnish. 

1 nis varnish was formerly much used; but it has 
given place, in part, to that of copal, whicli is pre- 
ferred on account of its being less coloured. Watin 
introduces more essence and less linseed oil; ex- 
perience and long practice are the only authority 
on which I recommend the adoption of the present 
formula. 

Amber varnish -with essence of turpentine. 
Take of amber liquefied, and sep.arated from the 
oily portions, which alter its consiscence, 6 or 7 oz. 
Reduce the amber to powder, and if tlie opera- 
tion of potmding forms it into a paste, break it with 
your fingers: then mix it with the essence, and 
heat tlie whole in a balneum marix. It will speedily 
dissolve, and the essence will take up, at the least, 
a fourtii part of its weight of the prepared amber. 
W^hen one coating of it is applied to white smooth 
wood, but without any preparation, it forms a very 
pure and very durable glazing, ■which speedily 
dries, but slower than copal varnish. 

Fat amber or copal varnish. 
Take of amber or copal of one fusion, 4 oz. es- 
sence of turpentine, di-ying linseed oil, ofeaclilOoz. 
Put the wliole into a pretty large matrass, and 
expose it to the heat of a balneum mariaj, or move 
it over the surface of an uncovered chafing-dish, 
but without flame, and at the distance from it of 
two or three inches. When the solution is com- 
pleted, add still a little copal or amber to saturate 
the liquid; then pour the whole on a filter prepar- 
ed with cotton, and leave it to clarify by rest. If 
the varnish is too thick, add a little warm essence 
to prevent the separation of any of the amber. 

This varnish is coloured, but far less so than 
those composed by the usual methods. When 
spread over white wood, v/itliout any preparation, 
it forms a solid glazing, and communicates a slight 
tint to the wood. 

If it is required to charge this varnish with moi'e 
copal, or prepared amber, the liquid must be com- 
posed of two parts of essence for one of oil. 
Compound mastic varnish. 
Take of pure alcohol, 32 oz. purified mastic, 6 
oz. gum sandarac, 3 oz. very clear Venice turpen- 
tine, 3 oz. glass, coarsely pounded, 4 oz. 
Reduce the mastic and sandanc to fine powder 



VARNISHES. 



mix this powder witV fhhe glass, from which the 
finest parts have beer sepsuatcd by means of a hair 
sieve; put all the iagrcdients with alcoliol into a^ 
short-necked matrass, and adapt to it a stick of 
white wood, rounded at the end, and of a length 
proportioned to the height of the matrass, that it 
may be put in motion. Expose tlie matrass in a 
vessel iiiled wiih vi'ater, made at first a little warm, 
and which must afterwards be maintained in a state 
of ebullition lor one or two hours. The matrass 
may he made fast to a ring of strav;. 

\\lien the solution seems to be sufficiently ex- 
tended, add the turpentine, wliich must be kept 
separately in a pl\ial or a pot, and which must be 
melted, by immersing it for a moment in a bal- 
neum marise. The mr.trass must be still left in the 
water for half an hour, at tlie end of whicli it is ta- 
ken off; and the varnish is continually stirred till 
it is somewhat cool. N:_>yt day it is to be drawn 
oft', i.nd iiltered through cotton. By these means 
it will becorae exceedingly limpid. 

Tlie addition of glass may appear extraordinai-j'; 
but this substance divides the parts of the mixture, 
whicli have been made with tlie dry ingredients, 
and it retains the same quality when placed over 
the fire. It therefore obviates with success two in- 
conveniences, wliich are exceedingly troublesome 
to those who compose varnishes. In the first place, 
by dividing ihe niatterc, it facilitates the action of 
the alcohol; and in the second its weight, which 
surpasses that of resins, prevents these resins from 
adhering to the bottom of the matrass, and also the 
coloration acquired by tlie varnish wlien a sand- 
bath is employed, as is commonly the case. 

The application of this varnisb is suited to arti- 
cles belonging to the toilette, such as dressing- 
boxes, cut-paper works, &;c. The following pos- 
sess the same brilliancy and lustre; but they have 
more soIi(<ilj% and ai'e exceedingly drying. 
Camphoruied mastic varnish for paintings. 

Take of mastic, cleaned and washed, 12 oiuices, 
pure turpentine, H oz. camphor, \ oz. white glass, 
pounded, 5 oz. ethereous essence of turpentiae, 36 
ounces. 

Make the varnish according tp the method indi- 
cated for Compound Mastic "V'arnish of the first 
genus. The camphor is employed in pieces, and 
the turpentine is added when the solution of the 
resin is completed. But if the varnish is to be ap- 
plied to old i)aintings, or paintings which liave been 
already varnished, the turpentine may be suppress- 
ed, as this ingredient is here recommended only in 
cases of a first application to new paintings, and 
just freed from wiiite of egg varnish. 

The ethereous essence recommended for varnish, 
is that distilled slowly without any intermediate 
substance, according to the second process already 
given for its rectification. 

Thequestion by able masters, respectingthe kind 
of varnish proper to be employed for paintings, hi.s 
never yet l/cen determined. 

Some artists, wlio have paid particular attention 
to this object, make a mystery of the means they 
employ to obtain the desired effect. Tlie real end 
may be accomplished by giving to the varnish, des- 
tined for painting, pliability and softness, without 
being too solicitous in regard to what may add to 
its consistence or its solidity. The latter qu.ility 
is particularly requisite in varnishes which are to 
be applied to articles much exposed to friction, 
such as boxes, furniture. &c. 

Sharv^s mastic varnish for paintings. 
Bruise the mastic with a rnuller on a jiainter's 
Btoive, which will detect the soft parts, or tears, 
which are to be taken out, and the remainder put 
into a clean bottle with good spii'its of turpentine, 
^twice distilled if you can get it) and dissolve the 



gum by shaking it m your hand for half an hour, 
without heat. V\'^hen"('issolvcd, stram it through 
a piece of calico, and jdace it in a bottle well corked, 
so that the light of tlie sun can strike it, for two 
or thrca weeks, which will cause a mucilaginous 
precipitate, leaving the remainder as transparent 
as water. It may then be carefully decanted into 
another bctlle, and put by for use. The propor- 
tions of gum and alcohol are, mastic, 6 oz. tiu'pen- 
tine, 14 oz. If found on trial to be too thick, thin 
it with turpentine. 

To make paijiter's cream. 

Painters, who have long intervals between their 
periods of labour, are atcustoiBcd to cover the parts 
they have painted with a preparation wliich pre- 
serves the freshness of tlie coh urs, and which they 
can remove when they resume their work. This 
preparation is as follows: 

Take jf veiy clear nut oil, 3 ounces, mastic in 
tears, pulverized, ^ oz. sal saturni, in powder (ace- 
tate of lead,) 1-3 of an ounce. 

Dissolve the mastic in oil, over a gentle fire, and 
pour the mixture into a marble mortar, over the 
pounded salt of lead; stir it with a wooden pestle, 
and add water in small quantities, till the matter 
assume the appearance and consistence of cream, 
and refuse to admit more water. 
Sandarac varnish. 

Take of gum sandarac, 8 oz. pounded mastic, 2 
oz. clear turpentine, 4 oz. pounded glass, 4 oz. al- 
cohol, 32 oz. Mix and dissolve as befoie. 
Compound sandarac varnish. 

Take of pounded copal of an amber colour, once 
liquefied, 3 oz. gum sandarac, 6 oz. mastic, cleaned, 
3 oz. clear turpentine, 2^ oz. pounded glass, 4 oz. 
pure alcohol, 32 oz. Mix these ingredients, and 
pursue the same method as above. 

This varnish is destined for articles subject to 
friction, such as furniture, chairs, fan-sticks, mould- 
ings, h.c. and even metals; to which it may be ap- 
plied with success. The sandarac gives it great 
durability'. 

Camphorated sandarac varnish for cut-Jjaper 
-vorks, dressing-boxes, &c. 

Take of gum sandarac, 6 oz. gum elemi, 4 oz. 
gum animi, 1 oz. camphor, ^ oz. pounded glass, 4 
oz. ])ure alcoliol, 32 oz. 

Make the varnish according to the directions al- 
reait/ given. The soft resins must be pounded 
with the dry bodies. The camphor is to be added 
in ])ieces. 

jlnother. — Take of gallipot, or white incense, 6 
oz. gum animi, gum elemi, each 2 oz. pounded 
glass, 4 oz. alcohol, 32 oz. 

Make the varnish with the precautions indicated 
for the compound mastic varnish. 

The two last varnishes are to be used for ceil- 
ings and wainscots, coloured or not coloured: they 
may even be employed as a covering to parts paint- 
ed with strong colours. 
Spiritons sandarac varnish for ■wainscottivg small 

articles of furniture, balustrades, and inside rail- 
ing. 

Take gum sandarac, 6 oz. shell lac, 2 oz. colo- 
phonium, or resin, white glass pounded, clear tur- 
pentine, each 4 oz. pure alcohol, 32 oz. 

Dissolve the varnish according to the directions 
given for compound mastic varnish. 

This varnish is sufficiently durable to be applied 
to articles destined to daily and continual use. Var- 
nishes composed with copal ought, however, in 
these cases to be preferred. 

Another, — There is another composition which, 
without forming part of the compound varnishes, 
is employed with success feu- giving a polish and 
lustre to furniture made ot w^ood; wax forms the 
basis of it. 



26 



UNRTSRSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



Many cabinet-makers are contented with waxing 
oominoii turniture, such as tables, chests of drawers, 
&c. This covering;, hv means oFrepeated frietio'n, 
soon acquires a polish and transyjarency which re- 
.iinble those of varnish. Waxiisg seems to possess 
qualities pecijiar to itself; but, like varnish, it is 
attended with inconveniences as well as advantages. 

Varnish supplies better the part of glazing; it 
gives a lustre to the wood which it covers, and 
heightens the colours of that destined, in particular, 
for delicate articles. These ."eal and valuable ad- 
vantages are counterbalanced by its want of consis- 
tence: it yields too easily to the shrinking or swell- 
ing of the wood, and rises in scales or splits, on 
being exposed to the slightest shock. These acci- 
dents can be repaired only by new strata of varnish, 
whicli I'cnder application to the varnisher neces- 
sary, and occasion trouble and expense. 

Waxing stands shocks; but it does not possess, 
in the same degree as varnish, the pro])erty of 
giving lustre to the bodies on vhicli it is applied, 
and of heightening tlieir tints. The lustre it com- 
municates is dull, but this inconvenience is com- 
pensated by tiie facility with wliich any accident 
that may liave altered its polish car be repaired, 
by rubbing it with a piece of tine cork. There are 
some circumstances, therefore, under which the 
application of wax ougt>t to be preferred to that of 
varnish. This seems to l)e the case in particular 
with tables of walnut-tree wood, exposed to daily 
use, chairs, moukhngs, and for all suiall articles 
subject to constant employment. 

J3ut as it is of importance to make the stratum of 
wax as thin as possible in order that the veins of 
the wood may be more apparent, tiie following 
process will be acceptable to the readei". 

]\Ielt over a moderate fire, in a very clean ves- 
sel, two ounces of white oryellow wax; and, when 
liquefied, add four ounces of good essence of tur- 
pentine. Stir the whole until it is entirely cool, 
and the result will be a kind of pomade fit for wax- 
ing furniture, and which must be rubbed over them 
according to the usual method. The essence of 
turpentine is soon dissipate,!; but the wax, which 
by its mixture is reduced to a state of very great 
division, may be extendci witli more ease, and in 
a more uniform manner. The essence soon pene- 
trates the pores of the v/ood, calls forth the colour 
of it. causes the wax to adhere better, and tht lus- 
Ir-- \i hie h thence rest, Its is e(iual to that of varnisli, 
'viliiout liaviiig any of its iuconveniences. 
Cofovred variusu J'lV viuiins, and otJier stringed in- 

■ttruments, also fur plum tree, mahogany and 

rose-wood. 

Take gum sandarac, 4 oz. seed lac, 2 oz. mastic, 
Benjamin in tears, each 1 oz. pounded glass, 4 oz. 
Venice turpentine, ii oz. pure alcohol, 3'2 oz. 

The gum sandarac and lac render this varnish 
durable; it may be coloured with a Utile saifron or 
dragon's blood. 

French polish. 

The varnish being prepared, (shell-lac) the 
article to be polished, being hnisheil oil .is smooth- 
ly as possible with glass-[iaper, and your rubber 
being prepared as directed below, proceed to the 
operation as follows. The varnish, in a narrow- 
necked bottle, is to be applied to tiie ndrld.e of the 
fiat face of the rubber, by laying the ruliber on the 
mouth cf the bottle and siiaking up the varnish, 
once ; as by tliis means the rubber will inibibe the 
Droper quantity to varnish a considerable extent of 
surface. The rubber is then to be enclosed in a 
soft linen cloth, doubled ; the rest of the cloth be- 
ing gathered up at the back of the rubber to form a 
handle. Moisten the face of the linen with a little 
rav linseed oil, applied with the finger to the 
mieUlle ofit. Flaciiigyoi^r workoppositethelight. 



pass your rubber q^aclcly and lightly over its surface 
until the varnish becomes dry, or nearly so— charge 
your rubber as before with varnish, (omitting the 
oil) and repeat the rubbing, until three coats are 
laid on, when a little oil may be applied to the inib- 
ber, and two coats more given to it. Proceeding 
in this way, until the varnish has acquired some 
thickness, wet the inside of the linen cloth, before 
applying the varnish, with alcohol, and rub quick- 
ly, lightly and uniformly the whole surface. Last- 
ly, wet the linen cloth with a little oil and alcohol 
without varnish, and rnb as before till dry. 

To make the rubber. 
'Roll up a strip of thick woollen cloth which has 
been torn oft", so as to form a soft elastic edge. It 
should form a coil, from one to three inches in di- 
ameter according to the size of the work. 
Fat varnish of a gold colour. 

Take ambei-, 8 oz. gum lac, 2 oz. drying linseed 
oil, 8 oz. essence of turpentine, 16 oz. 

Dissolve separately the gum lac, and then add' 
the amber, prepared and pulverized, with the lin- 
seed oil and essence very warm. When the whole 
hag lost a ]).art of its heat, mix, in relative propoi'- 
tions, tinctures of annatto, of teri'a inerita, gum gut- 
tK, and di-agon's blood. This varnish, when ap- 
plied to white metals, gives them a gold colour. 
Fat turpentine or golden varnish, being a mordamit 
to gold and dark colours. 

Take boiled linseed oil, 16 oz. Venice turpen- 
tine, S oz. Naples yellow, 5 oz. 

Heat the oil with the turpentine ; and mix the 
Naples yellow pulverized. 

Naples yellow is an oxide of lead, the composi- 
tion of which will be g'ven v/hen we come to treat 
of colouring substances. It is substituted here for 
resins, on account of its drying qualities, and in 
particular of its colour, which resembles that of 
gold ; great use is made of the varnish in applying 
gold leaf. 

The yellow, however, may be omitted when this 
species of varnish is to be solid and coloured co- 
verings. In this case an ounce of litharge to each 
poun<i of composition may be substituted in its 
stead, wiiliout lhi?i mixture doing any injury to the 
colour which is to constitute the ground, [la teinte 
dure). 

To make turner's varnisli for box^iood. 

Take seed lac, 5 oz. gum sandarac, 2 oz. gum 
elemi, 1^ oz. Venice turjjentine, 2 oz. pounded 
glass, 5 oz. pure alc(>liol, 24 oz. 
" [For a mode of bleaching seed or shell-lac for 
varnishes see " IJleaching. " — Ax. Ed.j 

Tiie artists of St Glauile do not a.l employ this 
formula, which requires to be corrected on account 
of its too great dryness, which is here lessened by 
the turpentine and gum elenii. This composition 
is secured from crac.ing, whicli disfigui'es these 
boxes after they have been used for some months. 

Jlnotlier. — Other turners employ the gum lac 
united to a little elemi and turi)entine digested 
some months in pure alcohol exposed to the suu. 
If this metiiod be followed, it will be proper to 
substitute for the sandarac the same quantity of 
gum lac reduced to powder, and not to add the tur- 
pentine to the alcohol, which ought to be exceed- 
ingly pure, till towards the end of the infusion. 

Solar infusion requires care and attention. Ves- 
sels of a sufficient size to allow the spirituous va- 
pours to circulate freely ought to be employed, be- 
cause it is necessary that the vessels should be 
closely shut. Without this precaution the spirits 
would become, weakened, and abaniion the resin 
which they laid hold of during the first day's expo- 
sure. This perfect obituration will not admit of 
the vessels being too full. 

In general the varnishes applied to articles whicb 



VARNISHES. 



27 



may be put into the lathe acquire a great ileal of 
brilliancy by polishing, a piece of woollen cloth is 
sufficient for the operation. If turpentine predo- 
minates too much in these compositions the polish 
does rot retain its lustre, because the heat of the 
hands is capable oF softening the surface of the 
vaiTiish, and in this state it readily tarnishes. 
To vaniish dressing-boxes. 

The most of spirit of wine varnishes are destined 
for covering preliminary preparations, which have 
a certain degree of lustre. They consist of ce- 
ment, coloui-ed or not coloured, charged with land- 
scapes and figures cut out in paper, which proluces 
an effect under the transparent varnish : most of 
the dressing-boxes, and other small articles of the 
same kind, are covered with this particular com- 
position, which, in general, consists of three or 
roi".r coatings of Spanish white pounded in water, 
and mixed up with parchment glue. The first 
coating is smoothed with pumice-stone, and then 
jiolished with a piece of new linen and water. The 
coating in this state is fit to receive the destined 
colour, after it has been ground with water, and 
mixed with parchment glue diluted with \vater. 
-'he cut figures with which it is to be embellished, 
are then applied, and a coaling of gum or fisii- 
glue is spread over them, to prevent the varnish 
fi'om penetrating lo the preparation, and from spoil- 
ing the figures. The operation is finished by ap- 
plying three or four coatings of varnish, which, 
wfien diy, are polished with tripoli and water, by- 
means of a piece of cloth. A lustre is then given 
to the surface with starch and a bit of doe-skin, or 
very soft clcth. 

Gallipot Tarnish. 

Take of gallipot, or white incense, 12 oz. white 
glass, pounded, 5 oz. Venice turpentine, 2 oz. es- 
sence of turpentine, 32 oz. Make the varnish af- 
ter the white incense lias been pounded with the 
glass. 

Some authors recommend mastic or sandarac in 
the room ot gallipot ; but the varnish is neither 
more beautiful nor more durable. When the co- 
lour is ground with the preceding varnish, and 
mixed up with the latter, which, if too thick, is 
thinned with a little essence, and which is applied 
immediately, and without any sizing, to boxes and 
other articles, the coatings acquire sufficient 
strength to resist the blows of a raallet. But if 
the varnish be ap]>!ied to a sized colour, it 
must be covered with a varnish of the first or se- 
cond genus. 

Vaiviish, for electrical purposes. 

Dissolve the bfst red sealing-wax in alcohol — 
two or three coats will make a complete covering, 
it may he applied to wood or glass. 

.Mastic gallipot varnish, for giinding colours. 

Take of new gallipot, or white incense, 4 oz. 
mastic, 2 oz. Venice turpentine, 6 oz. pounded 
glass, 4 oz. essence of turpentine, 32 oz. 

When the varnish is made with the precautions 
already indicated, add prepared nut oil or linseed 
oil, two ounces. 

Tlie .matters ground with this varnish dry more 
slowly; they are then mixed up with the following 
varnish, if it be for common painting, or with par- 
ticular varnishes destined foi- colours and for 
grounds. 

Lacquer for brass. 

Take of seed lac, 6 oz. amber or copal, ground 
on porphyry, 2 oz. dragon's hlood, 40 grains, ex- 
tract of red sandal wood, oljtained by water, ,30 
grains, oriental sattron, 36 grains, pounded glass, 
4 oz. very jiure alcohol, 40 oz. 

To apply this varnish to articles or ornaments of 
brass, exjiose them to a gentle heat, and dip them 
into ^'ivruish Two or tliree coatings may be ap- 



plied in this manner, if necessarv. The varnisii is 
durable, and has a beautiful colour. Articles var- 
nished in this maimer, may be cleaned with watei 
and a bit of dry rag. 

Lacquer for pliilosophical instruments. 
This lacquer or varnish is destined to change, or to 
modify the coloiu- of those bodies to whicli it is ap- 
plied. 

I'ake of gum guttse, ^ oz. gum sandarac, gum 
elemi, each 2 oz. dragon's blood, of the best qu.ali- 
ty, 1 oz. seed lac, I oz. terra merita, | oz. orien- 
tal saffron, 2 gr. pounded gli.ss, 3 oz. pure alco- 
I hoi, 20 oz. 

The tincture of satfron and of terra merita is 
first obtained by infusing them in alcohol for twen- 
ty-four hours, or exposing them to the heat of the 
sun in summer. The tincture must be strained 
through a piece of clean linen cloth, and ought to 
be strongly squeezed. Thistincture is poureu over 
the dragon's blood, the gum elemi, the seea lac, 
and the gum guttce, all pounded and mixed with 
the glass. The varnish is then made according to 
the directions before given. 

It may be applied with great advantage to philo- 
sophical instruments: the use of it might be ex 
tended also to various cast or moulded articles with 
which furniture is ornamented. 

If the dragon's blood be of the first quality, it 
may give too high a colour; in this case the dose 
may be lessened at pleasure, as well as that of the 
other colouring matters. 

It is with a similar kind of varnish that the art- 
ists of Geneva give a golden orange colour to the 
small nails eniployed to ornament watch cases; 
but they keep the process very secret. A beautiful 
bright colour migb* be easily communicated to 
this mixture; but they prefer the orange colour 
produced by certain compositions, the preparation 
of which has no relation to that of variiish, and 
which has been successfuUj^ imitated with saline 
mixtures, in which orpiment is a principal ingre- 
dient. The nails are heated before they are im- 
mersed in the varnish, and they are then spread 
out on sheets of dry paper. 

Gold-coloured lacquer for brass watch cases, watch 
keys, &c. 

Take of seed lac, 6 oz. amher, gum guttse, each 
2 oz. extract of red sandal wood in water, 24 grains, 
dragon's blood, 60 grains, oriental saffron, 3S 
grains, pounded glass, 4 oz. pure alcohol, 36 oz. 

Grind the amber, the seed lac, gum guttie, and 
dragon's blood on a piece of poi"j)hyry; then 
mix them with the pounded glass, and add the al- 
cohol, after forming with it an infusion of the saf- 
fron and an extract if the sandal wood. The var- 
nish must then be completed as before. The me- 
tal articles destined to be covered by this varnish 
are heated, and those which will admit of it, are 
iramerseil in packets. The tint of the varnish may 
be varied by modifying the doses of the colouring 
substances. 

Lacquev of a less drying quality. 

Take of seed lac, 4 oz. sandarac, or mastic, 4 
oz. dragon's blood, A oz. terra merita, gumgutts, 
each 30 grains, pounded glass, 5 oz. clear turpen- 
tine, 2 oz. eosence of turpentine, 32 oz. 

Extract by infusion the tincture of the colouring 
substances, and then add the resinous bodies ac- 
cording to tlie directions for compound mastic var- 
nish. 

Lacquer or varnishes of this kind are called 
changing, because, when applied to metals, such a 
copper, brass, or hammered tin, or to ^^ooden 
boxes and other furniture, they communicate to 
them a more agreeable colour. Besides, by their 
contact with tlie common metals, tlie)' ac(iuire a 
lusti'e which approaches that of the piecious in«- 



28 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



tals, a«d to which, in consequence of peculiar in- 
trinsic qualities or certain laws of convention, a 
much greater value is attached. It is by means nt 
these changing varnishes, that artists are able to 
communicate to their leaves of silver and copper, 
those shining colours observed in foils. This pro- 
duct of industry becomes a source of prosperity to 
the manufacturers of buttons and works formed 
■with foil^ which in the hands of the jeweller con- 
tributes with so much success to produce that I'e- 
fiection of the rays of light which doubles the lus- 
tre and sparkling quality of precious stones. 

It is to varnish of this kind that we are indebted 
for the manufactory of gilt leather, which, taking 
refuge in England, has given i)lace to that of papier 
machee, which is employed for the decoration of 
palaces, theatres, &c. 

In the last place, it is by the effect of a foreign 
lint, obtained from the cslouring part of saffron, 
that the scales of silver disseminated in confection 
trhyacinthe reflect a beautiful gold colour. 

The colours transmitted by different colouring 
substances, require tones suited to the objects for 
which they are destined. The artist has it in his 
own power to vary them at pleasure, by the ad- 
tlition of annatto to the mixtui-e of dragon's blood, 
saffron, &c. or some changes in the doses of the 
mode intended to be made in colours. It is there- 
fore impossible to give limited forraulx. 
To make lacquers of various tints. 

There is one simple metliod by which artists 
may be enabled to obtain all the different tints they 
require. Infuse separately 4 ounces of gum gutta; 
in 32 ounces of essence of turpentine, and 4 ounces 
of dragon's blood, and an ounce of annatto also in 
separate doses of essence. Tliese infusions maj' be 
easily made in the sun. After fifteen days' expo- 
sure pour a certain quantity of these liquors into a 
llask, and by varying the doses different shades of 
colour will be obtained. 

These infusions may be employed also for chang- 
ing alcoholic varnishes; but in this case the use of 
saffron, as well as that of red sandal wood, which 
does not succeed with essence, will soon give the 
tone necessary for imitati-ig witU other tinctures 
the colour of gold. 

Mordant varnish for g-ildiuff. 

Take of mastic, I ounce, gum saudarac, 1 do. gum 
guttse, \ do. turpentine, ^ do. essence of turpentine, 
6 do. 

Some artists who make use of mordants, substi- 
tute for the turpentine an ounce of the essence of 
avender, which renders this composition still less 
drying. 

In general, the composition of mordants admits 
of modifications, according to the kind of work for 
which they are destined. The application of them, 
however, is confined chiefly to gold. When it is 
required to fill up a design with gold leaf on any 
ground whatev^i', the composition, which is to serve 
as the means of union between the metal and the 
ground, ought to be neither too thick nor too fluid; 
because both these circumstances are equally in- 
jurious to delicacy in the strokes; it will be re- 
quisite also that the composition should not dry 
till the artist has completed his design. 
Other mordants. 

Some prepare their mordants with Jew's pitch 
and drying oil diluted with essence of turpentine. 
They employ it for gilding pale gold, or for bronz- 
e's- ^ . 

Other artists imitate the Chinese, and mix with 

their mordants colours proper for assisting the tone 
which they are desirous of giving to the gold, such 
as yellow, red, &c. 

Otliers employ merely fat varnish, to which they 
add a little red oxideof lead (minium). 



Others make use of thick glue, in which they 
dissolve a little honey. This is what they call ba(- 
ture. When they are desirous of heightening the 
colour of the gold, they employ this glue, to which 
the gold leaf adheres exceedingly well. 

Another. — The qualities of the following are fit 
for every kind of application, and pai-ticularly to 
metals. Expose boiled oil to a strong heat in a 
p;in: when a black smoke is disengaged from it, 
set it on fire, and extinguish it a few moments aftei 
by putting on the cover of the pan. Then pour the 
matter still warm into a heateil bottle, and add to 
it a little essence of turpentine. This mordant 
dries very speedily; it has body and adheres to, 
and strongly retains, gold leaf, when applied to 
wood, metals, and other substances. 
To prepare a composition for making colourea . 

dratvings and prints resemble paiiitings in oil. 

Take of Canada balsam, 1 ounce, sj>irit of tur- 
pentine, '2 ounces: mix them togetiier. Before 
tills composition is applied, the drawing or print 
should be sized with a solution of isinglass in wa- 
ter, and when dry, apply the varnish with a camel 
hair Lmish. 

A varnish to colour baskets. 

Take either i-ed, black, or white sealing wax, 
which ever colour you wish to make: to every 2 
ounces of sealing wax, add 1 ounce of spirit of 
wine: pound the wax line, then sift it through a 
fine lawn sieve, till j'ou have made it extremely 
tine; put it into a large phial with the spirit ot 
wine, shake it, let it stand near the iire 48 hours, 
shaking it often; tlien, with a little, brush the 
baskets ail over with it; let them dry, and do them 
over a second time. 

To prepare anti-attrition. 

According to the specifua'.ion of llie ])atent, this 
mixture consists of one hiiii<li-ed WL'i.;;ht of plum- 
bago, to four hundred of hog's lard, or other 
grease; the two to be well incorpoi-ated. The 
application is to prevent the eiiects of fiittion in 
all descriptions of engines or machii'os; and a suf- 
ficient quantity must be rubbed over the surface of 
the axle, spindle, or other part where the beai-- 
ing is. 

Vaimish for pales and coarse ivood -work. 

Take any quantity of tar, and grind it with as 
mucii Spanish brown as it will bear, without ren- 
dering it too thick to be used as apaint or varnish, 
and then spread it on the pales, or other wood, as 
soon as convenient, for it quickly hardens by 
keeping. 

This mixture must be laid on the wood to be 
varnished by a large brush, or house painter's 
tool; and the work should then be kept as free 
from dust and insects as possible, till the varnish 
be thorougiily dry. It will, if laid on smooth 
wood, have a very good gloss, and is an excellent 
preservative of it against moisture; on which ac- 
count, as well as its being cheaper, it is far pre- 
feralile to painting, not only for pales, but for wea- 
ther boarding, and all other kinds of woodwork 
for grosser purposes. Where the glossy brown 
colour is not liked, the work may be made of a 
greyish brown, by mixing a small proportion ot 
white lead, or whiting and ivory black, with the 
Spanish brown. 

A black varnish for old straiv or chip hats. 

Take of best black sealing wax, ^ an ounce, 
rectified spirit of wine, 2 ounces; powder the seal- 
ing wax, and put it with the spirit of wine, into a 
four ounce phial; digest them in a sand heat, ot 
near a fire, till the wax is dissolved; lay it oc 
warm with a fine soft hair-brush, l)efore a fire or 
in the sun. It gives a good stiffness to old straw 
hats, and a beautiful gloss, equal to new, suid re- 
sists wet. 



VARNISHES. 



29 



To paint sail doth, &c. so as to be pliant, durable, 
and impfi vioiis to water. 

This process, which is extracted from the 
Transactions of the Societij of Arts, is now uni- 
versally practiocii iu the public dock-yards. 

The paint usually Inid upon cr.nvas hardens to 
such a degree as to crack, ar.l eventually to break 
the canvas, which renders it unserviceable in a 
short time: but the canvas painted in the new 
manner is so superior, that all canvas used in the 
navy is thus prepared; and a saving of a guinea is 
rnade in every one hundred square yards of can- 
vas so painted. 

The old mode of painting canvas was to wet 
the canvas, and prime it with Spanish brown; 
then to give it a second coat of a chocolate colour, 
made by miring Spa..ish brown and black paint; 
and, lastly, to finish it with black. 

The new method is to grind 96 lbs. of English 
ochre with boiled oil, ard to add 16 lbs. of black 
paint, which mixture forms an indifferent black. 
A pound of yellow soap, dissolved in 6 pints of wa- 
ter over the rire, is mixed, while hot, ^^ith the 
paint. This composition is then laid upon the can- 
vas (without being wetted, as in the usual way,) 
as stiff 8 T can conveniently be done with the brush, 
so as to form a smooth surface; the next day, or 
still better, on flie second day, a second coat of 
ochre and black (without any, or but a very small 
portion of soap) is laid on, and allowing this coat 
an intermeuiate day for drying, the canvas is then 
finished with black paint as usual. Three days 
being then allowed for it to dry and harden, it 
does not stick together when taken down, and 
folded in cloths containing 60 or 70 yards each; 
and canvas finished entirely with the composition, 
leaving it '^o dry one day between each coat, will 
not stick together, if laid in quantities. 

It has been ascertained from actual trials, that 
the solution of yellow soap is a preservative to red, 
yellow, and black paints, -when ground in oil and 
put into casks, as they acquire no improper hard- 
ness, and dry in a remarkable manner when laid 
on with the brush, without the use of the usual 
drying articles. 

It is surprising that the adoption of soap, which 
is so well known to be miscible with oily substan- 
ces, or at least, the alkali of which it is composed, 
has not already been brought into use in the com- 
position of oil colours. ■ 

Coloured composition for rendering Unen and cloth 
impenetrable to -water. 

Begin by washing the stuff with hot water; then 
drj- and rub it between the hands until such time 
as'it becomes perfectly supple; afterwards spread 
it out by drawing it into a frame, and give it, with 
the aid of a brush, a first coat composed of a mix- 
ture of 8 quarts of boiling linseed oil, 15 grammes 
of calcined amber and acetate of lead, (of each 7^ 
qrammes) to which add 90 grammes of lamp- 
black. For the second coat use the same ingre- 
dients as above, except the calx of lead. This coat 
will give a few hours, according to the season; af- 
terwards take a dry plaisterer's brush, and rulj the 
stuff strongly with it, when the hair, by this opera- 
lion, will become very smooth. The third and 
last coat will give a perfect and durable jet black. 

Or rather, take 12 quarts of boiling linseed oil, 
2i0 grammes of amber, 15 grammes of acetate of 
l.ead, 7^ sulphate of zinc, 15 Prussian blue, and 
7^ verdigris; mix them very fine with a little oil, 
and adu 120 grammes of lamp-black. These coats 
arc used at discretion, as is done with painting.— 
^tnnales del'Indiis, 1S21. 
To ihickefn Unen cloth fur screens and bed testers. 

Grind whiting witli zinc, and to prevent its 
ci-acking, add a IXtle honey to it; then lake a soft 



brush, and lay it upon the cloth, and so do two or 
three times, suffering it the meanwhile to dry be- 
tween layings on, and for the last laying, smooth 
it over with Spanish white, ground witli linseed 
oil, the oil being first heated, and mixed with a 
small quantity of the litharge of gold, tlie better td 
endure the weather, and so it will be lasting. 
Common ivax, or vainished cloth. 

The manufacture of this kind of cloth is very 
simple. The cloth and linseed oil are the prin?>- 
pal articles required for the cstabiishraent. Com- 
mon canvas, of an open and coarse texture, is ex- 
tended on large frames, placed under sheds, the 
sides of which are open, so as to afford a free pas- 
sage to the externnl air. The manner in which 
the cloth is fastened to these frames is as follows 
it is fixed to each siJe of the frame by hooK.' 
which catch the edge of the cloth, and by pieces 
of strong packthread passing through holes at the 
other exu-eraity of the liooks, which are tied round 
moveable pegs placed in the lower edge of the 
frame. The mechanism by which the strings of a 
violin are stretched orunstretched, will give soma 
idea of the arrangement of the pegs employed foi 
extending the cloth in this apparatus, liy these 
means the cloth can l)e easily stretched cr relaxed, 
when the oily varnish has exercised an action on 
its texture in tae course of the operation. Tht 
whole being tlius arranged, a liquid paste made 
with drying oil, which may be varied at pleasure, 
is applied to the cloth. 

To make liquid paste iviih drying oil. 

Mix Spanish white or tobacco-pipe clay, or any 
otiier argillaceous matter, with water, and leave i( 
at rest some hours, which will be sufficient to sepa- 
rate the argillaceous parts, and to produce a sedi- 
ment. Stir the sediment with a broom, to com- 
plete the division of the earth ; and after it has 
rested some seconds, decant the turbid water into 
an earthen or wooden vessel. By this process the 
earth will be separated from the sand and othe* 
foreign bodies, which are precipitated, and which 
must be thrown away. If the earth has been 
washed by the same procesf, on alar;;; scale, it is 
divided by kneading it. The supernatant water it 
tin-own aside, and the sediment placed in sieves, 
on pieces of cloth, where it is suffered to drain: it 
is then mixed up with oil rendered drying by a 
large d&se of litharge, that is about a fourth of tha 
weight of the oil. The consistence of tliin paste 
being given to the mixture, it is spread over the 
cloth by means of an iron spatula, the length ol 
which is equid to that of the breadth of the clothe 
This spatula performs the part of a knife, and 
pushes forward the excess of matter above the 
quantity sufficient to cover the cloth. When the 
first stratum is dry, a second is applied. The ine- 
qualities produced by the coarseness of the cloth, 
or by an unequal extension of the paste, are 
smoothed down with pumice-stone. The pumice- 
stone is reduced to powder, and rubbed over the 
cloth with a piece of soft serge or cork dipped in 
water. The cloth must then be well washed in 
■water to clean it; and after it is dried, a varnish ot 
gum lac dissolved 'r.i linseed oil boiled with tur- 
pentine, is to be applied to it. 

This preparation produces yellowish varnished 
cloth. When wanted black, mix lamp-black with 
the Spanish white, or tobacco-pipe clay, which 
forms the basis of the liquid paste. Various 
shades of grey may be obtained, according to the 
quantity ot lamp-black which is added. Umber, 
Cologne earth, and different ochry argillaceoua 
earths, may be used to vary the tints, without 
causing any addition to the expense. 

To prepare fine printed varnished cloths. 

The process thus described for manufacturing 

C 8 



30 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



common varnished and polished cloths, may serve 
o give some idea of that employed for making 
fine cloths of the same kind, decorated with a co- 
lom-ed impression. The manufactories of Ger- 
many have varnished cloths embellished with 
large and small subjects, figures, and landscapes, 
well executed, and which are destined for cover- 
ing furniture. subjected to daily use. 

This process, which is only an improvement of 
tne former, requires a finer paste, and cloth of a 
more delicate texture. The stratum of paste is 
applied in the same manner, and when dry and 
polished, the cloth is taken from the frame and re- 
moved to the painter's table, where the art of the 
cblourist and designer is displayed under a thou- 
sand forms; and, as in that of printed cottons, ex- 
hibits a i-ichness of tints, a:,d a distribution of sub- 
'ects, which discover taste, and insure a ready sale 
for the articles manufactured. 

The processes, however, employed in these two 
arts to extract the colouring parts are not the same. 
In the art of cotton-printing the colours are ex- 
tracted by tlie bath, as in that of dyeing. Id print- 
ing varnished cloths, the colouring parts are the 
result of the union of drying oil mixed with var- 
nish; and the different colours employed in oil 
painting or painting in varnish. 

The varnish applied to common oil cloth is com- 
posed of gum lac and drying linseed oil; but that 
destined for printed varnislied clotlis requires 
some choice, both in regard to the oil and the re- 
sinous matter which gives it consistence. Pre- 
pared oil of pinks and copal form a varnish very 
little coloui-ed, pliable, and solid. 

To prepare vaiviished silh. 

Varnished silk, for making umbrellas, capots, 
coverings for hats, &c. is prepared in the same 
manner as the varnislied and polished cloths al- 
ready described, but with some variation in tiie 
liquid paste or varnish. 

If the surface of the silk be pretty large, it is 
made fast to a wooden frame furnished with hooks 
end moveable pegs, such as that used in the manu- 
facture of common varnished cloths. A soft paste, 
composed of linseed oil boiled with a fourth part 
of litharge; tobacco pipe clay, dried and sifted 
through a silk-sieve, 16 parts; litharge ground on 
porphyry with water, dried and sifted in tlie same 
manner, 3 parts; and lamp-black, 1 pait. This 
paste is then spread in a uniform manner over 
the surface of the silk, by^nieans of a long knife, 
having a handle at each 'extremity. In summer, 
•■wenty-four hours are sufficient for its desiccation. 
When dry, the knots produced by the inequalities 
of the silk are smoothed with pumice-stone. This 
operation is performed with water, and when 
finished, the surface of the silk is washed. It is 
then suffered to diy, and flat copal varnish is ap- 
plied. 

If it be intended to polish this varnish, ap» tly a 
second stratum; after which polish it with « ball 
of cloth and very fine tripoli. The varnishe I silk 
thus made, is very black, exceedingly pliable, and 
has a fine polish. It may be rumpled a th'-usand 
ways without retaining any fold, or even t£>e mark 
of one. It is light, and thereby proper for cover- 
ings to hats, and fOr making cloaks and caps so 
useful to travellers in wet weather. 

Another method. — A kind of varnishef" silk, 
which has only a yellowish colour, and whi^-xi suf- 
fers the texture of the stuff to appear, is prepared 
with a mixture of 3 parts boiled oil of pinks, andl 
part of fat copal varnish, which is extended with a 
6oarse bx'ush or knife. Two strata are sufficient 
when oil lias been freed from its greasy particles 
over a slow fire, or when boiled with a fourth part 
of its weight of I'tharge, 



The inequalities are removed by pumice-stone 
and water; after which the copal varnish is applied. 
This simple operation gives to white silk a yellow 
colour, which arises from the boiled oil and the 
varnish. 

This varnished silk possesses all tliose qualities 
ascribed to certain preparations of silk which are 
recommended to be worn as jackets by persons 
subject to rheumatism. 

To prepare -water proof boots. 

Boots and shoes may be rendered impervious to 
water by the folloxving composition. — Take 3 oz. 
of spermaceti, and melt it in a pipkin, or other 
earthen vessel, over a slow fire : add tlieretc six 
drachms of Indian nibber, cut into slices, and these 
will presently dissolve, 'rhen add, ieriatim, of tal- 
low, 8 ounces; hog's lard, 2 ounces; amber var . 
nish, 4 ounces. Alix, and it will be fit for use im 
mediately. The boots or other material to be 
treated, are to receive two or three coats, with a 
common blacking brush, and a fine polish is the 
result. 

To make leather and other articles water procf.- 
Patent. 

Dissolve ten pounds of Indian rubber, cut into 
bits, the smaller the better, in twenty gallons ot 
pure spirits of turpentine, by putting them to- 
gether into a tin vessel that will hold forty gallons. 
This vessel is to be immersed in cold water, con- 
tained in a boiler, to which fire is to be applied so 
as to make the -water boil, occasionally supplying 
what is lost by evaporation. Here it is to remain 
until a perfect solution of the caoutchouc in the 
turpentine is obtained. One hundred and fifty 
pounds oi pure bees wax are now to be dissolved in 
one hundred gallons of pure spirits of turpentine, 
to which add twenty pounds of Burgundy pitch 
and ten pounds of gum frankincense. The solu- 
tion to be obtained as directed for the caoutchoui;. 
Mix the two solutions, and, when cold, add ten gal- 
lons of copal varnish, and put the whole into a re- 
servoir, diluting it with one hundred gallons of 
lime water, five gallons at a time, and stirring it 
well up for six or eight hours in succession, wbicli 
stirring must be repeated when any of the compo- 
sition is taken out. If it is wanted black, mix 20 
pounds of lamp-black with 20 gallons ot turpen- 
tine, (which 20 gallons should be deducted from 
the quantity previously employed) and add it pre- 
viously to putting in the lime water. 

To use it, lay it on the leather with a painter's 
brush, and rub it in. 

To make black japan. 

Take of boiled oil, 1 gallon, umber, 8 oz. as- 
phaltum, 3 oz. oil of turpentine, as much as will 
reduce it to the thinness required. 
To presei^e tiles. 

After the adoption of glazing, varnishing, &c. 
to increase the hardness of tiles, tarring has been 
found completely to stop their pores, and to ren- 
der them impervious to water. The process is 
practicable, and not expensive. Lime and tar, 
whale oil or dregs of oil, are equally adapted to 
the purpose, and still cheaper. Tarring is parti- 
cularly efficacious when tiles are cracked by the 
frost. It is calculated, that the expense of coal tar 
for a roof of a middling extent, and supposing such 
a roof to require one hundred weight, would not 
exceed two guineas. 

To bronze plaster Jigiires. . 

For the ground, after it has been sized and rub- 
bed down, take Prussian blue, verditer, and spruce 
ochre. Grind them separately in water, turpen- 
tine, or oil, according to the work, and mix them 
in such proportions a^ will produce the colour de- 
sired. Then grind Dutch metal in a part of this 
composition-, laying it with judgment on the pro- 



VARNISHES. 



31 



tninent parts of the figiire, whicn pioduces a grand 
effect. 

To polish varnished fmrdtw^e. 
' Take two ounces of tripoli powdered, put it in 
an earthen pot, with water to cover it; then take a 
piece of white flannel, lay it over a piece of cork 
or i-uhber, and proceed to polish the varnish, al- 
ways welling it Mitli the tripoli and v/ater. It will 
be known when the process is finished by wiping 
a part of the work wit!i a sponge, and observing 
whether there is a fuir even gloss. Wlien this is 
the case, take a bit of luuttoii suet and line flour, 
and clean the work. 

To polish -loood. 

Take a piece of pumice stone, and water, and 
pass regularly over the work until the rising of 
the grain is cut down; then take powdered tripoli 
and boiled linseed oil, and polish the work to a 
bright surface. 

To polish brass ornnme^iis inlaid in ivood. 

File llie brass very clean with a smooth file; 
then take sorae tripoli powdered very fine, and 
mi.x it with the linseed oil. Dip in this a rubber 
cf hat, with which polish the woi'k until the de- 
sired effect is obtained. 

If the work is ebony, or black rose wood, take 
some elder coal powdered very fine, and apply it 
dry after you have done with the ti-ipoli, and it 
will produce a superior polish. 

The French mode of ornamenting with brass 
differs widely from ours; theirs being chiefly wa- 
ter-gilt {ormoulu\ excepting the flutes cf columns, 
&c. which are polished very high with rotten stone, 
«nd finished with elder coal. 

To brown gun barrels. 

After the barrel is finished rub it over with aqua 
fortis, or spirit of salt, diluted with water. Then 
lay it by for a week, till a complete coat of oil is 
formed. A little oil is then to be applied, and 
after rubbing the surface dry, polish it with a hard 
brush and a little bees' wax. 

To make blacking. 

Take of ivory black and treacle, each 12 oz. 
spermaceti oil, 4 oz. white wine vinegar, 4 pints. 

Mix. This blacking, recommended by Mr 
Gray, lecturer on the materia medica, is superior 
in giving leather a finer polish than any of those 
that are advertised, as tliey all contain sulphuric 
acid, (oil of vitriol,) which is necessary to give it 
the polisliing quality, but it renders leather rotten, 
and very liable to crack. . 

To make liquid blacking. 

Take of vinegar. No. 18, (the common,) 1 quart, 
ivory-black, and treacle, each 6 oz. vitriolic acid, 
and spermaceti, (or common oil,) each 1^ oz. 

Mix the acid and oil first, afterwards add the 
other ingredients; if, when it is used, it does not 
dry (juick enough on the leather, add a little moi'e 
of the vitriol, aiittle at a time, till it dries quick 
enough. \Vhen there is too much of the vitriolic 
acid, which is various in its strength, the mixture 
will give it a brown colour. 

N.B. Vinegar is sold by numbers, viz. No. 18 
aha weakest), 1.9, 20, 21, '2.-2. The celebrated 
oiacking is made with No. 18. When this mixture 
is properly finished, the ivory-black will be about 
one-third the contents of the bottle. 
To make Jiailey^s composition for blacking cakes. 

Take gum tragacanth, one ounce; neat's foot oil, 
superfine ivor^-black, deep blue, prepared from 
iron and copper, each two ounces; brown sugar 
candv, liver water, each four ounces. Having mix- 
ed well these ingredients, evaporate the wa.ler, 
and form your cakes. 

To make blacking balls for shoes. 

Take mutton suet, 4 ouii.;es; bees' wax, one 
ounce; sweet oil, one ounce; sugar candy and gum- 



arabic, one drachm each, in fine powder: melt 
these well together over a gentle fire, and add 
thereto about a spoonful of turpentine, and 1am])- 
black sufticient to give it a good black colour. 
While hot enough to run, make it into a ball, by 
pouring the li^juor into a tin mould; or let it stand 
till almost cold: or it may be moulded by tlie hand. 
To make limnd japan blacking. 

Take 3 ounces of ivory-black, '2 oz. of coarse 
sugar, one ounce of sulphuric acid, one ounce d'i 
muriatic, acid, one talile-spooiiful of sw"et oil and 
lemon acid, and one pint of vinegar. First mix the 
ivor>''-black .ind sweet oil together, then vhe lemon 
and sugar, with a little vinegar, to qualify tiie black 
ing; tlien add the sulphuric and muriatic acids, and 
mix them all well together. 

Observation. The sugar, oil, and vinegar pre- 
vent the acids from injuring the leather, and add 
to the lustre of the blacking. 

.,1 cheap method. — Ivory-black, 2 oimces; brown 
sugar, one ounce and a half; and sweet oil, h;'.lf a 
table-spoonful. Mix them well, and tlien gradually 
add half a pint of small beer. 

^Inothcr method. — A quarter of a pound of ivory- 
black, a quarter of a pound of moist sugar, a table- 
S])oonful of flour, a piece of tallow about the size 
of a walnut, and a small piece of gum-arabic. 
Make a paste of the flour, and wliilst hot, put in 
the tallow, then the sugar, and afterwards mix the 
whole well together in a quart of water. 
To re7uler leatlier luater proof. 

This is doue by rubbing or brushing into the 
leather a mixture of drying oils, and any of the ox- 
ides or cal.xes of lead, copper, or iron; or by sub 
stituting any of the gummy resins, in the room of 
the metallic oxides. — Repertory, vol. x. 

To make varnish for colo7ired dra^vings. 

Take of Canada balsam one ounce, sjyirit of twr- 
pentine, two ounces. Mix them together. Befdi-* 
this composition is applied, the draw;' '^ or pri.'st 
should be sized with a solution of isingkss in wu- 
ter; and when dry, apply the varnish with a camel's- 
hair brush. 

To make furniture paste. 

Scrape tour ounces of bees' wax into a basin, and 
add as much oil of turpentine as will moisten it 
through. Now powder a quarter of an ounce of 
resin, and add as much Indian i-ed as will bring it 
to a deep mahogany colour. When the composi- 
tion is properly stirred up, it will prove an excel- 
lent ceiuent or paste for blemishes in mahogany, 
and other furniture. 

Another method. — Scrape four ounces of bees' 
wax as before. To a pint of oil of turpentine, in a 
glazed pipkin, add an ounce of alkanet-root. Co- 
ver it close, and put it over a slow fire, attending 
it carefully that it may not boil over, or catch fire. 
^Vhen the liquid is of a deep red, add as much of 
it to the wax as will moisten it through, also a 
quarter of an ounce of powdered resin. Cover the 
whole close, and let it stand six hours, when it will 
be fit for use. 

To make furmtiire oil. 

Take linseed-oil, put it into a glazed pipkin 
with as much alkanet-root as it will cover. Let it 
boil gently, and it will become of a strong red co- 
lour: when cool it will be fit for use. 
To make luash for preserving drawings made -with 
a black lead pencil. 

A thin wash of isinglass will fix either black 
lead, or hard black chalk, so as to prevent their 
rubbing out; or the sanie eftcct may be produced 
by tlie simple application of skimmed milk, as has 
been proved by frequent trials. 'I'he best way ot 
using the latter is to lay the drawing flat upon the 
surface of the milk; and then taking it U]) by one 
corner till it drains and dries. The milk must be 



32 



TNIVERSAl. RECEIPT BOOK. 



perfectly free from cream, or ii ^ill greiise tlie pa- 
per. 

To make vamish for ivnod, rvk ihreslsts the action 
ofhoidnff water. 

Take a pound and a half of linseed-oil, and boil 
It in a red copper vessel, not t'nned. holding sus- 
pended over it, in a small linen ba^,, five ounces of 
litharge, and three ounces of pulverized minium; 
taking care that the bag does not touch the bottom 
of the vessel. Continue the ebullition until the oil 
acquires a deep brown colour; then take away the 
bag, and substitute another in its place, containing 
a clove of garlic; continue the ebullition, .nnd re- 
new the clove of garlic seven or eight times, or 
rather put them all in at once. 

Then throw into the vessel a pound of yellow 
amber, after Iiaving melted it in the following man- 
ner: — Add to the pound of amber, well pulveriz- 
ed, two ounces of linseed-oil, and plrxe the whole 
on a strong fire. When the fusion is complete, 
pour it boiling into the prepared linseed-oil, and 
continue to leave it boiling for two or three minutes, 
stirring the whole up well, It is then left to settle; 
the composition is decanted and preserved, when 
it becomes cold, in well corked bottles. 

After polishing the wood on which this varnish is 
to be applied, you give to the wood the colour re- 
quired; for instance, for walnut wood, a slight 
coat of A mixture of soot witln the essence of tur- 
pentine. When this colour is perfectly dry, give 
it a coat of varnish with a fine sponge, in order to 
spread it very equal; repeat these coais four times, 
taking care always to let the preceding coat be 
dried. — Jlnnales de V Industrie, 1821. 
To restore the blackness of old leather chairs, &c. 

Many families, especially in the country, pos- 
sess chairs, settees, &c. covered witli black leather: 
t nese, impaired by long use, may be restored near- 
ly to their original good colour and gloss by the 
following easy and approved process: — Take two 
yolks of new laid eggs, ami the white of one. Let 
tliese be well beaten up, and then shaken in a glass 
• vessel or jug, to become like thick oil; dissolve in 
about a table-spoonful or less of geneva, an ordi ■ 
nary te.a-lump of lo;if-sugar; make this thick with 
ivory black, well worked up with a bit of stick; 
mix with the egg for use. Let tliis be laid on as 
blacking ordinarily is for slioes; after a verj few 
minutes polish with a soft, very clean brush, till 
completely dry and shining, then let it remain a 
day to harden. 

The same process answers admirably for ladies' 
cordovan, or gentlemen's dress-shoes^ but with the 
following addition for protecting the stockings 
from soil. Let the white or glaire of eggs be shak- 
eVj in a large glass phial until it becomes a perfect 
oil^ brush over the inner edges of the slioes with 
it, and when completely dry, it will grevent all 
soiling from the leather. This requires to be re- 
[jeated. 

To polish and soften ivory. 

This article .s polished with putty and water, by 
me&ns of a rubber, made of hat, which, in a short 
time, produces a fine gloss. The following direc- 
tions are given to soften ivoiy. Let it stand in a 
warm place 48 hours, and you will be able to bend 
the ivory in any form. 

To vamish drawings and card -work. 

Boil some clear parchment cuttings in water, in 
a glazed pipkin, till they produce avery clear size. 
Strain it and keep it for use. 

Give the work two coats of the size, passing the 
brush quickly over the work, not to disturb the co- 
lours. 

To make turpentine vamish. 

Mix one gallon of oil of turpentine, and five 
pounds of powdered resin ^ put it in a tin can, on a 



stove, and let it boil for half an hour. When coo! 
it is lit for use, 

To make vaiiilslies for violins, £Jc. 

To a gallon of rectified spirit of wine, add six 
ounces of gum sandarac, three ounces of gum mas~ 
tic, and half a pint of turpentine varnish. Put the 
T/iiole into a tin carj, which keep in a warm place,. 
frequently shaking it, for twelve days, until it ia 
dissolved, 'liieu strain and keep it for use. 
To varrish harps and didcimers. 

Prepare the work with size and red ochre; then 
take ochre, burnt umber, and red lead, weH 
ground, and mix up a dark brown colour in tur- 
pentine varnish, adding so much oil of tuq)entiiie 
that the brush, may just be able to pass over the 
work fair and even. While yet wet, take a muslin 
sieve, and sift as rouch Dutch metal, previously 
powdered, upon it as is requisite to produce the ef- 
fect, after which varnish and polish it. 
To {rreserve steel goods. 

Mr Aikin recommends a thin coating of caout- 
chouc as an excellent preservative of iron and steel 
articles fi'om the action of the air and moisture; its 
unalterability, consistence v, hen heated, adhesion 
to iron and steel, and facility of removal, render it 
an admirable substance for this purpuse. 

The caoutchouc is to be melted in a close vessel, 
that it may not inflame. It will require nearly the 
temperature of fusing lead, and must be stirred to 
prevent burning. 

Mr Parkins, to whom Mr Aikin communicated 
this pi-ocess, has made much use of it in his blocks 
plates, dies, JxC. He mixes some oil of turpen- 
tine v/ith the caoutchouc, which i-enders it easily 
applicable, and leaves tlie substance, when d.ry, as 
a firm varnish, impermeable to moisture. This, 
when required, may easily be removed by a soft 
brash dipped in warm oil of turpentine. 

Tu prepare oil for ivatch-work, &c. 

Oil used for diminishing frictions in delicate 
machinery, should be free from all acids and mu- 
cilage. 

P\it into a matrass or glass flask, a portion of 
any fine oil, with seven or eight times its weight 
ofalcohol, and heat the mixture almost to boiling, 
decant the clear upper strrtum of fluid, and sufter 
it to cool ; a solid portion of fatty iTiatter separates 
which is to be rem jved, and then the alcoholic so- 
lution evaporated In a retort or basin, until redu- 
ced to one-fifth of its bulk. The fluid part of the 
oil will be deposited. It should be colourless and 
tasteless, almost free from smell, withcuc action 
on infusion of litmus, having the consistence of 
white olive oil, ana not easily congealable. — Jour- 
nal of Science, 1822. 

To make papier mache. 

This is a substance made of cuttings of white or 
brown paper, boiled in water, and beaten in a mor- 
tar till they are reduced into a kind of paste, and 
then boiled with a solution of gum arabic, or of 
size, to give tenacity to the paste, which is after- 
wards forir d into different toys, &c. by pressing 
it into oiled mouids. Whi,n dry, it is done over 
with a mixture of size and lamp-black, and after- 
wards variiisheri. The black varnish for these toys, 
according to Di: Lewis, is prepared as follows : 
Some colo]ihcny, ©r turpentine, boiled downtillit 
bucomes biack and friable, is melted in a glazed 
earthen vessel, and thrice as ir.uch amber in fine 
])0wder sprinkled in by degrees, with the addition 
of a little spirit or oil of turpentine now and then; 
wheT tlie amber is meUed, sprinkle in tlie same 
qninllty of sarcocoUa, i-ontinuing to stir them, and 
tc • I'i more spirit of tui'pentine, till the whole be- 
comes fluid ; then strain out the clear through a 
coarse hair bag, pressing it gently between hot 
boards. This vai-nish, mixed with ivory-black ia 



VARKISHES. 



35 



fine powder, is applied, in a hot room, on the dri- 
ed paper paste; -wliich is then set in a gently heat- 
ed oven, next duy in a hotter oven, and the third 
day in a very hot one, and let stand each time till 
the oven grows cold. The paste thus varnished is 
hard, diiiable, glossy, and bears liquors hot or 
cold. 

To varnish glass. 

Pulverize a quantity of gum adragant, and let it 
dissolve for twenty-four hours in the white of eggs 
well heat up ; then rub it gently on the glass with 
a brush. 

To apply copal varnish to the reparation of opake 
enamels. 

The properties manifested by these varnishes, 
and which render them proper for supplying the 
vitreous and transparent poating of enamel, by a 
covering equally brilliant, but more solid, and 
which adlieres to vitreous compositions, and to 
metallic surfaces, admit of their being applied to 
other purposes besides tliose here enumerated. 

By sliglit modifications they may be used also 
for the reparation of opake enamel whicli has been 
fractured. These kinds of enamel admit the use 
of cements coloured throughout, or only superfi- 
cially, b)' copal varnish charged with colouring 
parts. On this account they must be attended with 
less difficulty in the rep?ration than transparent 
enamel, because they tlo not require the same re- 
flection of the light. Composilions of paste, there- 
foi'e, the different grounds of which may always 
harmonize with the colour"* r/ ground of the pieces 
to be repaired, and which may be still strengthen- 
ed b)' the same tint introduced into the solid var- 
nish, with which the articles are glazed, will an- 
swer the views of the artist in a wonderful man- 
ner. 

The base of the cement ought to be pure clay 
without colour, and exceedingly dry. If solidity 
be required, ceruse is the only substance that can 
be substituted in its place. D-ying oil of pinks 
will form an excellent excipient, and the consist- 
ence of the cement ought to be such that it can be 
easily extended by a knife or spatula, possessed of 
a moderate degree of flexibility. Thissort of paste 
soon dries. It has the advantage also of presenting 
to the colours, applied to it with a brush, a idnd 
of ground wliich contributes to their solidity. The 
compound mastic being exceedingly drying, the 
application of it will be proper in cases whefe 
speedy reparation of the damaged articles is re- 
quired. 

In more urgent cases, the paste may be compos- 
ed with ceruse, and the turpentine copal varnishes; 
which dries more speedily than oil of pinks ; and 
the colours may .then be glazed with the ethereal 
«opal varnish. 

The application of the paste will be necessary 
only in cases when the accident, which has hap- 
pened to the enamel, leaves loo great a vacuity to 
be filled up by several strata, of coloured varnish. 
But in all cases, the varnish ought to be well dri- 
ed, that it may acquire its full lustre by polish- 
ing- 

To make -white copal varnish. 

White oxide of kad, ceruse, Spanish white, 
white clay. Such of these substances as are pre- 
ferred ought to be carefully dried. Ceruse aud 
clay obstinately retain a great deal of humidity, 
which would oppose their adhesion to drying oil 
or varnish. The cement then cnuables under the 
fingers, and does not assume a body. 

Another. — On 16 ounces ot melted copal, pour 4, 
6, or 8 ounces of linseed oil boiled, and quite free 
from giease. When well mixed by repeated stir- 
rings, nnd after they are pretty cool, pour in 16 
©uncfcs of the essence of Venice tiu-pentiue, 
£< 



Pass the varnish through a cloth. Amber Tarnish 
is made the same way. 

To make black copal varnish. 
Lamp-black, made of burnt vine twigs, black of 
peach-stones. The lamp-black must be carefully 
washed and afterwards dried. Washing cai'ries on 
a great many of its impurities. 

To make yellow copal varnish. 
Yellow oxide of lead of Naples and Montpellier, 
both reduced to impalpable powder. These yel- 
lows are hurt by the contact of iron and steel ; in 
mixing them up, therefore, a horn spatula with a 
glass mortar and pestle must be employed. 

Gum guttx, yellow ochre, or Dutch pink, ac- 
cording to the nature and tone of the colour to be 
imitated. 

To make blue copal varnish. 
Indigo, prussiate of iron, (Prussian blue) blue 
verditer, and ultra marine. All these substances 
must be very much divided. 

To make green copal varnish. 
Verdigris, crystallized verdigris, compound 
green, (a mixture of yellow and blue). The first 
two require a mixture of white in proper propor- 
tions, from a fourth to two-thirds, according to the 
tint intended to be given. The white used for this 
purpose is ceruse, or the white oxide of lead, or 
Spanish white, which is less solid, or white of 
Moudon. 

To make red copal varnish. 
Red sulphuretted oxide of mercury (cinnabar veiy 
milion). Red oxide of lead Trninium), dii&reat 
red -oclires, or Prussian reds. Sec. 

To make purple copal varnish. 
Cochineal, carmine, and carminated lakes, with 
ceruse and boiled oil. 

Brick red. 
Dragon's blood. 

Chamois colour. 
Dragon's blood with a paste composed of flowers 
of zinc, or, what is still better, alittle red vermiiioK, 
Violet. 
Red sulphuretted ox' 'la of mercury, mixed with 
lamp-black, washed very dry, or with the black of 
burnt vine twigs; and to render it mellower, a pro- 
per mixture of red, blue, and white. 
Pearl grey. 
White and black; white and blue; for example, 
ceruse and lamp-black; ceruse and indigo. 
Flaxen grey. 
Ceruse, which forms the ground of the paste, 
mixed with a small quantity of Cologne earth, s.s 
much English red, or carminated lake, which is 
not so durable, and a particle of prussiate of iron. 
( b'russian blue). 

To dissolve elastic gum, 
M. Grossart, by an ingenious method, succeed- 
ed in forming India rubber into elastic tubes. Cut 
a bottle of the gum circularly, in a spiral slip of a 
few lines in breadth; then plunge the whole of the 
slip into vitriolic ether, till it becomes softenedj 
half an hour is generally sufficient for this purpose. 
The slip is then taken out of the liquid, and one 
of the extremities applied to the end of a mould, 
first rolling it on itseif, and pressing it, then mount- 
ing spirally along tho cylinder, taking care to lay 
over and compress with the hand every edge, one 
against the other, so that *Jiere may not be any va- 
cant space, and that all t' k edges may join exactly; 
the whole is then to be iound hard with a tape of 
an inch in width, tak' zig care to turn it the same 
way with the slip of ( Jioutchouc. Over the tape, 
packthread is to be r^)plied, in such a manner, that 
by every turn of the thread joining another, an 
equal pressure is given to every part. It is then left 
to dry, and the tube is made. ' In removing the 
bandage great care must be taken, tb9t none of (he 



34 



UNIVERSAL KECEll'T BOOK. 



outward surface, which may have lodged within 
the interstices of the tape, (of which the caout- 
chouc takes the exact impression), may be pulled 
asunder. If it is found difficult to withdraw the 
iBouldj it may be plunged into hot water. If the 
mould were previously smoked or rubbed with 
chalk, it might be removed with less difficulty. 
Polished metallic cylinders are the most eligible 
moulds for this purpose. As solvents, oils of tur- 
pentine and lavender may be employed, but both 
are much slower of evaporating the ether, and the 
oil of turpentine, pai'ticularly, appears to have a 
kind of stickiness. Nevertheless, there is a solvent 
which has not that inconvenience, is cheaper, and 
may easily be procured by every one, viz. -water. 
Proceed in the same manner as with ether. The 
caoutchouc is sufficiently prepared for use when it 
has been a quarter of an hour in boiling water: by 
this time its edges are sometimes transparent. It 
is to be turned spirally round the mould, and re- 
plunged frequently into the boiling water, during 
the time employed in forming the tube. Wlien the 
whole is bound with packthread, it is to be kept 
some hours in boiling water, after which it is to be 
dried, still keeping on the binding. This method 
may be successfully employed in forming the larger 
sort of tubes, and in any other instruments, but it 
would be impracticable to make the small tubes in 
tills way. 

Oil of lavender, of tm'pentine, and of spikenard, 
dissolve elastic gum, with the assistance of a gen- 
,le heat; but a mixtui-e of volatile oil and alcohol 
forms a better solvent for it than oil alone, and 
the varnish dries sooner. If boiled in a solution 
of alum in water, it is rendered softer than in wa- 
ter alone. Yellow wax, in a state of ebullition, 
may be saturated with it, by putting it, cut in small 
pieces, gradually into it. By this means a pliable 
varnish is formed, which may be applied to cloth 
with a brush, but it still retains a clamminess. 
To make caoxitchouc varnish. 

Take caoutchouc, or elastic resin, boiled linseed 
oil, essence of turpentine, each 16 oz. 

Cut the caoutchouc into thin slips, and put them 
into a matrass placed in a verj- hot sand-bath. 
When the matter is liquefied, add the linseed oil 
in a state of ebullition, and then the essence warm. 
When the varnish has lost a great part of its heat, 
strain it through a piece of linen, and preserve it 
in a wide-mouthed bottle. This varnish dries 
very slowly, a fault which is owing to the peculiar 
nature of the caoutchouc. 

The invention of air balloons led to the idea of 
applying caoutchouc to the composition of varnish. 
It was necessary to have a varnish which should 
unite great pliability and consistence. No varnish 
seemed capable of corresponding tc> these views, 
except that of caoutchouc, but the desiccation of it 
is exceedingly tedious. 

To varnish balloons. 

The compositions for varnishing balloons have 
been variously modified; but, upon the whole, the 
most approved appears to be the bird-lime varnish 
of M. FaujasStFond, prepared after M. Cavallo's 
method as follows : " In order to render linseed 
oil drying, boil it with 2 ounces of sugar of lead, 
and 3 ounces of litharge, for every pint of oil, till 
they are dissolved, which may be in half an hour. 
Then put a pound of bird-lime, and half a pint of 
the drying oil, into an iron or copper vessel, whose 
capacity should equal about a gallon, and let it boil 
very gently over a slow charcoal fire, till the bird- 
lime ceases to crackle, which will be in about half. 
Of three-quarters, of an hour; then pour upon it 
2i pints more of the drying oil, and let it boil 
about an hour longer; stirring it frequently with 
An iron or wooden spatula. As the varoisb, whilst 



boiling, and especially when nearly ready, sweUs 
very much, care should be taken to remove, in 
tltose cases, the pot from the fire, and to replace it 
when the varnish subsides; otherwise it will boil 
over. W hilst the stuff is boiling, the operator 
should occasional!}' examine whether it has boiled 
enough; which may he known by observing 
whether, when rubbed between two knives, which 
are then to be seyjarated from one another, the 
varnish forms threads between them, as it must 
then be removed from the fire. When nearly cool, 
add about an equal quantity of oil of turpentine. 
In using the varnish, the stuff must be stretched, 
and the varnish applied lukewarm. In 24 hours it 
will dry." 

Another. — As the elastic resin, known by the 
name of Indian rubber, has been much extolled for 
a varnish, the following method of making it, as 
practised by M. Blanchard, may not prove unacr 
ceptable. — Dissolve elastic gum, cut small, in five 
times its weight of rectified essential oil of tur- 
pentine, by keeping them some days together: 
then boil 1 ounce of this solution in 8 ounces of 
di-ying linseed oil for a few minutes; strain the 
solution, and use it warm. 

2'o varnish rarefied air balloons. 

With regard to the rarefied air machines, M. 
Cavallo recommends, first, to soak the cloth in a 
solution of sal-ammoniac and common size, using 
one pound of each to eveiy gallon of water; and 
when the cloth is quite dry, to paint it over on the 
inside with some eai'thy colour, and strong size or 
glue. When this paint has dried perfectly, it will 
then be proper to cover it with oily varnish, which 
might dry before it could penetrate quite through 
the cloth. Simple drying linseed oil will answoi 
the purpose as well as anv, provided it be not very 
fluid. 

To make varnish for silks, &c. 

To 1 quart of cold-drawn linseed-oil, poured off 
from the lees (produced on the addition of un- 
slacked lime, on which the oil has stood 8 or 10 
days at the least, in order to communicate a dry- 
ing quality, — or brown umber, burnt and powder— 
e(i, which will have the like effect,) and half an 
ounce of litharge; boil them foihalf'^an hour, then 
add half an ounce of the copal varnish. While the 
ingredients are on the fire, in a copper vessel, put 
in 1 oz. of Chios turpentine, or common resin, and 
a few drops of neatsfoot oil, and stir the whole 
with a knife; when cool, it is ready for use. The 
neatsfoot oil prevents the varnish from being sticky 
or adhesive, and may be put into the linseed oil at 
the same time with the lime, or burnt umber. Re- 
sin or Chios turpentine may be added till the var- 
nish has attained the desired thickness; 

The longer the raw linseed-oil remains on the 
unslacked lime or umber, the sooner will the oil 
dry after it is used; if some months, so much the 
better; such varnish will set, that is to say, not 
run, but keep its place on the silk in four hours; 
the silk may then be turned and varnished on the 
other side. 

To make pliable varnish for umbrellas. 

Take any quantity of caoutchouc, as 10 or 12 
ounces, cut into small bits with a pair of scissors, 
and put a strong iron ladle (such as painters, 
plumbers, or glaziers melt their lead in,) over a 
common pit-coal or other fire; which must be gen- 
tle, glowing, and without smoke. When the ladl'3 
is hot put a single bit into it: if black smoke issues, 
it will presently flame and disappear, or it will 
evaporate Avithout flame: the ladle is then too hot 
When the ladle is less hot, put in a second bit, 
which will produce a white smoke; tnis white 
smoke will continue during the operation, and 
evaporate tb? caoutchouc; therefore no time is *;© 



VARNISHES. 



Sb 



he lost, but little bits are to oe put in, a few at a 
time, till the whole are nieited,- it should be con- 
tinually and gently stirred with an iron or brass 
spoon. The instant the smoke changes from white 
to black, take off the ladle, or tlie whole Avill break 
out into a violent flame, or be spoiled, or lost. 
Care must be taken that no water be added, a few 
drops only of which woidd, on account of its ex- 
pansibility, make it boil over furiously and Avith 
great noise; at this period of the process, 2 pounds 
or I quart of the best drying oil is to be put into 
the melted caoutchouc and stirred till hot, and tiie 
whole jjoured into a glazed vessel through a coarse 
gauze, or wire sieve. When settled and clear, 
which will be in a few minutes, it is fit for use, 
either hot or cold. 

The silk should be always stretched horizontally 
by pins or tenter-hooks on frames: (the greater 
they ai-e in length the belter,) and the varnish 
poured on cold, in hot lueather, and liot, in cold 
zveather. It is perhaps best, always to lay it on 
when cold. The art of laying it on properly, con- 
sists in making no intestine motion in the varnish, 
which woidd create minute bubbles, therefore 
brushes of every kind are iraproi)er, as each bub- 
ble breaks in drying, and forms a small hole, 
through which the air will transpire. 

This varnish is pliant, unadhesive, and mialtera- 
ole by weather. 

Vctrnish used for Indian sJuelds. 

Shields made at Silhet, in Bengal, are noted 
throughout India, for the lustre and durability of 
the black varnish witli which they are coA'ered; 
Silhet shields constitute, therefore, no inconsi- 
derable article of traffic, being in request among 
natives who carry arms, and retain the ancient 
predilection for the scimitar and buckler. Tiie 
varnisli is composed of the expressed juice of the 
marking nut, Seinecarpus jinacurJimn, and that of 
another kindred truit, HoUgarna Jjongifolia. 

Tlie shell of the Semecurpus Anacardium con- 
tains between its integuments numerous cells, 
filled with a black, acrid, i-esinous juice; whicii 
likewise is found, though less abundantly, in the 
wood of the tree. It Is commonly employed as au 
indelible ink, to mark all sorts of cotton cloth. 
The colour is fixed with quick lime. The corti- 
cal part of the fruit of Holigama Longifolia like- 
wise contains between its laminiB numerous cells, 
filled with a black, thick, acrid fluid. The na- 
tives of Malabar exti-act by incision, with whicli 
they varnish targets. 

To prepare the varnish according to the method 
practised in Silhet, tlie nuts of the Seinecarpus 
Ancu^ttrdimn, and the berries of the Holigama 



Jjongifolia, having been steeped for a month in 
clear water, are cut ti-ansversely, and pressed in a 
mill. The expressed juice of each is kept for se- 
veral months, taking off" tlie scum from lime to time. 
Afterwards the liquor is decanted, and two parts 
of tlie one are added to one part of the other, to be 
used as varnish. Other jn-oportions of ingre- 
dients are sometimes employed; but in all, the 
resinous juice of the Seinecarpus predominates. 
The varnish is laid on like paint, and when dry, is 
polished by rubbing it with an agate, or smooth 
pebble. I'his varnish also prevents destruction of 
wood, &c. by the ivhite ant. 

To varnisli like gold silvei^ leaf. 

Fix the leaf on the subject, similar to gchl leaf, 
by the interposition of proper glutinous matters, 
spread the varnish upon the piece with a pencil. 
When the first coat is diy wash tlie piece again and 
again with the varnish till the colour appears suf- 
ficiently deep. What is ciJled gilt leather, and 
many picture frames, have no other than tliis gild- 
ing; washing them with a little rectified spirit of 
wine affords a proof of this; the spirit dissolving tlie 
varnish, and leaving the silver leaf of its own white- 
ness; for plain frames thick tin foil may be used 
instead of silver. The tin leaf fixed on tlie piece 
with glue is to be burnished, then polished with 
emery and a fine linen cloth, and afterwards with 
putty applied in the same manner; being tlien lac- 
quered over with varnish five or six times, it looks 
very nearly like burnished gold. The same var- 
nish, made with a less propoi'tion of colouring ma- 
terials, is applied also on works of brass; both fur 
heightening the colour of the metal to a resem- 
blance with that of gold, and for preserving it from 
being tarnished by the air. 

To recover vandsh. 

Clear off the filth with a ley made of potash, and 
the ashes of the lees of wine; tlien take 48 ounces 
of potash, anu 16 of the above mentioned ashes, 
and put them into six quarts of water, and this com- 
pletes the ley. 

To polish varnish. 

This is effected with pumice stone and tripoli 
earth. The pumice stone must be reduced to an 
impalpable powder, and put upon a piece of serge 
moistened with water: with this rub lightly and 
equally the varnish substance. The tripoli must 
also be reduced to a very fine powder, and put up- 
on a clean woollen cloth, moistened with olive oil, 
with which the polishing is to be x'erformed. The 
varnish is then to bo wiped oft" with soft linen, and 
Mlieu quite dry, eleaiied with starch or Spanish 
white, and rubbed with the palm of the hand. 



OXXi AND WATISH. C0K01IRS. 



HOUSE PAINTING. 

2'o mix the colours for hoicse painting. 
All simple or compound colours, and all the 
shades of colour which natm'e or art can produce, 
and which might be thought proper for the differ- 
ent kinds of painting, Avould form a very extensive 
catalogue, Avere we to take into consideration only 
certain external characters, or the intensity of their 
tint. But art, founded on the experience of several 



centuries, has prescribed bounds to the cons^imp- 
tion of colouring substances, and to the application 
of them to jjarticular purposes. T'o cause a sub- 
stance to be admitted into the class of colouring 
bodies employed by painters, it is not sufficient for 
it to contain a colour; to brightness and splendour 
it must also unite durability in the tint cr coloui 
Avliich it communicates. 

Tomake black paint. 
Usage requires attention in tlie choice of the 



36 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



matters destined for black. The following are their 
properties: 
Black from peach stones is dull. 
Ivory-black is strong and beautiful^ -when it has 
been well attenuated wider the wutler. 

Black from the charcoal of beech wood, ground 
on porphyry, has a bhdsh tone. 

Lamp black maybe rendered mellower by mak- 
ing it with LJack which has been kept an hour in 
a state of redness in a close crucible. It then loses 
the fat matter which accompanies this kind of soot. 

Black furnished by the charcoal of vine-twigs, 
ground on porphyry, is weaker, and of a dirty 
^•ey colour, when coarse and alone, but it becomes 
blacker the more the charcoal has been divided. It 
then forms a black very much sought after, and 
which goes a great way. 

To make paints J rom lamp black. 

The consumption of lamp black is very exten- 
sive m common painting. It serves to modify the 
brightness of the tones of the other colours, or to 
facilitate the composition of secondary colours. 
The oil paint applied to iron grates and railing, 
and the paint applied to paper snuff-boxes, to those 
made of tin plate, and to other articles with dark 
grounds, consume a very large quantity of this 
black. Great solidity may be given to works of 
this kind, by covering them with several coatings 
of the fat turpentine, or golden varnish, which has 
been mixed with lamp black, washed in water, to 
sep.arate the foreign bodies introduced into it by 
the negligence of the workmen who prepare it. 

After the varnish is applied, the articles are 
dried in a stove, by exposing them to a heat some- 
what greater than that employed for ai'ticles of pa- 
per. Naples yellow, which enters into the com- 
position of black varnish, is the basis of the dark 
brown observed on tobacco boxes of plate-iron, 
because this colour changes to brown when dried 
with the varnish. 

To make a superior lamp black. 

Suspend over a lamp a funnel of tin plate, hav- 
ing above it a pipe, to convey from ihe apartment 
the smoke which escapes from the lamp. Large 
mushrooms, of a very black carbonaceous matter, 
and exceedingly light, will be formed at the sum- 
mit of the cone. This carbonaceous part is carried 
to such a state of division as cannot be given to any 
other matter, by grinding it on a piece of porphyry. 

This black goes a great way in every kind of 
painting. It may be rendered drier by calcination 
in close vessels. 

The funiiel ought to be united to the pipe, which 
conveys off the smoke, by means of wire, because 
solder would be melted by the flame of the lamp. 
To make black from ground pitcoal. 

The best for this purpose is that which lias a shin- 
ing fracture. It affords, perhaps, the most useful 
browH the artist can place on his palet ; being re- 
markably clear, not so warm as Vandyke brown, 
and serving as a shadow for blues, reds, or yel- 
lows, when glazed over them. It seems almost 
certain that Titian made large use of this material. 
Coal, when burnt to a white heat, then quenched 
in water, and ground down, gives an excellent blue 
black. This belongs to artists' colours. 
To make black from -wine lees. 

This black results from the calcination of wine 
lees and tartar; and is manufactured on a large 
scale in some districts of Germany, in the en- 
virons of Mentz, and even in France. This ope- 
ration is performed in large cylindric vessels, or 
in pots, hav^ing an aperture in the cover to afford 
a passage to tlie smoke, and to the acid and alka- 
line vapours which escape during the process. 
When no more smoke is observed, the operation 
IS finished. The remaining matter, v.'luch is merely 



a mixture of salts and a carbonaceous part verf 
much attenuated, is then washed several times in 
boiling water; and it is reduced to the proper de- 
j gree of fineness by grinding it on porphyry. 

If this black be extracted fi'ora dry lees, it ie 
coarser than that obtained from tartar; because the 
lees contain earthy matters which are confounded 
with the carbonaceous part. 

I'his black goes a great way, and has a velvety 
appearance. It is used chiefly by copper-plate 
printers. 

^7iothei\ — Peach stones, burnt in a close vessel, 
produce a charcoal, which, when ground on por- 
phyry, is employed in painting to give an old grey. 

Jlnother. — Vine twigs reduced to charcoal give a 
bluish black, which goes a great way. When mix- 
ed with white it produces a silver white, which is 
not produced hy other blacks; it has a pretty near 
resemblance to the black of peach stones; but to 
bring this colour to the utmost degree of perfec- 
tion, it must be carefully ground on porphyry. 
7'o make ivory and bone black. 

Put into a crucible, surrounded by burning coals, 
fragments or turnings of Ivory, or of the osseous 
parts of animals, and cover it closely. The ivory 
or bones, by exposure to the heat, will be reduced 
to charcoal. When no more smoke is seen to pass 
through the joining of ihe cover, leave the cruci- 
ble over the fire for half an hour longer, or until it 
has completely cooled. There will then be found 
in it a hard carbonaceous matter, which, when 
pounded and ground on porphyry with water, is 
washed on a filter with warm water, and then dried. 
Before it is used it must be again subjected to the 
matter. 

Black furnished by bones is reddish. That pro- 
duced by ivory is more beautiful. It is brighter 
than black obtained from peach stones. When 
mixed in a proper dose with white oxide of lead, 
it forms a beautiful pearl grey. Ivory black is 
richer. The Cologne and Cassel black are form- 
ed from ivory. 

To paint in -white distemper. 

Grind fine in water, Bougival wnite, a kind of 
marl, or cl;»f>lky clay, and mix it witli size. It may 
1)6 brightened by a small quantity of indigo, or 
charcoal black. 

To make -white paint. 

The white destined for varnish or oil requires a 
metallic oxide, which gives more body to the co- 
lour. Take ceruse, reduced to powder, and grind 
it with oil of pinks, and \ oz. of sulphate of zinc 
for each pound of oil. Apply the second coating 
without the, sulphate of zinc, and suffer it to dry. 
Cover the whole with a stratum of sandarac var- 
nish. This colour is durable, brilliant, andagrefa- 
ble to the eye. 

Boiled linseed oil might be employed instead of 
oil of pinks, but the colour of it would in some 
degree i njure the purity of the white. 

Jlnother. — White is prepared also with pure 
white oxide of lead, ground with a little essence, 
added to oil of pinks, and mixed with gallipot var- 
nish. The colour may be mixed also with essence 
diluted with oil, and without varnish, which is re- 
served for the two last coatings. If for a lively 
white, the colour is heightened with a little Prus- 
sian blue, or indigo, or with a little prepared 
black. The latter gives it a grey cast. But pure 
white lead, the price of which is much higher 
than ceruse, is reserved for valuable articles. In 
this particular case, if a very fine durable white 
be required, grind it with a little essence, and mix 
it with sandarac varash. 

To paint i7i light grey, ard distemper. 

Ceruse, mixed with a small quantity of lam^ 
black, composes a grey, more or less charged ac 



OIL AND WATER COLOURS. 



S7 



•ording to the quantity of black. With this mat- 
ter, therefore, mixed with black in different doses, 
ft great variety of shades may be formed, from the 
lightest to the darkest grey. 

If this colour be destined for distemper, it is 
mixed with water; if intended for oil painting, it 
is ground with nut oil, or oil of pinks; and with 
essence added to oil, if designed for varnish. This 
colour is durable and very pure, if mixed with 
camphorated mastic varnish: the gallipot varnish 
renders it so solid that it can bear to be struck 
with a hammer, if, after the first stratum it has 
been apjilied with varnish, and without size. For 
the last coating sandarac varnish, and camphorated 
ditto are proper; and for the darkest grey, spiritu- 
ous sandarac varnish. 

To make economical -wJdte house paint. 

Skim milk, 2 quarts, fresh slacked lime, 8 oz. 
linseed oil, 6 oz. white burgundy pitch, 2 oz. 
Spanish white, 3 pounds. 

The lime to be slacked in water, exposed to the 
air, mixed in about one-fourth of the milk; the oil 
111 which the pitch is previously dissolved, to be 
added, a little at a time; then the rest of the milk, 
and afterwards the Spanish white. This quantity 
is sufficient for 27 square yards, two coats, and the 
expense not more than ten pence. 

To make pearl grey paint. 

If a particle of blue be substituted for the black 
in the preceding composition, or if this blue be 
combined with a slight portion of black, a silver or 
peai'l grey will be obtained; but that the ground 
may not be altered by a foreign tint, the colour for 
the first coating must be ground with essence 
mixed with a little oil of pinks: for the succeeding 
strata, grind with camphorated mastic varnish, 
softened with a little oil of pmks, and mix the co- 
lour with the same varnish. The pearl grey will 
be still brighter, if the last stratum be glazed with 
sandarac varnish mixed with a little colour. 
To make flaxen grey. 

Ceruse still predominates in this colour, whic.i 
is treated as the other greys, but with this differ- 
ence, that it admits a mixture of lake instead of 
black. Take the quantity, therefore, of ceruse 
necessary, and grind it separately. Then mix it 
up, and add the lake and Prussian blue, also 
ground separately. The quantities of the last tw o 
colours ought to be proportioned to the tone of co- 
lour required. 

This tolour is proper for distemper, varnish, 
and oil paiijting. For varnish, grind it with mas- 
tic gallipot varnish, to which a little oil of pinks 
has been added, and then mix it up with common 
gallipot varnish. For oil painting, grind with un- 
prepared oil of pinks, and mix up with resinous 
drying nut-oil. The painting is brilliant and 
solid. 

When the artist piques himself in carefully pre- 
paring those colours which have splendour, it will 
be proper, before he commences his labour, to 
stop up the holes formed by the heads of the nails 
in wainseolting with a cemeut made of ceruse or 
putty. 

Every kind of sizing which, according to usual 
custom, precedes the application of varnish, ought 
to be proscribed as highly prejudicial, when the 
wainscotting consists of fir-wood. Sizing maybe 
ad'nilted for plaster, but without any mixture. A 
plain stratum of strong glue and water spread over 
it, is sufficient to fill up the pores to prevent any 
unn'".4essaiy consumption of the varnish. 

Ti>5 first stratum of colour, is ceruse without 
any i-4xture, ground with essence added to a little 
oil of pinks, and mixed up with essence. It any 
of tl>€ traces are uneven, rub it liglitly, when dry, 
willi jfumice-stone. This operation contributes 



greatly to the beauty and elegance of tlie p<disli 
when the varnish is applied. 

The second stratum is composed of ceruses 
changed to flaxen grey by the ):>lxture of a little 
Cologne earth, as much' English red or lake, and 
a particle of Prussian blue. First so make the 
mixture with a small q^iantity of ceruse, that the 
result shall be a smoky grey, by the addition of the 
Cologne earth. The red which is added, makes 
it incline to flesh colour, and the Prussian blue 
destroys the latter to form a dark flaxen grey. The 
addition of ceruse brightens the tone. This stra- 
tum and the next are ground, and mixed up with 
varni sh as before. 

This mixture of colours, which produces flaxen 
grey, has the advantage over pearl grey, as it de- 
fends the ceruse from the impression of the ait 
and light, which makes it assume a yellowish tint. 
Flaxen grey, composed in tliis manner, is unalter- 
able. Besides, the essence which forms the vehi- 
cle of the first stratum contributes to bring forth a 
colour, the tone of which decreases a little by the 
effect of drying. This observation ought to serve 
as a guide to the artist, in regard to the tint, 
which is always stronger in a liquid mixture than 
when the matter composing it is extended iu a thin 
stratum, or when it is dry. 

To make oak -wood colcir. 

The basis of this colour is still formed of ceruse. 
Thi'ee-fourths of this oxide, and a foui-th of ochre 
de rue, umber earth, and yellow de Berri; the last 
three ingredients being employed in proportions 
which lead to the required tint; give a matter 
equally proper for distemper, varnish, and oil. 
To make -walmtt -wood colour. 

A given quantity of ceruse, half that quantity of 
ochre de rue, a little Umber earth, red ochre, and 
yellow ochre de Berri, compose this colour proper 
for distemper, varnish, and oil. 

For varnish, grind with a little drying nut-oil, 
and mix up with the gallipot varnish. 

For oil painting, grind with fat oil of pinks 
added to drying oil or essence, and mix up with 
plain dryino; oil, or with resinous drying oil. 
To make JVaples and jMojitpellier yellow. 

The composition of these is simple, yellow ochre 
mixed with ceruse, ground with water, if destined 
for distemper; or dryin" nut-oil and essetice, in 
equal parts, if intended tor varnish; and mixed up 
with camphorated mastic varnish; if for ae/icate 
objects, or with gallipot varnish, give a very fine 
colour, the splendour of which depends on the 
doses of the ceruse; which must be varied accord- 
ing to the particular nature of the colouring mat- 
ter employed. If the ground of the colour is fur- 
nished by ochre, and if oil painting be intended, 
the grinding with oil added to essence may be 
omitted, as essence alone will be sufficient. Oil, 
however, gives more pliability and more body. 
7'o make joncfdl. 

This is employed only in distemper. It may, 
however, be used with varnish. A vegetable co- 
lour serves as its base. It is made with Dutch pink 
and •eruse, and ground with mastic gallipot vai'- 
nish, and mixed up with gallipot varnish. 
To make golden yelluxu colour. 

Cases often occur when it is necessary to pro- 
duce a gold colour without employing a metallic 
substance. A colour capable of forming an illu- 
sion is then given to the composition, the greater 
part of which consists of yellow. This is accom- 
plished by Naples or Moutpellier yellow, bright- 
ened by Spanish white, or by white of Morat, mix- 
ed with ochre de Berri and realgar. The last sub 
stance, even in small quantity, gives to the mixture 
a colour imitating gold, and whiclimay be employed 
indistemper, varnish, or oil. When destined tor oil, 



^8 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



it is ground with dicing or pure nut-oil added to 
essence, and mixed up with drying oil. 

To make chamois and buff colour. 

Yellow is the foundation of chamois colour, 
which is modified by a particle of minium, or what 
is better, cinnabar and ceruse in small quantity. 
This colour may be employed in distemper, varnish, 
and oil. For varnish, it is ground with one half 
common oil of pinks, and one half of mastic galli- 
pot varnish. It is mixed with common gallipot 
varnish. For oil painting, it is ground and mixed 
up with drying oil. 

To make olive colour for oil andvurjiish, 

Olive colour is a composition the shades ot which 
may be diversified. Black and a little blue, mixed 
with yellow, will produce an olive colour. Yel- 
low de Berri, or d'Auvergne, with a little verdi- 
gris and cliarcoal, will also form this colour. 

It is ground and mixed up with mastic, gallipot 
and common gallipot varnishes. For oil painting, 
it is ground with oil added to essence, and mixed 
up with drying oil. 

To make olive colour for distemper. 

When intended for distemper, it will be neces- 
sary to make a change iu the composition. The 
yellow aboveinentioned, indigo, and ceruse, or 
Spanish white, are the new ingredients which must 
be employed. 

To make blue colours. 

Blue belongs to the order of vegetable substances, 
like indigo ; or to that of metallic substances, like 
Prussian blue ; or to that of stony mineral sub- 
stances, as ultra marine; or to that of vitreous sub- 
stances coloured by a metallic oxide, as Saxon blue. 
Ultra marine is more particularly reserved lor pic- 
tures. The sam« may, in some degree, be said of 
Saxon blue. 

When prussiate of iron or indigo is employed 
without mixture, the colour produced is too dark. 
It has no splendour, and very often the light makes 
it appear black; it is, therefore, usual to soften it 
with white. 

To make blue distemper. 

Grind with water as much ceruse as may be 
thought necessary for the whole of the intended 
work; and afterwards mix it with indigo, or Prus- 
sian blue. 

This colour produces very little effect in distem- 

fier, ' ut it is not very favourable to the play of the 
ight; oXiX. it, soon acquires brilliancy and splendour 
beneath the vitreous lamina of the varnish. Paint- 
ing in distemper, when carefully varnished, pro- 
duces a fine effect. 

To make Pi-ussian blue pai:it. 

The ceruse is ground with oil, if for varnish 
made with essence, or merely with essence, which i 
is equally proper for oil painting; and a quantity of 
eitner of these blues sumcient to produce the re- 
quired tone is added. 

For varnish, the ceruse is generally ground with 
oil of pinks added to a little essence, and is mixed 
up with camphorated mastic varnish, if the colour 
is destined for delicate objects; or with gallipot 
varnish if for wainscoting. This colour, when 
gtound and mixed up with drying oil, produces a 
fine effect, if covered by a solid varnish made with 
alcohol or essence. 

If this oil colour be destined for expensive arti- 
cles, such as valuable furniture subject to friction, 
it may be glazed with the turpentine copal var- 
nish. 

To make Saxon blue. 

Saxon blue, a vitreous matter coloured by oxide 
of cobalt, gives a tone of colour different from that 
of the prussiate of iron and indigo. It is employed 
for sky-blues. The case is the same w ith blue ver- 
siiter, a preparation made from oxide of copper and 



lime. Both these blue* stand well in distemper, 
in varnish, and in oil. 

Saxon blue requires to be ground with dtying 
oil, and to be mixed with gallipot varnish. If in- 
tended for oil painting, it is to be mixed up with 
resinous drying oil, which gives body to this vitre- 
ous matter. 

To make blue vei^diter. 

This may be ground with pure alcoholic varnish 
added to a little essence; and may be mixed up 
with compound mastic varnish if the colour is to 
be applied to delicate articles. Or mastic gallipot 
varnish, added to a little drying oil, may be used 
for grinding, and common gallipot varnish for 
mixing up, if the painting is intended for ceilings, 
wainscoting, &c. This colour is soft and dull, 
and requires a varnish to heighten the tone of it, 
and give it play. Turpentine copal varnish is pro- 
per for this purpose, if the article has need of a 
durable varnish. 

To make green colour. 

Every green colour, simple or compound, when 
mixed up with a whi.e ground, becomes soft, and 
gives a sea-green of greater or less strength, and 
more or less delicate, in the ratio of the respective 
quantities of the principal colours. Thus, green 
oxides of copper, such as mountain green, verdi- 
gris, dry crystallized acetate of copper, green com- 
posed with blue verditer, and the Dutch pink of 
Troyes, or any other yellow, will form, with a base 
of a white colour, a sea green, the intensity of which 
may be easily changed or modified. The white 
ground for painting in distemper is generally com- 
posed ofBougival white (white marl), or white of 
Troyes (chalk), or Spanish white, (pure clay); but 
for varnish or oil painting, it is sought for in a me- 
tallic oxide. In this case, ceruse or pure wliite 
oxide of lead is employed. 

To make sea green for distemper. 

Grind separately with water, mountain green and 
ceruse; and mix up with parchment size and water 
adding ceruse in sufficient quantity to produce the 
degree of intensity required in the colour. Watin 
recommends the use of Dutch pink of Troyes s.nd 
white o'tide of lead, m proportions pointed out by 
experience ; because the colour thence resulting is 
more durable. 

In the case of a triple composition, begin to make 
the green by mixing Dutch pink with blue verdi- 
ter, and tlien lower tlie colour to sea green, by the 
addition of ceruse ground with water. 

To make sea green for varnish and oils. 

Varnish requires that this colour should possess 
more body than it has in distemper; and this it ac- 
quires from the oil which is mixed with it. This 
addition even gives it more splendour. Besides, a 
green of a metallic nature is substituted for the 
green of the Dutch pink, which is of a vegetable 
nature. 

A certain quantity of verdigris, pounded and 
sifted through a silk sieve, is ground separately 
with nut oil, half drying and half fat; and if the 
colour is intended for metallic surfaces, it must be 
diluted with camphorated mastic, or gallipot var- 
nish. 

On the other hand, the ceruse is ground with es- 
sence, or with oils to which one halt of essence has 
been added, and the two colours are mixed in pro- 
portions relative to the degree of intensity intended 
to be given to the mixture. It may readily be con- 
ceived that the principal part of this composition 
consists of Ceruse. 

If this colour be destined for articles of a certain 
value, crystalliit'il verdig.is, dried and pulverized, 
ouirht tolje subsliuied for common verdi_, io, and 
the painting must bo covered with a stratum of tho 
transuarent or turpentine copal varnish. 



OIL AND WATER COLOURS. 



39 



The sea-greens, ■which admit into their compo- 
sition metallic colouring parts, are durable and do 
not change. 

The last compositions may be employed for sea- 

freen in oil painting; but it will be proper to 
Tighten the tone a little more than when varnish 
is used; because this colour becomes darker by the 
addition of yellow which the oil developes in the 
course of time. 

Green for doors, shutters, hahistrades, and arti- 
cles exposed to the air. 

Ceruse is the principal base of this colour. 
When it is required to bring it to the tone most 
agreeable, grind, with nut-oil, two i>arts of ceruse, 
and with essence of turpentine one part of verdi- 
gris. Then mix up the two colours with one half 
of common drying nut-oil, and one half of resinous 
drying nut-oil. This colom* appears at first to be 
a pale blue ; but the impression of the light soon 
makes it pass to g^een, and in this state it is very 
dui'able. 

The doses of the ceruse ought to be can-ied to a 
third more, when the colour is intended to be em- 
ployed in the centre of large cities: without this 
precaution it acquires a gloomy tone, which leads 
to a blackish green. This effect arises from the 
thick atmosphere, and the exhalations which viti- 
ate the air in large cities. In these cases white ' 
ought to be preferred to yellow, as the ground to a 
green colour. The custom among painters is to 
make the first coating yellow. 

To make compound green for rooms. 

Take two pounds of ceruse, four ounces of Dutcli 
pink of Troyes, and one ounce of Prussian blue or 
indigo. This mixture produces a green, the in- 
tensity of which may be increased or diminished 
fay the addition of yellow or blue. Grind with oil, 
to which a fourth part of essence has been added, 
and mix up with camphorated mastic or gallipot 
varnish. Both these contribute to the durability 
of the colour. If it be required to destroy the 
smell of the turpentine, form a glazing with com- 
pound mastic varnish. 

To make a green for articles exposed to friction, as 
■wheels of carriages, &c. 

The great wear to which carriages are exposed 
by friction and continual washing, requires that a 
durable varnish should be employed when they are 
painted. \Vliatever care may be taken by coach- i 
men, it is impossible that continual rubbing with 
a mop or sponge, which becomes filled with earthy 
particles, should not '^roduce an alteration in the: 
best varnish. To render the work solid, first ap- 
ply a ground composed of boiled linseed oil, ceruse 
previously dried over a pretty strong fire, to make 
it lose the white, and a little white vitriol, in a 
dose of a quarter of an ounce to each pound of mat- 
ter. The second stratum must be composed of the 
preceding green colour, viz. two parts of ceruse, 
and one part of verdigris, pulverized and ground 
■with boiled nut-oil, added to a fourth part of fat 
oil of pirks, and mixed up with drying oil. The 
third stratum consists of the same coloiu" mixed 
np with camphorated copal varnish. 

To make red for the bodies of carriages. 

Artists differ in regard to the composition of 
the first strata- Matin recommends red de Bern, 
(akind of argillaceous ochre, mixed with litharge^ 
Others prefer red oxide of lead. Either of these 
substances m-riy be employed, as the artist finds 
most convenient. Take one-tiiird of these bases 
for the first stratum, adding a little litharge, 
ground on porphvry, if red de Berri be used. 
Grind with oil, half fat and half drying, and mix 
up with drying oil. The second stratum siiould 
be red oxide of lead, gi'ound with dr3'ing oil, added 
«o one. half of essence. The tliird ought to be 



composed in tfie same manner, but with T«rmil- 

ion. Now glaze the whole with fat copal varnish, 
heightened with a little vermilion, and hasten the 
desiccation of the varnish by exposure to the sun, 
or to a strong current of air. 

The red is often prepared, from motives of 
economy, with red oxide of lead, without ver- 
milion. 

To paint in varnish on tvood. 

Lay on the wood two coats of Troyes whi^e, di 
luted with size water. Next, lay over tnese a 
third coat of ceruse, tlien mix the colour wanted 
with turpentine oil; add the varnish to it, and lay 
it on the wood, previously prepared as follows: — 

Polish the wood first with shave-|rass or horse- 
tail, and then with pounce-stone. Lay afterwards 
six or seven coats of colour, mixed with varnish, 
allowing after each coat, a sufficient time to dry, 
before laying on the next; then polish over the last 
coat with pounce-stone, ground on marble into a 
subtle powder. When this is done, lay two or 
three coats of pm-e white varnish. As soon as this 
is dry, rub it over with a soft rag, dipped in fine 
olive oil; then rub it with tripoli, reduced to sub- 
tle powder, and having wiped it with a clean 
piece of linen, pass a piece of wash leather all 
over it. 

To make red for cuffets. 

Varnish with vermilion is not confined merely 
to the wheels and bodies of carriages; it often 
forms the ground; and in this case it ought to be 
treated in the same manner. It requires, however, 
a little more labour. After the first stratum is ap- 
plied, it is rubbed with pumice-stone; the varnish 
is then laid on, at several times, and polished. 
Grind with boiled oil, added to essence, red oxide 
of lead, aMl mix up with gallipot varnish. The 
second stratum is formed of vermilion, heighten- 
ed with a small particle of Naples yellow. Then 
apply a third stratum of the varnish of the second, 
a little charged with vermilion. This varnish is 
very durable, and is susceptible of a fine polish. 
To make bright red. 

A mixture of lake with vermilion gives that 
beautiful bright red which painters employ for the 
sanguine parts. This red is sometimes imitated 
for varnishing small appendages of the toilette. It 
-"ught to be ground with varnish, and mixed up 
with the same, after which it is glazed and polish- 
ed. The mastic gallipot varnish is used for grind- 
ing; gallipot varnish for mixing up; and campho- 
rated mastic varnish for glazing. 

To make crimson, or rose colour. 

Carminated lake, that which is composed ot 
alum, charged with the colouringpart of cochineal, 
ceruse, and carmine, forms a beautiful crimson. 
It requires a particle of vex-milion and of white lead. 

The use of this varnish is confined to valuable 
articles. 

To make violet colour. 

Violet is made indifferently with red and blacs, 
or red and blue; and to render it more splendid, 
with red, white, and blue. To compose violet, 
therefore, applicable to varnish, take minium, or 
what is still better, vermilion, and grind it with 
the camphorated mastic varnish, to which a fourth 
part of boiled oil, and a little ceruse have been 
added: then add a little Prussian blue, ground in 
oil. The proportions requisite for the degree of 
intansity to be given to the colour will soon be 
found by experience. The white brightens the 
tint. 'I'he vermilion and Prussian bme, separate 
or mixed, give hard tones, whicli must be soften- 
ed by an intermediate substance, that modifies, to 
their advantage, the reflections of the light. 
To make chesnut colour. 

This colour is composed of red, yellow, and 



40 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



slack. The English red, or red ochre of Au- 
vergne, ochre de rue, and a little black, form a 
dark chesimt colour. It is proper tor painting of 
every kind. If English red, which is dryer than 
that of Auvergne, be employed, it will be proper, 
when the colour is intended for vai-nish, to grind 
it with drying nut oil. Tlie ochre of Auvergne 
may be ground with the mastic gallipot, and mixed 
up with gallipot varnish. 

The most experienced artists g^ind dark co- 
lours with linseed oil, when tae situation will ad- 
mit of its being used, because it is more di-ying. 
For articles without doors nut oil is preferable. 
The colours of oak-wood, walnut-tree, chesnut, 
olive, and yellow, require the addition of a little 
litharge ground on porphyry; it hastens the desic- 
cation of the colour, and gives it body. 

But if it is intended to cover these colours with 
varnish, as is generally done in wainscoting, they 
must be mixed up with essence, to which a little 
oil has been added. The colour is then much bet- 
ter disposed to receive the varnish, under wiiich it 
exhibits all the splendour it can derive from the 
reflection of tlie light. 

To make a dryer for painting. 

Vitreous oxide of lead (litharge), is of no other 
use in painting than to free oils from their greasy 
particles, for the purpose of communicating to 
them a drying quality. Red litharge, however, 
ought to be preferi'ed to the greenish yellow: it is 
not so hard, and answers better for the purpose to 
■which it is destined. 

When painters wish to obtain a common colour 
of the ochrey kind, and have no boiled oil by them, 
they may paint with linseed oil, not freed from its 
greasy particles, by mixing with the colour about 
two or three parts of litharge, ground on a piece 
of porphyry with water, dried, and reduced to fine 
powder, for 16 parts of oil. The colour lias a 
great deal of boay, and dries as speedily as if 
mixed with drying oil. 

Siccitive oil. 

Boil together for two hours on a slow and equal 
fire, half an ounce of litharge, as much calcined 
ceruse, and the same of terre d'ombre and talc, 
with one pound of linseed oil, carefully stirring 
the whole time. It must be carefully skimmed 
and clarified. The older it grows the better it is. 
A quarter of a pint of this dryer is required to 
every pound of colour. 

To make cheap beautiful green paint. 

The cost of this paint is less than one-fourth of 
oil colour, and the beauty far superior. Take 4 
pounds of Roman vitriol, and pour on it a tea-ket- 
tle full of boiling water; when dissolved, add 2 
pounds of pearl ash, and stir the mixture well 
with a stick, until the effervescence cease: then 
add a quarter of a pound of pulverized yellow ar- 
senic, and stir the whole together. Lay it on with 
a paint brush, and if the wall has not been painted 
before, two, or even three coats will be requisite. 
To paint a common sized room with this colour, 
will not cost more than 5 or 6 dollars. If a pea- 
green is required, put in less, and if an apple- 
green more, of the yellow arsenic. 
To paint in fresco. 

It is performed with water-colours on fresh 
plaster; or a wall laid with mortar not dry. This 
sort of painting has a great advantage by its incor- 
porating with the mortar, and, drying along with 
it, becomes very durable. 

The ancients painted on stucco; and we may 
remark in Vitruvius, what infinite care tliey took 
in making the plastering of their buildings, to ren- 
der them beautiful and lasting; though tlie modern 
painters tiud a plaster of lime and sand preferable 
to it. 



To paint fire places and hearths. 
The Genevese employ a kind of stone, know3» 
under the name of molasse, for constructing fire- 
places and stoves, after the German manner. This 
stone is brought from Saura, a village of Savoy^ 
near Geneva. It has a greyish colour, inclining 
to blue, which is veiy agi-eeable to the eye. This 
tint is similar to that communicated to common 
white-washing with lime, chalk, or gyi)sum, the 
dulness of which is corrected by a particle of blue 
extract of indigo, or by charcoal black. 

To make red distemper for tiles. 
Dip a brush in water from a common ley, or m 
soapy water, or in water charged with a 2^th part 
of the carbonate of potash (alkali of potash), and 
draw it over the tiles. This washing thoroughly 
cleanses them, and disposes all the parts of the 
pavement to receive the distemper. 

When dry, dissolve in 8 pints of water half a 
pound of Flanders glue; and while the mixture is 
boiling, add two pounds of red ochre; mix the 
whole with great care. Then apply a stratum ol 
this mixture to the pavement, and when dry apply 
a second stratum with drying linseed oil, and a 
third with the same red, mixed up with size. 
When the whole is dry, rub it with wax. 
To distemper in badigeon. 
Badigeon is employed for giving an uniform tint 
to houses rendered brown by time, and to churches. 
Badigeon, in general, has a yellow tint. That 
which succeeds best is composed of the sav^-dust 
or powder of the same kind of stone, and slacked 
lime, mixed up in a bucket of water, holding in 
solution a pound of the sulphate of alu.nina, (alum). 
It is applied with a brush. 

At Paris, and in other parts of France, where 
the large edifices are constructed of a soft kind of 
stone, which is yellow, and sometimes white, v/hea 
it comes from the quarry, but which in time be» 
comes brown, a little ochre de rue is substituted 
tor the pow der of the stone itself, and restores to 
tlie edifice its original tint. 

To make red lead. 
Fuse a quantity of lead upon a hearth, and work 
it about with an iron wet, till the calx acquires a 
yellow colour. Then grind it small with water at 
a mill, constructed for the purpose; and well wash 
it to deprive it of small lumps, whicli may I'emaiu 
uncalcined. Put this massicot, well dried, into stone 
pots, which are placed horizontally in the colour 
furnace, fill them something raore than a quarter 
full, and heat them till they acquire a red colour; 
place a brick at the mouth of each pe' to i^onfine 
the heat; but remove it occasionally to vrork the 
matter about. By continuing this lieat a sufficient 
time, the colour will become finer till the minium 
is perfect. 

Bed lead from lead, and also from litharge, is 
not so good as the former, on account of the scoria 
of other substances mixed with the litharge. The 
makers of flint-glass, who use much red lead in 
their glass, find that it does not flux so well as that 
made from the direct oxidation of the metal, as prao 
tised in the county of Derby. Those furnaces are 
like a baker's oven, with a low vaulted roof, and 
two party-walls, risiug from their floor, wJiicb 
leave a middle space, where the pit-coal is burned- 
the flame being drawn over the party-walls, strikes 
on the roof, and is thence reflected ou each side, by 
which the lead there is kept melted. The surfaifi 
of lead, by its exposition to air, becomes instantly 
covered with a dusty pellicle, which is successively 
removed; tiie greater part of the metal is thus con- 
verted into ayellowish-gree.n powder, which isafter- 
wards ground fine in a mill, and washed; the he- 
terogeneous particles of lead, still remaining, are 
8ep£u-ated by passing the wash through sieves; tlaa 



OIL AND WATER COLOURS. 



4. 



j&llow colour becomes uniform, and is called mas- 
sicot, by the painters. The yellow oxide, well 
CU-ied, is thnwn as^ain into the furnace, whei-e it 
IS constantly stirred in a continual heat; so that in 
about 48 hours, this oxide acquires a vivid red, in- 
clininj^to orange colour, and is known by the name 
of minium, or red lead. 

The red lead made in France is of a consider- 
ably worse quality than what is made in England 
or Holland. A ton of lead generall)' gives twenty- 
two hundred M-eight of minium. It is said, that at 
Nuremberg the inci-eased weight of red lead 
amounts to one-fifth of the metal; this may pio- 
bably depend on the method employed, as Watson 
thinks. Neumann says, that the best Venetian 
minium is made from ceruse, or white lead. 
To make a composition, for rendering canvas, lin- 
en, and cloth, durable, pliable, and -water-proof. 
To make it black. 

First, the canvas.^ linen, or cloth, is to be wash- 
ed with hot or cold water, the former preferable, 
so as to discharge the stiffening which all new can- 
vas, linen, or clotli contains; when the stiffening is 
perfectly dischargee', hang the canvas, linen, or 
cloth up to dry; when perfectly' so, it must be con- 
stantly rubbed by the hand until it becomes supple; 
It must then be stretched in a hollow frame very 
tight, and th^ following ingredients are to be laid 
on with a brusli for the first coat, viz. eight quarts 
of boiled hnseed oil, half an ounce of burnt umber, 
a quarter ot an ounce of sugar of lead, a quarter of 
an ounce of wliite vitriol, a quarter of an ounce of 
■white lead. 

The above uigredients, except the white lead, 
must be ground fine with a small quantity of the 
above-mentioned oil, on a stone and muUer; then 
mix all the ingredients up with the oil, and add 3 
oz. of lamp-black, which must be put over a slow 
fire in an iron broad vessel, and kept stirred until 
the grease disappears. In consequence of the can- 
vas being washed and then rubbed, it v/ill appear 
rough and nappy: the following method must be 
taken with the second coat, viz. the same ingredi- 
ents as before, except the white lead; this coat will 
set in a few hours, according to the weather; when 
set, take a dry paint-bi'ush and work it very hard 
with the grain of the canvas; this will cause the 
nap to lie smuoth. 

The third and last coat makes a complete jet 
black, which continues its colour: — take three gal- 
lons of boiled linseed oil, an ounce of burnt umber, 
iialfan ounce of sugar of lead, a quarter of an ounce 
of white vitriol, half an ounce of Prussian blue, 
and a quarter of an ounce of verdigris; this must 
be all ground very fine in a small quantity of the 
above oil, tlien add four ounces of lamp-black, put 
tlirough the same process of fire as the first coat. 
The above are to be laid on and used at discretion, 
in a similar way to paint. To make lead colour, 
the same ingredients as before in making the black, 
with the addition of white lead, in proportion to 
the colour you wish to have, light or dark. 
To make it green. 

Yellow ochre, four ounces, Prussian blue, three 
quarters of an ounce, wliite lead, three ounces, 
white vitriol, half an once, sugar ot lead, a quarter 
of an ounce, p'ood boiled linseed oil suflifient to 
make it of a thin quality, so as to go through the 
canvas. 

To make it yellow. 

Yellow ochre, four ounces, burnt umber, a quar- 
ter of an ounce, wiilte lead, six or seven ounces, 
white vitriol, a quarter of an ounce, sugar of lead, 
a quarter of an ounce, boiled linseed oil, as in 
green. 

To make it red. 

lied lead, four ounces, vermilion, two ounces, 



white vitriol, a quarter of an ounce, sngar of lead, 

a quarter of an ounce, boiled linseed oil as before. 

7'o make it grey. 

Take white lead, a little Prussian blue, accord- 
ing to the quality you want, which will turn it to 
a grey colour; a proportion of sugar of lead and 
white vitriol, as mentioned in the other colours, 
boiled linsaed oil suflicioit to make it of a thin 
quality. 

To make it white. 

Wliite lead, four pounds, spirits of turpentine, a 
quarter of a pint, white vitriol, half an omice, 
sugar of lead, half an ounce, boiled oil sufllcient to 
make it of a thin quality. 

The above ingredients, of different colours, are 
calculated as near as possible; but, as one article 
may be stronger than another, wliich will soon be 
discovered in using, in that case tlie person work- 
ing; the colour may add a little, or diminish, as he 
may find necessary. 

The same preparation for wood or iron, only re- 
ducing the oil aijout three quarts out of eight, and 
to be applied in the same manner as paint or var- 
nish, with a brush. 



ARTISTS' OIL COLOURS. 

On colouring materials. 
The composition of colours as respects those 
leading tests of excellence, preservation of general 
tints, and permanency of brilliant hues, during 
their exposure tor many centuries to the impairing 
assaults of the atmosphere, is a preparation in 
wliich the ancient preparers of these oily com- 
pounds, have very much excelled, in their skilful- 
ness, the moderns. It is a fact, that the ancient 
painted walls, to be seen at Dendaras, although 
exposed for many atjes to the open air, without 
any covering or protection, still possess s perfect 
brilliancy of colour, as vivid a?, when painted, per- 
ha|)s 2000 years ago. The Egyptians mixed their 
colours with some gammy substance, and applied 
them detaclied from each other, without any blend- 
ing or mixture. They appear to have used six co- 
lours, viz. white, black, blue, red, yellow, and 
green; they first covered the canvas entirely with 
white, upon which they traced the design in black, 
leaving out tlie lights of the ground colour. They 
used ijinium for red, and generally of a daric 
tinge. Piiny mentions some painted ceilings in 
his day in the town of Ardea, which had been ex- 
ecuted at a date prior to the foundation of Rome. 
He expresses great surprise and admiration at their 
freshness, after the lapse of so many centnrles. 
Tliese are, undoubtedly, evidences of the excel- 
lences of the ancients in their art of preparing co- 
lours. In the number of them, there is, probably, 
not much difference between the ancient and mo- 
dern knowledge. The ancients seem to have been 
possessed of some colours of which we are igno- 
rant, while they were unacquainted, themselves, 
with some in those more recently discovered. The 
improvements of chemistry have, certainly, in later 
times, enriched painting with a profusion of tints, 
to which, in poiiit of brilliancy at least, no combina- 
tion of primitive colours known to the ancients could 
pretend; but the rapid fading in the colours ot 
some of the most esteemed masters of the Modern 
School, proves, at least, there is something defec- 
tive in their bases, or mode of preparing them. 
This fault is peculiarly evident in many of the pro- 
ductions from onr esteemed master. Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, wliich, although they have not issued 
from his (jallet more th^n 40 years, carry an im- 
poverishment of surface, fiom tiie premature fad- 
iiicr of their colours, so as almost to lose, in many 

2)2 ^ 



42 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK, 



instances, the identity of the subjects they ropre- 
sent. On this head, (ami a most important one it is), 
the superioriiy of the ancient compounders com- 
pletely carries away the palm of merit. 
To prepare ultramarine. 

Separate from th^ stone the most apparent parts 
of the ultramarine; reduce them to the size of a 
pea, and, having brought them to a Fed heat in a 
crucible, thro\y them in that state, into the strong- 
est distilled vinegar. Then grind them with the 
vinegar, and reduce them to an impalpable powder; 
ne}£t take of wax, red colophonium, and lapis lazuli, 
an equal quantity, say half an ounce of each of 
these three substances ; melt the wax and the co- 
lophonium in a proper vessel, and add the powder 
to the melted matter, then pour the mass into cold 
water, and let it rest eight days. Next take two 
glass vessels filled with water, as hot as the hand 
can bear, knead the mass in the water, and when 
that the purest part of the ultramarine has been ex- 
tracted, remove the resinous mass into the other 
vessels, where finish the kneading to separate the 
remainder; if the latter portion appears to be much 
inferior, and paler than the former, let it rest for 
four days, to facilitate the precipitation of the ul- 
tramarine, which extractbydecantation, and wash 
it in fair water. 

Ultramarine of four qualities may be separated 
by this process. The first separation gives the 
finest, and as the operation is repeated, the beauty 
of the powder decreases. 

Kinckel considers immersion in vinegar as the 
essential part of the operation. It facilitates the 
division, and even the solution of the 'zeolitic and 
earthy particles soluble in that acid. 

Another method. — Separate the blue parts, and 
reduce them, on a piece of porpiiyry, to an impal- 
pable powder, which besprinkle with linseed oil, 
then make a paste with equal parts of j'ellow wax, 
pine resin, and colophonium, say, eight, ounces of 
each; and add to this pasSe, half an ounce of lin- 
seed oil, two ounces of oil of turpentine, and as 
much pure mastic. 

Then take four parts of this mixture, and one of 
.apis lazuli, ground with oil on a piece of porphy- 
ry, mix the whole warm, and suffer it to digest 
for a month, at the end of which, knead the mix- 
ture thoroughly in warm water, till the blue part 
separates from it, and at the end of some days de- 
cant the liquor. This ultramarine is exceedingly 
beautiful. 

These two processes are nearly similar, if we 
except the preliminary preparation of Kinckel, 
whicli consists in bringing the lapis lazuli to a red 
heat and immersing it in vinegtfr. It may he rea- 
dily seen, b}' the judicious observations of Mor- 
graffon the nature of this colouring part, that tliis 
calcination may be hurtful to certain kinds of 
azure stone. This preliminary operation, how- 
ever, is a test which ascertains the purity of t.he 
ultramarine. 

To extract the remainder of ultramarine. 

As this matter is valuable, some portions of ul- 
tramarine may be extracted from the paste which 
has been kneaded in water; nothing is necessary 
but to mix it with four times its weight of linseed 
oil, to pour the matter into a. glass of conical form, 
and to expose the vessel in the balneum marice of 
an alembic. The water of which must be kept in 
a state of ebullition for several hours. The liquidi- 
ty of the mixture allows the ultramarine to sepa- 
rate itself, and the supernatant oil is decanted. 
The same immersion of the colouring matter in 
oil is repeated, to separate the resinous psrts 
■syhioh still adhere to it; and the operation is finish- 
ed by boiling it in water to separate the oil, l"he 



deposit is ultramarine; but it is inferior to that '' 
separated by the first washing. 
To ascertain whether ultramarine be adulterated. 
As the price of ultramarine, which is already 
veiy high, may become more so on account of the 
difficulty of obtaining lapis lazuli, it is of great 
importance that painters should be able to detect 
adulteration. Ultramarine is pure if, when brought 
to a red heat in a crucible, it stands that trial with- 
out changing its colour; as small quantities only 
are subjected to this test, a comparison may be 
made, at very little expense, with the part which 
has not been exposed to the fire. If adulterated, 
it becomes blackish or paler. 

This proof, however, may not always be con- 
clusive. When ultramarine of the lowest quality 
is mixed with azure, it exhibits no more body than 
sand ground on porphyry would do; ultramarine 
treated with oil assumes a brown tint. 

Anot/iei' method. — Ultramarine is extracted ft om 
lapis lazuli, or azure stone, a kind of heavy zeo- 
lite, which is so hard as to strike tire with steel, 
to cut glass, and to be susceptible of a line polish- 
It is of a bright blue colour, variegated with white 
or yellow veins, enriched with small metallic 
glands, and even veins of a gold colour, which are 
only sulphurets of iron (martial pyrites): it breaks 
irregularly. The specimens most esteemed are 
those charged with the greatest quantity of blue. 

Several artists have employed their ingenuity on 
processes capable of extracting ultramarine in its 
greatest purity: some, however, are contented with 
separating the uncoloured portions of the stone, 
reducing the coloured part to an impalpable pow- 
der, and then grinding it for a long time with oil 
ofpoppies. But it is certain that, inconsequence 
of this ineffectual method, the beauty of the colour 
is injured by parts which are foreign to it: and 
that it does not produce the whole effect which 
ought to be expected from pure ultramarine. 

It may l)e readily conceived that the eminent 
qualities of ultramarine must have induced those 
first acquainted with the processes proper for in- 
creasing the merit and value of it, to keep them a 
profound secret. This was indeed the case; ultra- 
marine was prepared long before any account ot 
tlie method of extracting and purifying it was 
known. 

To prepare cobalt blue. — Ble^i de Thenard. 
Having reduced the ore to powder, calcine it in 
a reverberatory furnace, stirring it frequently. 
The chimney of the furnace should have a strong 
draught, in order that trie calcination may be 
perfect, and the arsenical and sulphurous acid va- 
pours may be carried off". The calcination is to 
be continued until these vapours cease to be disen- 
gaged, which is easily ascertained by collecting in 
a ladle a little of the gas in the furnace; the pre- 
sence or absence of the g-arlic odour determines 
the fact. When calcined, boil the result slightly 
in an excess of weak nitrous acid, in a glass ma- 
trass, decant the supernatant liquor, and evaporate 
the solution thus obtained, nearly to dryness, in a 
capsule of platino or porcelain. This residuum is 
to be thrown into boiling water and filtered, and a 
solution of the sub-phosphate of soda to be poured 
into the clear litpior, v;hich precipitates an insolu- 
ble phosphate of cobalt. After washing it well on 
a filter, collect it -while yet i?i a gelatinous form, 
and mix it intimately, with eight times its weight 
of alumine, iti tne same state — if properly done, 
the paste will have a uniform tint, through its 
whole mass. This mixture is now to be spread on 
smooth plates and put into a stove; when dry and 
brittle, pound it in a mortar, enclose it in a cover- 
ed earthen crucible, and heat it to a cherry red, 



ARTISTS' on. COLOURS, 



43 



fornalf an hour. On opening the crucible, if the 
opfiraiion has been carefully conducted, the beau- 
tiful and desired product will be found. Care 
should be taken tliat the alumine in the gelatinous 
^orm, be precipitated from the alum by a sufficient 
excess of ammonia, and that it is completely puri- 
fied by washing with water filtered tlirough char- 
coal. 

To make artificial Saxon blue. 

Saxon blue may be successfully imitated, by 
mixing with a divided earth prussiate of iron, at 
the moment of its formation and precipitation. 

Into a solution of 144 grains of sulphate of iron, 
pour a solution of prussiate of potash. 

At the time of the formation of iron, add, in the 
same vessel, a solution of two ounces of alum, and 
pour in with it, the solution of potash, just suffi- 
cient to decompose the sulphate of alumine; for a 
dose of alkali superabundant to the decomposition 
of that salt might alter the prussiate of iron. It 
will, therefore, be much better to leave a little 
alum, which may afterwai'ds be carried off by 
washing. 

As soon as tlie alkaline liquor is added, the alu- 
mine precipitated becomes exactly mixed witli the 
prussiate of iron, the intensity of which it lessens 
by bringing it to the tone of common Saxon blue. 
The matter is then thrown on a filter, anf* after 
being waslied in clean water, is dried. This sub- 
stance is a kind of blue verditer, the intensity of 
which may vary according to the greater or less 
quantity of the sulphate of alumine decomposed. 
It may be used for painting in distemper. 
To compose blue verditer. 

Dissolve the copper, cold, in nitric acid (aqua 
fortis), and produce a precipitation of it by means 
of quick-lime, emplo)'ed in such doses mat it will 
be absorbed by the acid, in order tliat the precipi- 
tate may be pure copper, that is, without any mix- 
ture. Wlien tlie liquor has been decanted, wash 
the piecipitate, and spread it out on a piece of 
linen cloth to drain. If a portion of this precipi- 
tate, whicli is green, be placed on a grinding stone, 
and if a little quick-lime in powder be added, the 
green colour will be immediately changed into a 
beautiful blue. The proportion of the lime added 
is frore seven to ten parts in a hundred. When 
the whole matter acquires the consistence of paste, 
desiccation soon takes place. 

Blue verditer is proper for distemper, and for 
varnish; but it is not fit for oil painting, as the oil 
renders it very dark. If used it ought to be bright- 
ened with a great deal of white. 

To make JVaples yellow. 

Take 12 ounces of ceruse, '2 ounces of the sul- 
phuret of antimony, half an ounce of calcined alum, 
1 ounce of sal ammoniac. 

Pulverize these ingredients, and having mixed 
them thorougiily, put them into a capsule or cru- 
cible of earth, and place over it a covering of the 
same substance. Expose it at first to a gentle heat, 
which must be gradually increased till the capsule 
is moderately red. The oxidation arising from 
this process requires, at least, tiiree hours' expo- 
sure to heat before it is completed. The result of 
this calcination is Xaples yellow, which is ground 
in wattr on a porphyry slab with an ivory spatuia, 
as iron would alter the colour. The paste is then 
dried and preserved for use. It is a yellow oxide 
of Itau atid antimony. 

Tlieie is no necessity of adhering so strictly to 
the doses as to prevent their being varied. If a 
goidi n culour be required in tlie yellow, the pro ■ 
poi lions of the sulphuret of antimony and muriate 
of aninioriiac must be increased. In like manner, 
il'you wish it to be more fusible, increase the quan- 



tities of sulphuret of antimony and calcined sul- 
phate of alumine. 

To make Montpel'der yeUow. 

Take 4 pounds of litharge, well sifted, divide it 
into four equal portions, and put it into as many 
glazed earthen vessels. Dissolve also 1 pound of 
sea salt in about 4 pounds of water. 

Pour a fourth part of this solution into each of 
the four earthen vessels, to form a light paste. Let 
the whole rest for some hours, and when the sur- 
face begins to grow white, stir the mass with a 
strong wooden spatula. Without tliis motion it 
would require too great hardness, and a part of the 
salt would escape decomposition. 

As the consistence increases, dilute the matter 
with a new quantity of the solution; and if this is 
not sufficient, recourse must be had to simple wa- 
ter to maintain the same consistence. The paste 
will then be very white, and in the course ot 
twenty-four hours becomes uniform and free from 
lumps; let it remain for the same space of time, 
but stir it at intervals to complete the decomposi- 
tion of the salt. The paste is then well washed to 
carry off^ the caustic soda (soda deprived of car- 
bonic acid) whlcii adlieres to it, the mass is put in- 
to strong linen cloth and subjected to a press. 

The remaining paste is distributed in flat vessels; 
and these vessels are exposed to heat, in order to 
effect a proper oxidation (calcination), which con- 
verts it into a solid, yellow, brilliant matter, some- 
times ciystallized in transverse strias. 

This is Montpellier yellow, which maybe ap- 
plied to the same pjrposes as Naples yellow. 
To prepare carmine. 

This kind of fecula, so fertile in gradations of 
tone by the eft'ect of mixtures, and so grateful to 
the eye in all its shades, so useful to the painter, 
and so agreeable to the delicate beauty, is only the 
colouring part of a kind of dried insect known un- 
der the name of cochineal. 

A mixture of 36 grains of chosen seed, 18 grains 
of autour bark, and as much alum thrown into a 
decoction of 5 grair^s of pulverized cochineal, and 
5 pounds of water, gives, at the end of from five to 
ten days, a red fecula, which when dried weighs 
from 40 to 48 grai..s. This fecula is carmine. The 
remaining decoction, which is still highly colour- 
ed, is reserved for the preparation of carminated 
lakes. 

To prepare Ihitch pink from -woad. 

Boil the steins of woad in alum water, and then 
mix the liquor with clay, marl or chalk, which 
will become charged with the colour of the de- 
coction. When the earthy matter has acquired 
consistence, form it into small cakes, and expose 
them to dry. It is under this form tliat the Dutch 
pinks are sold in the colour shops. 

Dutch pink from yelloxu berries. 

The small blackthorn produces a fruit which, 
when collected green, are called yellow berries. 
These seeds, when boiled in alum water, form a 
Dutch pink superior to the former. A certain 
quantity of clay, or marl, is mixed v.ith the decoc- 
tion, by which means, the colouring part of the 
berries unites with the earthy matter, and commu- 
nicates to it a beautiful yellow colour. 
lirownish yelhxu Diitc/i pink. 

Boil for an hour in 12 pounds ot water, 1 pound 
of yellow berries. 1-3 pound of the sriavings of the 
wood of the Barberry shrub, and I pound of wood- 
ashes. The decoction is strained tlirough a piece 
of linen cktii. 

Pour into this mixture warm, and at different 
times, a solution of '2 pounds of tlie sulpHale of 
alumine in 5 pounds of water; a slight tiAerves- 
cence will take place; and the sulpiiate be»ns de- 



44 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



composed, the alutnine, vhich is precipitated, will 
seize on the colouring part. Tlie liquor must then 
be filtered through a piece of close linen, and the 
paste which remainson the cloth, when dividel into 
square pieces, is exposed on boards to dry. This is 
brown Dutch pinis, because the clay in it is pure. 
The intensity of the colour shews the qu:\lity of 
this pink, which is superior to that of the other 
compositions. 

Dutch pink for oil painting. 

By substituting for clay a substance which pre- 
sents a mixture of that earth and metallic oxide, 
the result will be Dutch pink of a very superior 
kind. 

Boil separately 1 lb. of yellow berries, and 3 oz. 
of the sulphate of alumineia 12 pounds of water, 
■which must be reduced to 4 pounds. Strain the 
decoction through apiece of linen, and squeeze it 
strongly. Then mix up with it 2 pounds of ceruse, 
finely ground on porphyry, and 1 pound of pulver- 
ized Spanish white. Evaporate the mixture till 
the mass acquires the consistence of a paste; and 
havmg formed it into small cakes, dry them in the 
shade. 

When these cakes are dry, reduce them to pow- 
der, and mix them with a new decoction of yellow 
berries. By repeating this procesa a third time, a 
brown Dutch pink will be obtained. 

In general the decoctions must be warm when 
mixed with the earth. They ought not to be long 
kept, as their colour is speedily altered by tlie fer- 
mentation; care must be taken also to use a wooden 
spatula for stirring the mixture. 

When only one decoction of wood or yellow ber- 
ries is employed to colour a given quantity of earth, 
the Dutch pink resulting from it is of a briglit-yel- 
low colour, and is easily mixed for use. V\'hen the 
colouring part of several decoctions is absorbed, 
the composition becomes brown, and is mixed 
with more difficulty, especially if the paste be ar- 
gillaceous: for it is the property of this earih to 
unite with oily and resinous parts, adhere strongly 
to them, and incorporate with them. In the latter 
case, the artist must not be satisfied with mixing tlie 
colour: it ought to be ground, an operation etiLially 
proper for every kind of Dutch pink, and even the 
softest, when destined for oil painting. 

To make lake from Brazil tuood. 

Boil 4 oz. of the raspings of br?zil wood in 15 
pints of pure water, till the liquor is reduced to 2 
pints. It willbe of a dark red coloui , inclining to 
violet; but the addition of 4. or 5 oz. of aluro will 
give it a hue inclining to rose-colour. Wlien ide 
liquor has been strained through a piece of linen 
cloth if 4oz. ofthe carbonate of soda be added with 
caution, on account of the effervescence which 
takes place, the colour, which by this addition is 
deprived of its mordan*, will resume its former 
tint, and deposit a lake, which, when washed and 
properly dried, has an exceedingly rich and mel- 
low violet-red colour. 

Jlmtther. — IF only one half of the dose of mineral 
alkali be employed for this precipitation, the tint 
of the lake becomes clearer: because the bath still 
retains the undecoraposed aluminous mordant. 

Another. — If the method employed for Dutch 
pinks be followed by mixing the aluinmoas decoc- 
tion of Brazil wood with pure clay, such as Span- 
ish while and white of Morat, and if the mixture 
be deposited on a filter to receive the necessary 
washing, a lake of a very bright dark rose-colour 
will be oblained from the driers. 

Ijakes from other colouring sub-stances. 

By the same process a very beautiful lake maybe 
extracted from a decoction of logwood. In general, 
akes of all colours, and of all the shades of these co- 
.oux's, •>Jiay be <sj;tJ'aete'i from .substances which give 



up their colouring part to boiling ■water;becansp it i« 
afterwards commtmicated by decomposition to tVie 
alumine precipitated from sulphate of alumine, by 
ra^ans of an alkali; or the tincture may be mixed 
witli a I'ure and exceedingly white argillaceous sub 
stance, such as real Spanish white, or white ot 
Morat. 

To prepare rouge. 

Carmine united to talc, in different proportions, 
forms rouge employed for the toilette. Talc is 
distinguislied also by the name of Briancon chalk. 
It is a substance composed, in a great measure, ot 
clav, combined naturally with silex. 

Carmine, as well as carminated lakes, the co- 
louring part of which is borrowed from cochineal, 
are the most esteemed of all the compositions of 
this kind, because their colouring part maintains 
itself without degradation. There ai'o even casea 
where the addition of caustic ammonia, which al- 
ters so many colouring matters, is employed to 
heighten its colour. It is for this purpose that tlioae 
•who colour prints employ it. 

Cavmivated lake from madder. 

Boil I part of madder m from 12 to 15 pints of 
water, and continue the ebullition till it be reduced 
to about 2 lbs. Then strain the decoction through 
a piece of strong linen cloth, which must be well 
squeezed; and add to the decoction 4 ^z. of alum. 
The tint will be a beautiful bright red, which the 
matter will retain if it be mixed with jiroper clay. 
In this case, expose the thick liquor which ii thus 
produced, on a linen filter, and subject it to one 
washing, to remove the alum. The lake, when ta 
ken from the driers, will retain this bright primi- 
tive colour given by the alum. 

Another method. — It" in the process for making 
this lake, decomposition be employed, by mixing 
with the bath an alkaline liquor, the alum, which ia 
decomposed, deprives tlie bath of its mordant, and 
the lake, obtained after the subsequent wishings, 
appears ofthe colour of the madder bath, wilhoul 
any addition: it is of a reddisli bi'own. In iliis ope- 
ration 7 or 8 oz. of alum ought to be employed for 
each pound of madder. 

This kind of lake is exceedingly fine, but a 
brighter red colour may be given to it, by mix- 
ing'^the washed precipitate with alum water, before 
drying. 

Improvement on ditto. 

If the aluminated madder bath be sharpened 
with acetate of lead, or with arseniate of i)otash, 
the operator still obtains, by the addition of car- 
bonate of soda, a rose-coloured lake of greater or 
less strengih. 

To prepare a substitute for cochineal. 

7"he insects of the feverfew, or mother wort 
(matricaria parthenium), will produce a substance 
to replace cochineal, ia fine scarlet dyes. To de- 
tach the insects from the plants, without bruising 
them, and thereby losing the colouring matter, put 
a quantity, as sixteen pounds of stalks, in a case 
nearly air-tight, and heat it in an oven, which will 
suffocate the insects. This quantity will yield above 
a drachm of dried insects. In an instance where- 
in a comparison v.as made with cochineal, two 
similar pieces of woollen cloth were passed through 
the common mordant bath of muriate of tin, and 
then one of the ])ieces in a cochineal bath, and the 
other in a batii prepared v.'ith the mother-wort in- 
sects. The difference between the two dyes was 
scarcely perceptible, and they equally resisted the 
chemical re-agents. Nor were they destroyed by 
sulphuric acid, or oxygenated muriatic acid. 
To make dark red. 

Dragon's blood, infused warm in varnish, gives 
reds, more or less dark, according to the quantity 
of the coloarinar resin which combines with the 



ARTISTS' OIL COLOURS. 



45 



varnish. The artist, therefore, has it in his power 
to vary the tones at pleasure. 

Though cochineal, in a state of division, gives to 
essence very little colour in comparison with that 
vhich it communicates to water, oarmine may be 
introduced into the composition of varnish colour- 
ed by dragon's blood. Tlie result v ill be a pur- 
]5le red, from which various shades uuny be easily 
formed. 

To prepare violet 

A mixture of carminated varnish and dragon's 
blood, added tc that coloured by prussiate of iron, 
produces violet. 

7'o make a fine red lake. 

Boil stick-lac in Mater, filter the decoction, and 
evaporate the clear liquor to di-yness over a gentle 
fire. The occasion of this easy separation is, that 
the beautiful red colour here separated, adlieres 
only slightly to the outsides of the sticks iiroken off 
the trees along with the gum lac, and readily com- 
municates itself to boiling wati r. Some of this 
Sticking matter also adhering to tiie gum itself, it 
is proper to boil the whole together; for the gum 
does not at all prejudice the colour, nor dissolve in 
coiling water: so that after this operation the gum 
is as fit for making sealing-wax as before, and for 
all other uses which do not require its colour. 
To ?nake a beautiful red lake. 

Take any quantity of cocliineal, on which pour 
twice its weight of alcohol, and as much distilled 
M'ater. Infuse for some days near a gentle fire, 
and then filter. To the filtered liquor add a few 
drops of the solution of tin, and a fine I'ed precipi- 
tate will be formed. Continue T.o add a littJe so- 
lution of tin evei'y two hours, till the whole of the 
colouring matter is precipitated. Lastly, edulco- 
rate the precipitate by washing it in a large quan- 
tity of distilled water and then dry it. Monthly 
Magazine. 

To prepare Florentine lake. 

The sediment of cochineal that remains in the 
bottom of the kettle in which carmine is made, 
may be boiled with about four quarts of water, and 
the red liquor left after the preparation of the car- 
mine, mixed with it, and the whole precipitated 
with the solution of tin. The red precipitate must 
be frequently washed over witli water. Exclu- 
sively of this, two ounces of fresh cochineal, and 
one of crystals of tartar, are to be boiled with a 
sufficient quantity of water, poured off clear, and 
precipitated wiiii the solution of tin, and tiie pre- 
cipitate washed. At the same time two pounds of 
alum are also to be dissolved in water, precipitat- 
ed with a lixivium of potash, and the white earth 
repeatedly washed witli boiling water. Finally, 
both precipitates are to be mixed together in their 
liquid state, put upon a filter and dried. For the 
preparation of a cneaper sort, instead of cochineal, 
one pound of brazil wood may be employed in the 
preceding manner. 

To make a lake from madder. 

Inclose two ounces t''oy of the tinest Dutch mad- 
der in a bag of fine and strong calico, large enough 
to hold three or four times as much. Tut it into a 
large marble or porcelain mortar, and pour on it a 
pint of clear soft water cold. Press the bag in 
every direction, and pound and rub it about with a 
pestle, as much as can be done without tearing it, 
and when the water is loaded with celour, pour it 
off. Repeat this process till the water comes off 
but slightly tinged, for which about five pints will 
be suflicient. Heat all the liquor in an earthen or 
silver vessel, till it is near boiling, and then pom- 
it into a large basin, into which a troj ounce of 
alum, dissolved in a pint of boiling solt water, has 
been previously put: stir tlie mixture together, and 
while stirring, pour in gently about 1^ oz. of a sa- 



turated solution of sub-carbonate of potash, let it 
stand till cold, to settle; pour off the clear yello\r 
liqtior ; add to the precpitate a quart of boiling 
soft water, stirring it well; and wlicn cold, sepa- 
rate by hitration the lake, which should weigh half 
an ciunce. Fresh madder root is superior to the 
dry. 

To give various tones to laLe. 

A beautiful tone of violet, red, and even of pur- 
ple led, may be communicated to the colouring 
part of cochineal, by adding to the coloured bath a 
solution of tin in nitro-iauriatic acid. Tne effect 
will be greater, if, instead of this solution, one of 
oxygenated muriate of tin be employed. 

Another. — -riie addition of arseniate of potash 
(neutral arsenical salt), gives shades which would 
be sought for la vain with sulphate of alumine 
(slum). 

To make a camnvated lake by extracting the co- 
louring part from scarlet cloth. 

To prepare a carminated lake without employ- 
ing cochineal in a direct manner, by extracting the 
colouring matter from any substance impregnated 
with it, such as tlie shearings of scarlet cloth. 

Fat into a kettle 1 pound of fine wood ashes, 
with 40 pounds of water, and subject the water to 
ebullition for a quarter of an hour: then filter the 
solution through a piece of lineii cloth till the li- 
quor passes through clear. 

Place it on the fire ; and having brought it to a 
state of ebullition, add 2 lbs. of the shearings oi' 
shreds of scarlet cloth, dyed with cocliineal, 
which must be boiled till they become white ; 
then filter the liquor again, and press the shreds 
to squeeze out all the colouring part. 

Put the filtered liquor into a clean kettle, and 
place it over the tire. When it boils, pour in a 
solution of 10 or 12 ounces of alum in 2 pounds 
of filtered spring water. Stir the whole with a 
wooden spatula, till the froth that is formed is 
dissipated; and having mixed with it 2 lbs. of a 
strong decoction of Brazil wood, pour it upon a 
filter. Afterwards wash the sediment with spring 
water, and remove the cloili filter charged with 
it, to plaster diners, or to a bed of dry bricks. 
The result of this operation will be a beautiful lake, 
but it has not the soft, velvety appearance of that 
oljtained by the first method. Besides, the colour- 
ing part of the Brazil wood which unites to that of 
the cochineal in the shreds of scarlet cloth, lessens 
in a relative proportion the unalterability of the 
colouring part of the cochineal. For this reason 
purified potash ought to be substituted for the wood 
ashes. 

To make a red lake. 

Dissolve 1 lb. of the best pearl ashes in two 
quarts of water, and filter the liquor through pa- 
per; next add two more quart" of water and a pound 
of clean scarlet shreds, boil them in a pewter boil- 
er till the shreds have lost their scarlet colour ; 
take out the shreds and press them, and put the 
coloured water yielded by them to the other : In 
the same solution boil another pound of the shreds, 
proceeding in the same manner; and likewise a 
a third and fourth pound. Whilst this is doing, 
dissolve a pound and a half of cvittle-fish bone in a 
pound of strong aqua fortis in a glass receiver; add 
more of the bone if it appear to produce a'tiy ebulli- 
tion in the aqua fortis; and pour this strained solu- 
tion gradually into the other; but if any ebullition 
be occasioned, more of tlie cuttle-fish bone must 
be dissolved as before, and added till no ebullition 
appears in the mixture. The crimson sediment 
deposited by this liquor is the lake : pour off the 
wacer; and stir the lake in two gallons of hard 
spring water, and mix the sediment in two gallons 
of fresh water; let this method be repeated four or 



46 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



five times. If no hard water can be procured, or 
the laiie appears too purple, half an ounce of alum 
should be added to each quantity of water before 
It be used. Having thus sufficiently freed the lat- 
ter from the salts, drain oiF the water through a fil- 
ter, covered with a worn linen cloth. When it has 
been drained to a jjroper dryness, let it be dropped 
through a pr )per funnel on clean boards, aiul the 
drops will become small cones or pyramids, in 
which form the lake must be dried, and the pre- 
paration is completed. 

Another method. — Boil two ounces of cochineal 
in a pint of water, filter the solution through pa- 
per, and add two ounces of pearl-ashes, dissolved 
in half a pint of warm water, and filtered through 
paper. Make a solution of cuttle-bone as in the for- 
mer process; and to a pint of it add two ounces of 
alum dissolved in half a pint of water. Put this 
mixture gradually to the cochineal and pearl-ashes, 
as long as any ebuUiti onarises, and proceed as above. 
A beautiful lake may be prepared from Brazil 
wood, by boiling three pounds of it for an hour in 
a solution of three pounds of common salt in three 
gallons of water, and filtering tlie hot fluid through 
paper; add to this a solution of five pounds of alum 
in three gallons of water. Dissolve three pounds 
of the best pearl-ashes in a gallon and ahalf of wa- 
ter, and purify it by filtering; put this gradually to 
the other, till the whole of the colour appear to be 
precipitated, and the fluid be left clear and colour- 
less. But if any appearance of purple be seen, add 
a fresh quantity of the solution of alum by degrees, 
till a scarlet hue be produced. Then pursue the 
directions given in the first process with regard to 
the sediment. If half a pound of seed lac be add- 
ed to the solution of pearl ashes, and dissolved in 
it before its purification by the filter, and two 
pounds of the wood, and a proportional quantity of 
common salt and water be used in the coloured so- 
lution, a lake will be produced that will stand well 
in oil or water, but it is not so transparent in oil as 
without the seed lac. The lake with Brazil wood 
may be also made by adding half au ounce of an- 
natto to each pound of the wood; but the annatto 
must be dissolved in the solution of pearl-ashes. 

After the operation, the dryers of plaster, or the 
bricks, which have extracted the moisture from the 
precipitate, are exposed to the sun, that they may 
be fitted for another operation. 

To make Prussian blue. 
Previous to the making of this substance, an al- 
kali must be prepared as follows: viz. — Fixed al- 
kali must he burnt in ox's blood, or with horn 
shavings, or any other animal matter. The salt is 
now to be washed out. It is of an amber colour, 
and has the scent of peach blossoms. 

A solution of martial vitriol, and another of 
alum, are put together in a large glass, and the al- 
kaline ley poured upon them. A greenish preci- 
pitate is thrown down. The liquor is filtered in 
order to get the precipitate by itself, which is col- 
lected, and put into a glass cup. Upon pouring a 
little marine acid on this precipitate, it immediate- 
ly acquires a fine blue colour. This part of the 
process is called the brightening. 

Prussian blue may be made without alum, in the 
following manner: — Pour a little of the alkaline 
ley into a glass, drop in an acid till no farther ef- 
fervescence ensues. Let a little of the solution of 
martial vitriol be poured into the ley, and a fine 
Prussian blue is formed that needs no brightening. 
The common stone blues are Prussian blue, pre- 
cipitated on large quantities of clay. 

Another method. — A quantity of horns and hoofs 
are to be mixed with an equal weight of clippings 
of leather, and the whole submitted to distillation 
in a large iron retort fixed in a revcrberatory fur- 



nace; the oil and impure ammonia, resulting from 
this process, are collected in a receiver, and the 
distillation is carried on at a high heat, till no fluid 
or vapour of any kind come over- — the oil and al- 
kali are disposed of to a'ifi'erent manufacturers, and 
the black spongy coal remaining in the retort is the 
only part made use of in the preparation of the 
Prussian blue. 

I'eu pounds of this coal, and 30 pounds of com- 
mon potash, are reduced together to a coarse pow- 
der, and heated to redness in an iron pot; by de- 
grees the mass is brought into a state of serai-fu- 
sion, in which it is suffered to continue 12 hours, 
when the matter gives out a strong odour of sul- 
phur; it is then taken out red liot, and thrown into 
a boiler of water, where it undergoes ebullition 
f'lr about half an hour. The clear liquor is sepa- 
rated by filtration, ind the residue is boiled in 
fresh parcels of water, till all the saline matter is 
extracted. These different lixivia are then mixed 
together. Four lbs. of alum, and one and a half of 
sulphate of iron, are dissolved in warm water, and 
this solution is added to the former; a copious 
whitish precipitate is immediately deposited, 
which being collected and washed, acquires, by 
exposure to the air, a beautiful blue colour. 

Another. — Boil 6 pounds of clippings of leather, 
6 pounds of hoofs and horns, and 10 pounds of 
common potash, together in an iron pot to dry- 
ness; mix the residue with two pounds of crude 
tartar, and, by means of a strong tire, bring it into 
fusion. The lixiviation is conducted in the usual 
way, and a solution of 5 poundsof sulphate of iron, 
and 15 of alum being added, a precipitate takes 
place, which is the Prussian blue. 

Another. — This colour is made in the following 
manner: two parts of purified potass are most inti- 
mately blended with three parts of dried finely 
pulverized bullock's blood. 

The mass is first calcined in a covered crucible, 
on a moderate fire, until no smoke or flame ap- 
pears; and it is after this brought to a complete yet 
moderate ignition: or, equal parts of potass and 
finely-powdered coals, prepared from bones, horns, 
claws, &c. are mingled and heated in a covered 
crucible to a moderate redness. This done, either 
of these two calcined masses is, after cooling, lixi- 
viated with boiling water, and the lixivium filtered. 
Now make a solution of one part of green vitriol 
and two parts of alum; and add to> it, while yet 
hot, the above lixivium, little by little; and sepa- 
rate the greenish-blue precipitate, which then 
forms, by means of a filter. If, afterwards, a slight 
quantity of diluted muriatic acid is affused upon 
this precipitate, it assumes a beautiful dark blue 
colour. The operation is terminated by edulco- 
rating and drying the pigment thus prepared. 
To prepare a superb liquid blue. 

Put into a small matrass or common phial an 
ounce of fine prussiate of iron (Prussian blue) re- 
duced to powder, and pour over it from l^ oz. to 
2 oz. of concentrated muriatic acid. The mix- 
ture produces an effervescence, and the prussiate 
soon assumes the consistence of thin paste. Leave 
it in this state for 24 hours; then dilute it with 8 
or 9 ounces of water, and preserve the colour thus 
diluted in a bottle well stopped. 

The intensity of this colour may be lessened, if 
necessary, by new doses of water. If the whole of 
this mixture be poured into a quart of water; it 
will still exhibit a colour sufficiently dark for 
washing prints. 

This colour, charged with its mordant, requires 
the use of gum-water, made of gum tragacantli. 
Mucilage of ^m arable does not possess sufficient 
consistence. 

This coloiu", applied with gum-water, and co 



ARTISTS' OIL COLOURS 



47 



vered. when dry, with copal varnish, would form 
very beautiful foil. 

To make blue verdiler. 

Into 100 pounds of whiting, pour the copper- 
water, and stir them together every day for some 
hours, till the water grows pale; then pour that 
away, set it by for other use, and pour on more of 
the gi-een water, and so till the ver(Hter be made; 
which, being taken out, is laid on large pieces of 
chalk in the sun, till it be dry and fit for market. 

Another jnethod.—FaUy saturate the liquor 
which is used in parting with silver, whicli is pre- 
cipitated by adding very pure copper. This ni- 
trous solution of copper must be properly diluted 
witli very pure water; — distilled is the best; and 
the copper precipitated on chalk properly pre- 
pared. The colour and chalk must be well mixed 
together and properly dried. 

Another. — To a solution of nitrate of copper, 
add lime or lime-water, as long as any green pre- 
cipitate falls down. Filter the solution, and tlry 
the precipitate, which must be ground, and kept 
quite free from dust. The green colour will, by 
this time, be converted into a beautiful blue. 
To make blue. 

A diluted solution of sulphate of indigo. 
To make pink. 

Cochineal boiled with supertartrate of potash 
and sulphate alumine, or a decoction of Brazil 
wood with sulphate alumine; the colour may be 
varied by the addition of carbonate potash. 
To make green. 

The acetic copper (verdige) dissolved in acetous 
acid, forms an elegant green. 

To make purple. 

A decoction of Brazil wood and logwood af- 
fords, with carbonate of potash, a permanent 
purple. 

To make orange lake. 

Boil 4 ounces of the best aunatto and_ 1 pound of 
pearl ashes, half an hour, in a gallon of water, and 
strain the solution through paper. Mix gradually 
with this IJ lb. of alutr., in another gallon of wa- 
ter, desisting when no ebullition attends the com- 
mixture. I'reat the sediment in the manner al- 
ready directed for other kinds of lake, and dry it 
in square bits or lozenges. 

To make a yellow lake. 

Take a pound of tumieric root, in fine powder, 
3 pints of water, and an ounce of salt of tartar; 
put all into a glazed earthen vessel, and boil them 
together over a clear gentle fire, till the water ap- 
pears highly impregnated and stains a paper to a 
beautiful yellow. Filter this liquor, and gradually 
add to it a strong solution of roche alum, in water, 
till the yellow matter is all curdled and precipi- 
tated. After this, pour the whole into a filter of 
paper, and the water will run off, and leave the 
yellow matter behind. Wash it with fresh water, 
till the water comes offinsipid, and then i.s obtain- 
ed the beautiful yellow called lacmie of turmeric. 

In this manner make a lake of any of the sub- 
stances that are of a strong texture, as madder, log- 
wood, Jkc. but it will not succeed in the more ten- 
der species, as the flowers of roses, violets, &c. as 
it destroys the nice arrangement of parts in those 
subjects, on which the colour depends. 
3 b make another yellow lake. 

Make a ley of potashes and lime sufficiently 
strong; in this boil, gently, fresh broom-flowers, 
till they are white; then take out the dowers, and 
put the ley to boil in earthen vessels over the fire; 
add as much alum as the liquor will dissolve; then 
empty this ley into a vessel of clean water, and it 
will give a yellow colour at the bottom. Settle, 
and decant off the clear liquor. Wash tlws pow- 
der, which is found at the bottom, with more wa- 



ter, till all the salts of the ley are Avashed off; then 
separate the yellow matter, and dry it in the 
shade. ' 

To make a yellow. 

Gum guttce and terra merita give very beautiful 
yellows, and readily conimunicate their colour to ■ 
copal varnish, made with turpentine. Aloes give 
a varied and orange tint. 

Lemm yellow. 

A beautiful lemon yellow may be formed by fol- 
lowing the prescription of the old paiiUers, who 
mixed together the oxides of arsenic, (realgar and 
orpiment). But these colours, wliich may be imi- 
tated in another manner, have the disadvantage of 
being of a poisonous quality. It Avill, tlierefore, 
be better to substitute in tlieir room, Dutch pink 
of Troyes and Naples yellow. This composition 
is proper for distemper and forvarnisli. When 
ground, and mixed with the varnishes indicated for 
the preceding colour, the resiJt will be a bright 
solid colour, without smell, if an alcoholic varnish 
be applied for the last stratum. 

To make JYaples yelloxv. 

There are two processes given for making this 
colour. 1st. One pound of antimony, 1^ pound ol 
lead, I oz. of alum, and 1 oz. of common salt. 

2d. 1^ oz. of pure ceruse, 2 oz. of diaphoretic 
1 antimony, 5 oz. of calcined alum, and 1 oz. ot 
piu'e sal-ammoniac. The ingredients are to be well 
mixed together, and calcined in a moderate heat 
for tiiree hours, in a covered crucible, till it be- 
comes barelj' red hot, when the mass will become 
of a beautiful yellow colour. With a lai'ger por- 
tion of calx of antimon)' and sal ammoniac, the yel- 
low verges towaj'ds gold colour. 

Gh'.ss may be tinged yellow with the above pre 
paration. 

To make a patent yellow. 

It is prepared by triturating minium or red ox- 
ide of lead and common salt together, and then 
exposing them in a crucible to a gentle heat. In 
this process, the salt is decomposed, and the acid 
unites with the oxide of lead, and forms the pa- 
tent yellow. The alkaline base of tiie salt remains 
in tlie compound, which is to be carefully washed 
and crystallized. 

Muriate of lead tinges vitreous matters of a yel- 
low colour. Hence the beautiful glazing given to 
Queen's ware. It is composed of 80 pounds of mu- 
riate of lead, and 20 pounds of flints ground to- 
gether very fine, and mixed with water, till the 
whole becomes as tliick as cream. The vessels to 
be glazed are dipued in the glaze, and suffered to 
dry, when they are exposed to a suiBcient degree 
of heat to vitrify the surface. 

To make Chinese yellow. 

The acacia, an Egyptian thorn, is a species of 
mimosa, from which the Chinese make that yel- 
low which bears washing in their silks and stuffs, 
and appears with so much elegance in their paint- 
ing on paper. The flowers are gathered before 
they are fully opened, and put into an earthen ves- 
sel over a gentle heat, being stirred continually 
until they are nearly dry, and of a yellow colour: 
then to half a pound of the flowers, a sufiieient 
quantity of rain-water is added, to hold the flowers 
incorporated together. It is then to be boiled un- 
til it becomes thick, when it must be strained. To 
the liquor is added, half an ounce of common alum, 
and one ounce of calcined oyster-shells, reduced to 
a fine powder. All these are mixed together into a 
mass. An addition of a proportion of the ripe seeds 
to the flowers, renders the colours somewhat 
deeper. For making the deepest yellow, add a 
small quantity of Brazil wood. 

To make a pearl -white. 

Pour some distilled water into a solution of nt* 



48 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



trate of bismuth, as long as precipitation takes 
place; filler tlie solution, and vasii the preci])iLate 
\vh\\ (listriied water as it lies on tlie filter.- When 
properly di'ie(l,hy a gentle heat, this powder is 
what is generally termed pearl white. 
• To make a green colour. 

Mix a solution of common salt and hlue vitriol 
in water, by putting copper plates therein, and a 
green precipitate will be gra<lnally formed. 
To make Scheele^s green. 
Dissolve 2 pounds of blue vitriol in 6 pounds of 
water, in a cojiper vessel; and, in another vessel, 
dissolve 2 pounds of dry white potasli, and 11 
ounces of white arsenic, in 2 pounds of water. When 
the solutions are perfect, poiu' ihe arsenical ley into 
the other gradually, and about I pound 6 ounces of 
good green precipitate will be obtained. 
Jinit iSwick green. 
This is obtained from the solution of a precipi- 
tate of copi)er in tartar and water, which, by eva- 
poration, yields a transparent cupreous tartar, 
which is similar to the superfine Urunswick green. 
JVeiu green colour. 
Dissolve in a small quantity of hot water, 6 parts 
of suli)hate of copper; in another part, boil 6 parts 
of oxide of arsenic with 8 parts of potash, until it 
throws out no more carbonic acid; mix bj'degi-ees, 
this hot solution with the first, agitating continu- 
ally until the effervescence has entirely ceased; 
these then form a precipitate of a dirty greenish 
yellow, very abundant; add to it about three parts 
of acetic acid, or such a quantity that there may be 
a slight excess perceptible to the smell after the 
mixture; by degrees the precipitate diminishes the 
bulk, and in a few hours there deposes spontane- 
ously at ttie bottom of the liquor, entirely disco- 
loured, a powder of a contexture slightly crystal- 
line, and of a very beautiful green; afterwards the 
floating liquor is separated. 

This process lias been repeated on a large scale 
by using arsenic potass which was prepared with 8 
parts oxide of arsenic in place of G. The liquors 
Vere concentrated; some hours after tlie mixture 
there was formed at the surface a pellicle of a 
superb green colour; the whole was exposed to 
heat, and a heavy jiowder precipitated which was 
washed, to free it from a great excess of arsenic. 
The green thus obtained was magnifique. — Annals 
de Chimie, Sept. 1822. 

To improve green paint. 
Take 14 ounces of crude potash, 14 drachms of 
crude white arsenic. 

Boil them in 2 gallons of soft water, until quite 
dissolved; then put the liquor into a cast iron ves- 
sel to coat and settle^ draw off the liquor clean 
from tlie sediment, and put it into a vessel that 
will hold 200 gallons; add to it six gallons of clean 
soft water, cold; take one pound of lioman vitriol, 
and boil it in two gallons of soft water till dissolved; 
putting the solution into an open vessel till quite 
cold; then add it gi-adiially to the albresaid solu- 
tion of fixed alkali, stirring it well all the time, and 
it will produce ». genuine green oxide, with which 
proceed in the usual way of mineral green. It is 
essential in this preparation to make the mineral 
green without using caustic alkali which is the 
general way of manufacturing it for this purpose; 
because the caustic alkali acts powerfully on the 
vegetable quality of linseed oil used in this opera- 
don, and renders it mucilaginous. 

To prepai-e the precipitate of copper to mix with 
the atoresaid oxide, take one pound of Roman 
vitriol, and boil it till dissolved in two gallons of 
soft water; at the same time dissolve in another 
vessel half a pound of the first soft American pearl- 
ash; put the solution of vitriol boiling hot, into a 
vessel that will hold 10 or 12 gallons; then add to 
t gradually tlie solution of pearl-ash, boiling hoi; 



to be well stiired all the time. On mixing the so- 
lution together, it will cause a strong eftervescence, 
if the pearl-ash is good, it will be enough to pre- 
cipitate the vitriol, which will be known by the 
eflervescence immediately subsiding, ai)il the preci- 
pitate falling to the bottom of the vessel and thereby 
jn-oducing a fine green colour: when settled, draw 
off the clear livjudr, tden put it into bags, made of 
canvas, to filter, and when well drained lay it on 
chalk-stones, to draw a further quantity from it-, 
then put it into a stove to diy. 

'J'o mix the mineral substances i?i Tinseed n.. 
Take 1 lb, of the genuine mineral green, pre- 
pared and well powdered, 1 lb. of the precipitate 
of copper, 1^ lb. of refiners' blue verditer, 3 lbs. 
of white lead, diy powdered, 3 ounces of sugar ol 
lead, powdered fine. 

Mix the whole of these ingredients in linseed 
oil, and grind them in a levigating mill, passing it 
through until ([uite fine; it will thereby produce a 
bright mineral pea green ])aint, preserve a blue 
tint, and keep any length of time, in any climate, 
without injury, by putting oil or water over it. 

To use this colour for house or shi)) pairiting*. 
take 1 lb. of the green colour paint, with 1 gill ol 
pale boiled oil; mix them well together, and this will 
[)roduce a strong pea-green paint: the tint may be 
varied at pleasure, by adding a further qtiaiitily of 
white lead, groimd in linseed oil. This colour will 
stand the we.ither, and resist salt water; it may 
also be used for flatting rooms, by adding three 
pounds of white lead, ground in half lin.seed oil, 
and half turpentine, to one pound of the greenr 
then to be mixed up in turpentine spirits. Tit for 
use. It may also be used for painting Venetian 
window blinds, by adding to 1 lb. of the green pain* 
ten ounces of wiiite lead, ground in turpentine- 
then to be mixed up with turpentine varnish for 
use. In all tiie aforesaid prepar.ilions it will re- 
tain a blue tint, which is very desirable. AVhen 
used for blinds, a small quantity of Dutch pink may 
be put to the white lead if the colour is required 
of a yellow cast. — Re[iertory, 1814, 
Jin excellent azure. 
Take 2 oz. of quicksilver; sulphur, and ammo- 
niac salt, cf each half oz. Grind all together, and 
put the contents to digest in a matrass over a slow 
he.it: increase the fire a little, and when an azure 
fume arises, take the matrass from tlie fii-e. AVlien 
cool, these will make as beautiful an azure as ultra 
marine. 

To make nfine broiun pink. 
Bruise, and boil in 3 quarts of water, 4 oz. of 
French berries, to the reduction of one half. Strain 
them through a cloth, and put in this juice a dis- 
cretional (juantity of whiting, pounded and sifted 
into a subtle powder, so as to make a thick paste, 
which put into small tied bags, and set it to dry on 
tiles. 

^Vhen diy, use it with gum; and to render it 
finer, put in some gamboge. 

To imitate Jlesh colour. 
Mix a little white and yellow together; then add 
a little more red than yellow. These form an ex- 
cellent imitation of the complexion. 
A 7vhite for painters luhich may be preserved foi - 
en)er. 
Put into a pan 3 quarts of linseed oil, with an 
equal quantity of brandy, and 4 quarts of the best 
double distilled vinegar, 3 dozen cf whole new-laid 
eggs, 4 lbs. of mutton suet, chopped small: cover 
all with a lead plate, and lute it well. Lay this 
pan in the cellar for three weeks, then take skil- 
fully the white off, and dry it l"he dose of this 
composition is ounces of white to 1 of bismuth. 
To clean pictures. 
Take the picture out of the frame; lay a cleaa 
towel on it, for 10 or 14 days. Keep continuallv 



WATER COLOURS. 



49 



vetting it, until it has drawn out all the filthiness 
from the picture: pass some linseed oil over it, 
wliich has been a long time seasoned in the sun lo 
purify it, and the picture will become as lively on 
its surface as new. 

Another method. — Put into 2 quarts of the oldest 
ley, a quarter of a pound of Genoa soap, rasped 
very line, with about a pint of spirit of wine, and 
Doil all togetlier. Then strain it throngli a cloth, 
and let it cool. With a brush dipped in the com- 
position rub the picture all over, and let it dry; 
repeat this process, and let it dry again. Then 
dip a little cotton in oil of nut, and ])ass it over its 
surface. When perfectly dry, rub it well over 
witli a warm cloth, and it will appear of a beauti- 
ful freshness. 

Compound for receiving the colours used in encaus- 
tic painting. 

Diss^^lve 9 oz. of gum arabic in I pint of w.iter; 
add 14 oz. of finely powdered mastic, and 10 oz. 
of white wax, cut in small pieces; and, whilst hot, 
add by degrees 2 pints of cold spring water: then 
strain tlie composition. 

Another method. — Mix 24 ounces ot mastic with 
guni water, leaving out the wax; and when suffi- 
ciently beaten and dissolved over the fire, add, by 
degrees, Ij pints of cold water, and strain. 

Or, dissolve 9 ounces of gum arabic in 1^ pints 
of water, then add 1 pound of white wax Boil 
them over a slow fire, pour them into a cold ves- 
sel, and beat it well together. When this is mix- 
ed with the colours, it will require more water 
than the others. This is used in painting, the co- 
lours being mixed with tiiese compositions as with 
oil, adding water if necessary. When the paint- 
ing is finished, melt some white wax, and with a 
hard brush varni^ the painting, and when cold, 
rub it to make it entirely smooth. 

Grecian method of painting on -wax. 

Take an ounce of white wax, and one ounce of 
gum mastic, in drops, made into powder; put the 
■wax into a glazed pan, over a slow fire, and when 
melted add the mastic: then stir the same until 
they are both incorporated. Next throw the paste 
mto water, and when hard take it out, wipe it dry, 
and beat it in a mortar; when dry pound it in a 
linen cloth, till it is reduced to a fine powder. 
Make some strong gum water, and when painting 
take a little of the powder, some colour, and rai.x 
them all with the gum water. Light colours re- 
quire but a small quanaty of the powder, but more 
must be put in proportion Jo the darkness of the 
colours, and to black there should be almost as 
much of the powder as of colour. 

Having mixed the colours, paint with water, as 
IS practised in painting with water colours, a 
ground on the wood being first painted, of some 
proper colour, prepared as described for the pic- 
ture. When tlie painting is quite dry, with a hard 
brush, passing it one way, varnish it with white 
wax, which is melted over a slow fire till the pic- 
ture is varnished. Take care the wax does not 
boil. Afterwards hold the picture before a fire, 
near enough to melt the wax, but net to run; and 
wheti the varnish is entirely cold and hard, rub it 
gently with a linen cloth. Should the varnish blis- 
ter, warm the picture again very slowly, aud the 
bubbles will subside. 



WATER COLOURS USED EST DRAWING. 

Implements. 
Those necessary for drawing are a drawing- 
board, a ruler, compasses, charcoal, black lead 
pencils, penknife,, porte-crayons, black, white, 
and red chalks, Indian ink, crow-quill pens, ca- 



mel's hair pencils, hoxes of crlours, paper of se- 
veral sorts, and portfolios. 

Drawing-hoards are used to fix the paper so 
that it may not shift, and also to strain it, to pre 
vent the colours when laid Vet on t!)e paper from 
causing it to swell, so as to become uneven The 
simplest sort is made of a deal board framed, with 
a strong piece across each end to prevent warping./ 
Upon this the paper may be fixe<l with pins, wa- 
fers, or sealing-wax, or it may be strained with 
paste or glue. 

Drawing compasses arc instruments of brass and 
steel, for dividing lines, and laying down measurtiB 
from scales, &c.; a steel pen is also useful for 
drawing lines, cleaner than tliL-y can be done by a 
common pen. 

Black-lead pencils are either liard or soft, the 
best are without any grit, not too soft, and cut easily 
without breaking; those tliat are gritty and brittle 
will not answer so well. 

Indian ink. — The best is stamped with Chinese 

characters, breaks with a glossy fracture, and feels 

smooth when rubbed on the shell or pla'.s The 

! inferior kind, made in this couriti-y, may be easily 

known by its grittiness. 

Ilair pencils are made of cavnel's-hair; if thej 
come to a point, when moistened, without split- 
ting, they are good. 

Dra-Mug paper. — That which is made without 
any wire marks, and called wove paper, is the 
best; it is made of various sizes aud thicknesses. 
Middle tint paper is of a brownish or of a grey co- 
lour, and is used for drawing upon with black and 
white chalk. 

Crow pens are used For fining the outline with 
ink after it has been determined by the pencil. 
To draw in water coloxirs. 

This is an art capable of affording the highest 
delight; since no mode of representation can dis- 
play the appearances of Nature with greater truth: 
it is an art which has of late been carried to un- 
precedented success; and may be said, at present, 
to be the most perfect species of painting which is 
in practice. To this the facility of its materials 
mainly contributes. — It is not attended with the 
embarrassments to wliich oil painting is liable, but 
])roceeds, by ready and uninterrupted progress, tr> 
its completion. 

The general or simple colours, and the various 
species of each fit for painting in water colours, arc 
as follow:— 

Whites. — Ceruse, constant white, white lead, 
Spanish white, flake white, sjtodijni. 

Blacks. — Burnt cherry stones, ivory black, 
Keating's black, lamp black. 

Greens. — Green bice, green verditer, grass 
green, sap green, verdigris distilled. 

Blues. — banders blue, terre blue, Ijlue verditer, 
indigo, litmus, smelt, Prussian blue, light ditto, 
ultramarine, ultramarine ashes, blue bice. 

Browns. — Spanish brown, Spanish liquorice, 
umber, bistre, biu-nt terra de Sienna, vinburnt 
ditto. 

Reds. — Native cinnabar, burnt ochre, Indian 
red, red lead, minium, lake, vermilion, cai'mine, 
reU ink, Indian lake. 

Yellows. — ^English ochre, gall stone, gamboge 
masticot, oclire de luce, orpiment, Romaic ochre, 
Dutcli pink, saffron water, lung's yellow, gold yel- 
low, French hemes. 

To prepare water colours. — White. 

Use white lead, and clarify it with wiiite wine 
vi\»egar; after the white is settled, pour off the 
vinegar, and wash it with water, tlius: Put the 
powJer into a glass of water, stir it, and presently 
pour the water oft", while it is white, into another 
glass; when it is settled, pom- off the water, and 

E 



60 



UNIVERSAL. RECEIPT BOOK. 



an excellent white will be obtained; to whicli add 
as much gum as is necessary to give it a gloss. 

Anothtr. — Take a pound of the shreddings of 
glove leatlier, and steep them in water; boil them 
with twelve quarts of water, till it wastes to two; 
strain 't through a linen cloth, into a well glazed 
earthen pan; this is called glue or size, and proper 
to use with colours in candle light pieces; to know 
if this is strong enough, try if il is stiff and iirm 
under the hand. 

The glue being melted, reduce some white chalk 
to a powder, and while it is hot add such a quan- 
tity of the chalk as will bring it to the consistency 
of a paste, letting it steep for a quarter of an hour; 
stir it with a brush made of iiog's bristles. 

In order to make this white brighter, add more 
glue. Be careful to observe that every layer is 
dry before putting on another. If the artist works 
upon wood, he must put on a dozen; but six or 
seven are sufficient if tlie paper is thi-.k. After- 
wards dip a soft brush in some water, drain it with 
the fingers; rub the work with it in order to make 
It smooth. When the brush is full of white, wash 
it again; and also change the water when it is too 
white. Or use a wet linen rag instead of a brush. 
* Fellows. 

In some objects there may frequently be seen a 
khiuing, like that of gold, through colours of red, 
blue, or green, such as some sorts of flies or bee- 
tles, and the cantharides. This may be well imi- 
tated by laying some leaf-gold on the shaded side 
of the drawing, giving a little to the light side. To 
lay on the gold-leaf, press it smooth and close 
witli cotton, after having washed it with strong 
water; but take care that inlaying on the gum, the 
limits are not exceeded through which the gold is 
to a]»pear. In this case, the gold is only to shine 
through the transparent colour, which is to be laid 
over it. 
J As leaf-gold will not receive water-colours re- 

?i( gularl)', procure some water of ox-gall, and with 
'I this liquor stroke over the gold leaf, by which it 
will receive any colour the artist is desirous of lay- 
ing over it. 

In some manuscripts there may be seen gold 
letters, which seem to rise above the surface ot the 
paper. The composition which raises them is 
made of vermilion and the white of an egg. beaten 
to the consistence of an oil, and fixed to the paper 
with gum-arabic; on this figui-ative letter, wash 
some gum-water, with a camel's-hair pencil; lay 
on the gold leaf close with some cotton; and when 
dry, rub it again with cotton, and burnisli it with 
a dog's tooth, when it will appear as if cast in 
gold. 

There is also another way ot working in gold, 
which is performed by shell gold. Cover the slia- 
dy parts with vermilion, before using this gold. 
And when it has been rectified with spirit of wine, 
lay it on; when dry burnish it as before. 

In laying on this gold, leave the lights without 

, as it will appear to much greater advantage 
than if all the objects were covered; but provided 
the whole performance should be covered, the best 
way of setting it off is to trace over the shady parts 
with gall-stone, or the yellow made of French \icv- 
vies, heightened with minium. 

Gamboge is one of the mellowest colours nature 
has produced; it is of so mild a temperature, that 
when it is touched with any fluid, it instantly dis- 
solves; it is productive of a vai'iety of most agreea- 
ble tints, and will generally shade itself, though 
sometimes it requires help. 

Gall-stone is a Tery rich deep yellow, tending 
towards a brown; it is exceedingly useful in many 
cases, needs but little gumming or grinding, 
works free, but will not shade itself. 



If we cut the roots of barberries, and put them 
into a strong lixivium of pearl-ashes and water, a 
very agreeable yellow will proceed Irom them. 

Another fine transparent yellow is made by 
boiling the root of a imdberry-tree, well cleansed, 
in the foregoing lixivium. 

Yellow ochre makes a very good pale yellow; 
and being ground with gum water proves extreme- 
ly useful. 

Another verj' agreeable yellow is made by in- 
fusing tiie plant celadinc in water; gently press il, 
and add to the liquor some alum-water; then let it 
boil. 

To extract yelloia from French berries. 

In a quart of the preceding lixivium, boil 2 oz. 
of French berries, till the liquor is of a fine yel- 
low; strain it from the yellow berries, and when 
cold it is fit for use. To tlie berries put a pint ot 
the same lixivium, and boil it till the liqtor is as 
strong as gall-stones; with which shade any yel- 
lows: this boil till it comes to a brown; with the 
addition of a little ox-gall, it will serve to shade 
the gi;ld-leaf. 

A yellow may be made by infusing saffron in 
pure water. When this is steeped in rectified 
spirit of wine, there is nothing higher; but it is 
very apt to fly unless it is highly gummed. 

A good yellow, for the illumination of prints, 
may be extracted from the roots of g-injer; which 
make a good green, when ntiixed witli transparent 
verdigris. 

Those yellows, called English and Dutch pinks, 
are made with French berries, ground to a fine 
powder, and then boiled. 

JCing's yellow, a fine body-colour, is much used 
in heightening the ochre for gold lace, &c. 

Orange colour is made of a mixture of vermil 
ion and gamboge, the latter most predominant. 
licds. 

Red-lead, or minium, is a strong heavy colour. 
The following are the directions tor preparing it: 
Put four ounces in a glass, to a quart of rain water, 
and when it has been thoroughly stirred, pour ofi 
the water; by a frequent repetition of this, there 
will remain at the bottom of the glass a beautiful 
red, when dry, wliich is to be used with gum-wa- 
ter. When "the colour has been thus prepared, 
not more than twenty grains will remain out oi 
four ounces. 

Carmine affords tlte highest and most perfect 
crimson, and is the most beautiful of all reds, for 
wilh this colour and lake the shades may be made 
as strong as wanted. This colour should never be 
purchased but in day-light; for if not good, it will 
spoil the work. 

Lakes. 

Lake is a fine transparent colour, not much m 
ferior to carmine; but in painting with carmine 
on that part of the print on which the light is sup- 
posed to strike, lay on the first tint as light as pos- 
sible, working it stronger as it grows darker, and 
touch it iri the darker parts with lake. 

To make lake, prepare a lixivium, made with 
the ashes of vine-twigs, and to three pints add a 
pound of the best ground Brazil-wood; boil it till 
half the lixivium is evaporated; strain it off; boil 
it again with the addition of four ounces of fresh 
Brazil-wood, two ounces of cochineal, half an 
ounce of terra merita, and a pint of water; evapo- 
rate as before; add half an ounce of burnt alum 
(reduced to an impalpable powder), and a quarte^i 
of a drachm of arsenic; dissolve them in it, by 
stirring it with a stick; when settled strain it. To 
give this a body, reduce two cuttle-fish bones to a 
powder, and putting it in, let it dry leisurely. 
Grind it ina quantity of water, in which let it steep; 
strain it through a cloth, and making it into a fe\* 



WATER COLOURS. 



51 



caiLes, set it by for use, after diying it on a piece 
of marble. 

If this is wanted redder, add some of the juice 
of a lemon ; and to make it deeper, add oil of 
tartar. 

Another lake. 

Boil the sbreds of superfine scarlet cloth in a ley 
made of the ashes of burnt tartar; when sufficient- 
ly boiled, add some cochineal, powdered mastic, 
and alum; boil this again, and strain it through a 
bag several times. The first time, the bag must 
be strained from top to bottom; and the remaining 
gross matter being taken out, let the bag be well 
washed; after this strain the liquor through the 
bag again, when a paste will remain on the sides, 
which divide into small cakes, for use. 

Another. — Steep four ounces of the best Brazil- 
wood in a pint and a half of the finest distilled 
vinegar, for tliree weeks at least, though the longer 
it remains the better it is; seetiie the whole in bal- 
iieum maris, till it boils up three or four times; 
Jet it settle for a day or two; put it to an ounce of 
powdered alum, anil into a clean pan with the li- 
quor; let it remain for twenty-four hours; heat the 
composition, and stir it till it is cold; when it has 
stood about twelve hours, strain it, and add two 
cuttle-fish bones, prepared as before. 
Crimson. 

In twelve ounces of pale stale beer, boil one 
ounce of ground Brazil-wood, till the colour is as 
strong as desired; strain it through a linen cloth, 
and bottle it up for use. If wanted to bring this 
colour to a body, take some dried ox-blood, re- 
duced to a powder, and mix it with the colour. 

A fine crimson may be extracted from the berr}'- 
bearing spinach, which, being pressed, affords a 
reiy agreeable juice; to this add a fourth part of 
alum; boil it, and when cold it is fit for use. 

Or a very beautiful red may be extracted from 
tlie red beet root, baked witli a little strong vine- 
gar and alum; when cold it is fit for use. 

Another. — Put twenty or more grains of bruised 
cochineal into a gallipot, with as many drops of 
the ley of tartar as will make it give forth its co- 
lour; add to this mixture about half a spoonful of 
water, or more, and a very agreeable purple will 
be obtained. Reduce some alum to a very fine 
powder, put it to the purple liquor, and a beautiful 
crimson will appear; strain it through a fine cloth: 
use it as soon as possible; for though this is a co- 
lour which, if soon used, looks extremely well, 
)'et by long standing it is subject to decay. 

Indian lake is far superior to any other of the 
kind, for the deep shades of red of all kinds, and 
works as free as gamboge. The best is brought 
from China in pots, and has the appearance of 
raspberry-jam, but very bitter to the taste: it re- 
ip/ires ne gum. 

Purple. 

Take eight ounces of logwood, a pint of rain 
water, and an ounce of alum; infuse it well over a 
slow fire, in a well glazed pan or pipkin, for about 
24 hours; add \ ounce of gum-arabic, let it stand 
for a week: strain it through a piece of fine cloth. 
Keep it close, or it will mould. 

Another. — A redder purple may be made by 
adding to 1 oz. of the above, four ounces of Brazil- 
wood, and a pint of stale beer; boiling it till the 
liquor is as str'^-ng as is desired. It may be made 
darke'" by adding more logwood. 

The richest purple is made by blending carmine 
and Prussian blue, cr indigo, to whatever shade is 
wanted. 

Slues. 

Ultramarine is the best and brightest blue. Pre- 
pare it by heating six ounces of the lapis lazuli till 
(t if red; cool it in strong vinegar; grind it with a 



stone and muller to an impalpable powder; then 

make a composition of bees'-wax, resin, linseed- 
oil, and turpentine, of each three ounces: incor- 
porate the whole together ovei- a slow fire, till it 
is near boiling; pour them into a pan well glazed. 
This is called the paste of ultramarine. The lapia 
lazuli being prepared, add to it an equal quantity 
of the pastil, or paste; mix them t'^gether thorough- 
ly, and let them remain twelve hours. To extract 
the ultramarine from the paste, pour clean water 
upon it; on pressing the paste M'ith the hands, the 
ultramarine will come out for its reception: place 
a glass tumbler under the hand; let it settle in 
this water till the ultramarine sinks to the bottom. 

If the colour seems foul, cleanse it thus: Dissolve 
some tartar in water; add as much of it to the ul- 
tramarine as will cover it; let it stand twelve hours; 
wash it in warm water, when the colour will bt 
well clarified and perfectly clean. Let the ultra- 
marine be of a high coloiu', and well ground. 

Next to ultramarine in beatuy, is Prussian blue, 
but it does not grind kindly with water, on account 
of its oily substance. 

Blue bice is a colour of a very good body, and 
flows veiy agreeably in the pencil; wash it accord- 
ing to the rules laid down for ultramarine. 
Blacks. 

The proper blacks for water colours are as 
follows: 

Ivory black, which is prepared in the following 
manner: Let the ivory black be thoroughly ground, 
and there will naturally proceed from it a liquor 
of an oily substance: mix as much of it as will 
make it work freely in the pencil. It has a fine 
gloss, and is extremely serviceable in painting of 
shining objects. 

Indian ink is a very good black, and of great 
service, as it may be laid to any shade, and will 
always shade itself; on which account it is often 
used for drawings. 

Greens. 

Sap-gi^een is a colour extremely serviceable, and 
the best green for water colours, being of a gummy 
substance, and diluting easily in water. It produces 
an endless variety of tints, and has the advantage 
of shading itself. 

A sea or artijiciai green, is made by mixing in- 
digo and sap-green, which may be made lighter by 
adding more or less indigo; it is a veij servicea- 
ble colour, easily worked, and productive of many 
tints. This colour, as well as sap-green, shades 
itself. The indigo must be well ground before 
you mix it. 

Another is made with indigo and gamboge, well 
ground together : extremely useful in painting of 
trees, grass, vegetables, &c. With the addition of 
sap-green, it is veiy serviceable in flowers, and 
shading-in of garments. 

Broivns. 

Burnt and imlnimt terra de Sienna, are the 
warmest browns for front grounds, dead leaves, &;c. 
work very free, arid are of general use. 

Bistre is also a good and serviceable colour. — 
The best sort is very bright and close: as it is a 
colour difficult to work ot itself, mix a little Span- 
ish liquorice with it, that will mellow and take off 
its harshness. It must be well ground; and the 
higher it is gummed, the better for use. 

Spanish liquorice is productive of a great varie- 
ty of brown tints, of a verj* agreeable colour; it 
will not shade itself, but works as free as any gum 
colours by diluting it in fair water. 

A broivn mixture is made by incorporating sap- 
green and carmine, which is of an extraordinarily 
soft nature; it is a colour extremely serviceable in 
painting flowers in water colours. 

Another, by blending vermilion and btotrc U'lo- 



52 



UNIVERSAL, RECEIPT BOOK. 



roughly: the bistre must be extremely well ground 
before it is incorporated with the vermilion, and it 
will produce a very good brown. 

Directions for preparing mixed colours. 
Jlsli colour. — Ceruse, Keating's black and white, 
shaded with clierry-stone black. 

Bay. — Lake and flake white, shaded with car- 
mine ; bistre anJ vermilion shaded with black. 

Changeable silk. — Red lead and masticot-water, 
shaded with sap-green and verdigris. 

Another. — Lake and yellow, shaded with lake 
and Prussian blue. 

Cloud colour. — Light masticot, or lake and white, 
shaded with blue ver(";ter. 

Another. — Constant white and Indian ink, a little 
vermilion. 

Another. — White with a little lake and blue ver- 
diter, makes a very agreeable cloud colour, for 
that part next the horizon. 

Crij.'!so7i.— Lake and white, with a little vermil- 
ion, shaded with lake and carmine. 

Flame colour. — Vermilion and orpiment, height- 
ened with white. 

Another. — Gamboge, shaded with miniuin and 
red lead. 

Flesh colour. — 'Ceruse, red lead, and lake, for a 
sv/arthy complexion, and yellow-ochre. 

Another. — Constant white and a little carmine, 
shaded with Spauisli liquorice, washed witli car- 
mine. 

French green. — Light pink and Dutch bice, 
shaded with green pink. 

Glass grey. — Ceruse, with a little blue of any 
kind. 

Hair colour. — Masticot, ochre, umber, ceruse, 
and cherry-stone black. 

XeaJco/oi«-.— Indigo and white. 
Light blue. — Blue bice, heightened with flake 
white. . ! 

Another. — Blue verditer, and white of any sort, 
well ground. 

U gilt green. — Pink, smalt, and white. 
Another. — Blue verditer and gamboge. 
Another. — Gamboge and verdigris. The chief 
ase of tliis green is to lay the ground colours for 
irees, iields, &;c. 

lion ta-wney. — Red lead, and masticot, shaded 
with umber. 
JMurrey.' — Lake and white lead. 
Orange. — lied lead and a little masticot, shaded 
with gall-stone and lake. 

Orange ta-wney. — Lake, light pink, a little mas- 
ticot, shaded with gall-stone and lake. 

Pearl colour. — Carmine, a little white, shaded 
with lake. 

Popinjay green. — Gi-een and masticot; or pink 
and a little indigo, shaded with indigo. 

Purple. — Indigo, Spanish bi'own, and white ; 
or blue bice, red and white lead ; or blue bice 
and lake. 

Musset. — Cherry-stone black and white. 
Scarlet. — Red lead and lake, with or without 
vermilion. 

Sea-green. — Bice, j)ink, and white, shaded with 
pink. 

Sky colour. — ^Light masticot and white, for the 
lowest and lightest parts ; second, red ink and 
white; third, blue bice and white; fourth, blue bice 
alone. These are all to be softened into oue ano- 
ther at the e<!ges, so as not to appear harsh. 

Sky colour for drapery.— B\ae bice and ceruse, 
or ultramarine and white, shaded with indigo. 

Straw colour. — Masticot and a very little lake, 
shaded with Dutch pink. j 

~-"wf« colour. — Indigo, white, and lake; or fine 
Uuipli l)ice and lake, shaded with indigo; or lit- 1 



mus, smalt, and bice, tne latter most predomi- 
nant. 

Water. — Blue and while, shaded with blue, and 
heightened with white. 

Another. — Blue verdigris, shaded with indigo, 
and heightened with ^hite. 

Directions for using the colours. 
The pencil.s must be fast m the quills, not apt to 
part in the middle. 

Before beginning, have all the colours ready 
and a palette for the conveniency of mixing them; 
a paper to lay under the hand, as well as to try the 
colours upon ; also a large brush, called a fitch, to 
wipe off the dust from them. 

Being now prepared, proceed in the painting; 
which, if a landscape, lay on first dead colours 
freely all over the piece leaving no part unco- 
vered. 

Then proceed with the lighter parts, as the sky, 
sun-beams, &c. : then the yellowish beams, with 
masticot and white; next the blueness of the sky, 
with blue vei'diter alone; for purple clouds, mix 
only lake and white, making the coloiu-s deeper 
as they go upwards from the horizon, except in 
tempestuous skies. I'he tops of distant mountains 
must be worked so faint, that they may seem to lose 
themselves in the air. 

Bring tlie colours forward as the distance de- 
creases; painting the first ground next the horizon, 
downwards, of a bluish sea-green; and as you ad- 
vance forward, of a darker green, <.ill you come to 
the fore-ground itself; which, as it is the darkest 
part of all, with dark green, worked so as to give 
the appearance of shrubbery, &c. 

In painting trees, having first laid a little verdi- 
gris green for a dead colour, proceed with working 
it so as to give a leafy appearance. 

Bring some of the leaves forward with masticot 
and white; for the trunk, Avork the brown with sap- 
green; if oak trees are introduced, lay on some 
touches to express leaves of i\'y twined about it. 

All distinct objects are to be made impex'fect, as 
they apj)ear to the eye. 

In painting flesh, the following are the best di- 
rections for preparing the work so as afterwards 
more readily to produce the effects of colours t;een 
in nature. 

Take flake-white and a little lake, blend them 
together, and with that lay the ground colour ; 
then shade with red ochre, cherrj^-stone black, and 
a little lake, mixed together, touching the lips, 
cheeks, &cc. with a tint of cai'mine, and heighten 
the flesh Vr-itl'. white and a little carmine. Re 
member never to heighten it with pure white, 
which will always give it a cold appearance. 

It may be recommended to the student in gene- 
ral, whatever is the subject of his drawing, not to 
finish any one part first, but to work up every part 
gradually alike, until he finds nothing v/anting ta 
complete the whole. 

Wherever he lays on strong touches, he must be 
careful in those places to bring up his work to an 
equal roundness and strength, tempering and sweet- 
ening the colours with a sharper pencU than the 
first, that no lumps or harsh edges maybe left, but 
tliat the sliadows may all lie dispersed, soft and- 
smooth, and gliding gently into one another. 

The occasional roughness of the work need not 
discourage tlie artist; for it is easily softened by 
degrees with other tints and shadows: observing 
only to sweeten, mellow, and lieighten them ac- 
coi'ding as the liglit happens to fall. 

A method has'been lately discovered of combin 
ing the eftects of water colours with those of cray-. 
on-painting by means of wax crayons. It is an in- 
genious and pleasing mode of practice. 



WATER COLOURS. 



63 



Ta p^'evenl the colours from cracking. 
Boil 2 ounces of the best and clearest glue, with 
I pint of clear water, and a half an ouwse of the 
finest ilum, till dissolved. This is a veiy service- 
able liquor, with which temper those colours, in- 
tended for sky, as it will prevent them from crack- 
ing. ^ 

To make a solution of gum. 
Dissolve an ounce of white gum arable, and half 
an ounce of double refined sugar, in a quart of 
spring- water; strain it through a piece of muslin, 
then hottle it off for use, keeping it free from dust. 
AnotJier mtthod. — Take some of the whitest sort 
of gum arabic, then bruise and tie it in a piece of 
woollen cloth, steep it in spring water till dissolved. 
If too stiff, which is known by the shining of the 
colours, add more water; if too weak, more gum. 
With this water temper most of the colours, using 
such a quantity of it, that the colours, when dry, 
being touched, will come off. 

To keep fies from the -work. 
Having prepared the gum water, add a little co- 
loquintida, which, if the work should be exposed, 
will keep it from being damaged by the flies. 
To prepare alum water. 
Take 4 ounces of alum, and a pint of spring- 
water; boil it till the alum is thoroughly dissolved; 
filter it through blotting paper, and it is fit for use. 
Before laying on the colours, take some of this 
water hot, and with a sponge wet the back of the 
paper, which, if not good, must be wetted three or 
four times. This will not only prevent the sink- 
ing of the colours, but will also keep them from 
fading, and give an additional beauty and lustre. 
Remember that tlie paper must be dried each time 
before wetting it again. 

To make lime-water. 
Put some unslacked lime in a well-glazed pan ; 
cover it with pure water; let it remain so for one 
day , then strain off the water, and keep it for use. By 
the means of this water, sap green may be changed 
into blue. 

To make a lixivium of pearl ashes. 
Steep half an ounce of pearl ashes in clear water 
for one day; strain off the water as clean as possi- 
ble. This infusion will prove e-itremely servicea- 
ble in many colours, particularly Brazil wood; to 
which it will give an additional beauty and lustre. 
'J 'o restore decayed colours. 
Take distilled rosemary water, or essence of 
rosemary, and with a few drops temper the colours, 
which, however dead or faded, will recover their 
primitive brilliancy. This essence will prevent 
the bubbles which are troublcoome in grinding 
white and umbre. 

Liquid gold for vellum painting. 
Having procui-ed some of the finest leaf gold, 
grind it .vith strong gum-water, adding more gum- 
water asis found requisite; when thorough lygrouiiu 
terajier it with a small quantity of sublimate of 
mercury, binding it in the shell with a little dis- 
solved gum; spread it equally over the shell, and 
use it wiih water only, for gilding fans, &c. 
Liquid silver for the same. 
The manner of making this is the same as that 
of liquid gold, only remembering to temper it with 
glaire of eggs, and not water. 

To make glaire of eggs. 
Beat the whites with a spoon till they rise in a 
foam; let them stand twelve hours, and Uiey will 
be clarified into good glaire. 

To restore rusted liquid silver. 
If silver becomes rusty, cover that iiSLVt of the 
performance with the juice of garlic, which will 
recover it effectually. 

Ground to lay s-ilver or gold upon. 
Take the new shreds of parchment, (as they Ave ! 



I far preferable to glove leather) and boil them in a 
quart of spring water till consumed to a pint; strain 
the size from the shreds, and put it into a well 
glazed pan; use it before it is cold. Be careful, 
when laying on the siher or gold, that the size is 
not too moist, nor too dry, for in either case there 
will be danger of impairiVig the woi-k. 

To prevent gloss on draivinvs. 

Too much gum in the composition of ink em- 
ployed in drawings is tiie cause of the oft'ensive 
gloss which arises, in dilferent degrees, from what 
is called Indian ink, according to the caprice or 
ignorance of the manufacturer. This evil is 
irremediable, made with such ink, without the risk 
of defacing their surfaces. But it may be avoided 
by the artist composing his own ink, by an nnion 
of ivory or lamp black, with a small portion ot 
Prussian blue, or indigo, for a blue black; and the 
same blacks united with raw or bin-nt umi)er, bis- 
tre, Vandyke, or any other brown instead of the 
blue for a brown black. These should be incor- 
porated by mixing them in weak gum water, (or 
perhaps malt-wort would answer better), first levi- 
gating them veiy fine in common water, on a mar- 
ble slab. When dried to a paste, the glutinous 
matter should be, and not till then, well mixed 
with them. The proper strength may be readily 
known by a few trials, and that will be found suf- 
ficiently strong which binds the composition 
enough to prevent rubbing oft^ by the touch. Indian 
ink drawings should be handled as little as possi- 
ble, for the slightest rubbing produces a certain 
degree of gloss, and frequent repetitions ot it 
make the gloss more apparent and decided. 
To prepare -wash colours for maps. For yellotv. 

Dissolve gamboge in water: or French berries 
steeped in water, the liquor strained, and gum ara- 
bic added. 

For red. 

Steep Brazil dust in vinegar, witli alum. 

Or, dissolve litmus in water, and add spirit of 
wine. 

Or, steep cochineal in water, strained, and add 
gum. 

For blue. 

Dilute Saxon blue with water. 

Or, to the solution of litmus add distilled vine- 
gar. 

For green. 

Dissolve distilled water in verdigris, and add 
gum. 

Or, dissolve sap green in water, and add gum. 
Litmus is rendered green by adding p. p. m. kali 
to its Solution. 

To keep luaier-colows from si7iking. 

Boil 4 ounces of alum in a pint of spring ifater, 
till it is thoroughly disbolved; filter it through 
brown paper, and keep it for use. 

Before laying on the colours, take a sponge, and 
wet the back of the paper with this water while it 
is hot. This will not only prevent the colours from 
sinking, but will likewise give them an additional 
beauty and lustre, and preserve them from fading. 
If the paper is not good it must be washed three or 
four times with this water, drying it every time. 

If the prints are to be varnished, wash them all 
over with white starch, before beginning to lay on 
the colours. 

To prepare charcoal arid chalks for draxving. 

Saw the finest grain charcoal into slips of the 
size wanted, and put them into a pipkin of rnelleil 
bee's-wax; put them near a slow fire for half an 
hour, take them out, and when they are perfectly 
cool they are fit for use. The advantages tiftliese 
pencils are, that they can be made at the most 
triiling expense, and tliat drawings made with .V^ra 
are as permanent as ink. 

£2 



54 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



The above process will harden both red and 
black chalks, and make them permanent also. 
To make cavminated lake for crayons. 

The decoction which floats over the coloured 
7)recipitate known by the name of carmine, bein^ 
still highly coloured, the addition of sulphate of 
alumina, which is afterwards decomposed by a so- 
lution of carbonate of soda, disengages the alumine, 
and the latter, in precipitating itself, carries with 
it the colouring part of the bath. According to the 
dose prescribed for the composition, 2 or 3 ounces 
of alum may be employed. The greater or less 
(juantity of this substance, the base of which seizes 
on the colouring fecula, determines the greater or 
less intensity observed in the colour of the lake re- 
salting from it. When the process is conducted on a 
small scale, and by way of trial, the precipitate is 
received on a filter. It is then washed with warm 
water, and when it has acquired the consistence of 
soft paste, it is formed into small cakes or sticks. It 
is tliis substance which constitutes the beautiful 
carminated lakes used for crayon painting. 

Another, in the large -way. — In operating on a 
large scale, the whole of the alkaline liquor judged 
necessary, after a few trials, to decompose the 
(juantity of alum intended to be employed, may be 
divided into three or four separate portions. As 
many cloth filters as there are alkaline portions, 
being then prepared, the first portion of alkaline 
liquor is poured out, and the coloured precipitate 
resulting from it is received on one of the filters : 
the coloured liquor which passes through the filter 
receives the second portion of alkaline liquor, and 
llie latter produces a second precipitate, wliich is 
received on a new filter. This operation is then 
continued till the last portion of alkaline liquor 
has been employed. The lakes deposited on the 
filters are washed in warm water; and when drain- 
ed, are carried along with their cloth to the plas- 
ter dryers, or to beds of new bricks. These dryers, 
made of wrought plaister in the form of thick ba- 
sins, attract the moisture of the, paste, and shorten 
the process. The first precipitation gives a car- 
minated lake of a very high colour; the second is 
somewhat higher; and the rest go on decreasing in 
the same maniier. 

By these means the ai-tist obtains from the same 
oath shades of colour varied to infinity, much mel- 
lower, and more delicate than those resulting from 
a mechanical mixture of white clay in different 
doses, and lake saturated with colour by one ope- 
ration. 

To presei^e pencil and chalk dratuings. 

Get a pan or tub, sufficiently spacious to admit 
the drawing horizontally; fill it with clean water; 
and run the drawing through in that direction: 
then lay it on something flat to dry. (Do not lay 
the drawing, while ivet, on any coloured wood, 
such as mahogany, Sec. which will stain the paper 
in streaks.) This will take oft" the loose lead. 

Secondly, Fill the same vessel a second time, 
with rather more than one-third new milk, and 
the remaining part clean water, through which run 
the drawing again horizontally, and leave it to dry 
as before. 

Should milk be scarce, mix a little (in the pro- 
portions above-mentioned), in a tea-cup, and run 
the drawing lightly over with a camel-hair pencil, 
the water having already taken oft" the superfluous 
lead, and, in some degree, fixed the other; but be 
pai ticularly light with the pencil, never touching 
the drawing twice in the same place. 

To preserve black lead pencil draraings. 

Apply a thin wash of isinglass, which will pr-i- 
vent rubbing off of either black lead, or of hard 
black chalk. The simple application of skimmed 
milk will produce the same eifect. In using the 



latter, lay the drawing flat, upon the surface of the 
milk; then taking it up expeditiously, hang it, by 
one corner, till it drains and dries. The milk 
must be perfectly free from cream, or it will 
grease the paper. 

To fix crayon colours. 

Paste your paper on canvas, stretched on a 
frame in the usual way. When your drawing is 
finished, dilute drying oil with spirits of turpen- 
tine, and apply the mixture to the back of the 
drawing, or on the canvas. In a few days, when 
perfectly dry, give the face of the picture a coating 
of the same, and your crayon drawing will become 
(as the discoverer terms it) an oil painting. 
To make artificial black lead pencils. 

Melt together fine Cumberland black-lead in 
powder and shell lac. This compound is to be 
repeatedly powdered and re-melted until of uni- 
form composition; it is then sawn into slips, and 
mounted as usual. Pencils thus made are uniform, 
and of great strength, and there is no waste of ma- 
terials. 

To make English drawing pencils. 
They are formed of black-lead alone, sawn 
into slips, which are fitted into a groove made in a 
piece of wood, and another slip of wood glued over 
them: the softest wood, as cedar, is made choice 
of, that the pencil may be the easier cut; and a 
part at one end, too short to be conveniently used 
after the rest has been worn and cut away, is left 
unfilled with the black-lead, that there may be no 
waste of so valuable a commodity. 

These pencils are greatly preferable to others, 
being accompanied with some degree of the same 
inconveniences, and being very unequal in their 
quality, on account of different sorts of the mine- 
ral being fraudulently joined together in one pen- 
cil, the fore-part being commonly pretty good, 
and the rest of an inferior kind. Some, to avoid 
these imperfections, take the finer pieces of black- 
lead itself, which they saw into slips, and fix for 
use in port-crayons: this is doubtless the surest 
way of obtaining black-lead crayons, whose good- 
ness can be depended on. 

To make crayons fo'' drawing. 

Mix to one pint of boiling water 3 ounces oi 
spermaceti, I lb. of fine ground long ash with the 
colouring matter a sufficient quantity; roll out the 
paste, and when halfdr)', cut it in pipes. 

Another method. — This preparation has given 
birth to a particular kind of painting. In the large 
way, it consists in mixing up with the coloured 
bath ati argillaceous matter of the first quality, and 
subjecting the whole to careful evaporation, or in 
exposing the liquid paste on dryers of plaster with 
a clean cloth to prevent the crayon from adhering 
to the dryer. 

This method is more eionomieal than the che- 
mical process; but it requires a very nice choice 
in the quality of the white desired for the opera- 
tion, and in particular the precaution of previous 
washing, to remove the fine sandy parts with which 
the finest white clays are mixed. 

If the composer of crayons be also a manufac- 
turer of carminated lakes, and prefer to mix the 
bath of cochineal with white clay, well washed, 
and of the first quality, he may obtain the same 
shades by diluting with one measure of the decoc- 
tion of cochineal, different quantities of clay. For 
example, a pound of decoction saturated with co- 
lour, and a quarter of a pound of clay; the same 
quantity of decoction, and half a pound of clay; a 
pound, and so on. 

To enlarge or dlmimsh the size of a picture. 

Divide tlie sidi's of the original with a pair oi 
compasses into any number of equal parts, and 
rule lines across with a black lead pencil from side 



WATER COLOURS. 



55 



lo side, and from top to bottom. Then having the 
paper of the size intended, divide it into the same 
number of squares, either larger or less, to enlarge 
or contract it. Then placing the original before 
you, draw square by square the several parts, ob- 
serving to make the part of tlie figure you draw 
fall in the same part of the squares in the copy as 
it does in the original. To prevent mistakes, 
number the squares both of the original and copy. 

To prevent the necessity of ruling across the 
original, which may injure it, take a square pane 
of crown glass and divide its sides, and also its tcp 
and bottom into equal parts; then from each divi- 
sion draw lines across tlve glass with lamp black 
ground with gum water, and divide the glass into 
squares. Then lay the glass upon the original, 
and having drawn the same number of squares upon 
the paper, proceed to copy into each square on the 
paper what appears behind each corresponding 
square of the glass. Instead of a glass, an open 
frame with threads stretched across will answer. 
To take a copy of a print or drawing. 

Take a sheet of the finest white paper, wet it 
over with clean linseed oil on one side, and wipe 
the oil off clean, then let it stand and dry, other- 
wise it will spoil a printed picture by the soaking 
through of the oil. Having thus prepared the pa- 
per, lay it on any printed or painted picture, and 
it may be seen perfectly through; then with a black 
lead pencil copy with ease any picture on the oiled 
paper, then put it upon a sheet of clean white pa- 
per, and with a little pointed tracer or burnisher, 
go over the strokes drawn upon the oiled paper, 
and the same will be very neatly and exactly drawn 
upon the white paper. 

To make a scale for dividing the vanishing lines 
'in perspective. 

Take a sheet of paper, and having made an hori- 
Eontal line, fix on a point, as a centre, called the 
point of sight. Let this point be crossed with 
diagonal lines, in various directions. 

1 he ir.strument thus prepared, will form a sure 
guide to an unexperienced eye, in taking the pros- 
pective lines of all objects placed at right angles, 
such as streets, buildings, churches, apartments, 
by merely placing it under the leaf to be drawn on. 
To render the instrument more complete, a plate 
of glass sliould be added of the same size as the 
leaf of tlie drawing book on which the dark lines 
sliould be drawn. 

'J'o mix -water colours for animals. 
Horses. 

Chemut bro-wn. — Red ochre and black, mixed 
together, shaded with black, heightened with red 
ochre and white. 

Grey. — Black and white mixed, shaded with 
black, white, and bistre; heightened with i)ure 
water. 

Black. — Black lightly laid on, shaded with Keat- 
jng's black and bistre; heightened with masticot. 
Lions. 

Colour much the same manner as hogs, adding 
lake in the ground colour. 

Bears. 

Brown-oehre, red-ochre, and black, mixed; 
shaded with bistre and ivory-blaek. 
Wolves. 

Spanish liquorice and black, shaded with black. 



Black and white mixed; or add a little brown 
•ochre shaded with black. 

Elephants, 

Black, white, and Spanish liqaorice mixed; 

ehaded with black and bistre; the inner part of 

the nose vermilion and white, shaded with black. 

Monkeys, &c. 

Dutch pink and black, heightened with masti- I, 



cot and white: the face, black and bistre mixed, 
as also their feet, and below their bellies, shaded 
with black and pink mixed with a little brown- 
ochre. 

Stags. 
Brown-ochre, shaded with bisti'e towards the 
back; the neck and belly white, the mouth and 
ears inclining to red, the hoofs black, and legs 
shaded with black. 

To paint fruit in water colours. 
Jlpples. — Thin masticot mixed vith verdigris, 
shaded with brown ochre. 

Pears. — Masticot, deepened and mellowed with 
brown-ochre; tlie bloom the same as the apple. 

Cherries. — Vermilion and lake, shaded with 
carmine, heightened with vermilion and white. 

Strawberries. — White; draw it over with ver- 
milion and lake, shaded with fine lake, heightened 
with red lead and masticot, mixed; and, after, 
with white; stipple them with white and thin lead 
only. 

Bltie Grapes. — Dark purple, shaded with blue; 
the bloom bice. 

TVIiile Grapes.—~K mixture of verdigris and 
masticot, shaded with thin verdigris, heightened 
with masticot aqd white. 

Peaches. — Thin masticot, shaded with brown- 
ochre; the bloom lake, heightened with white. 
To pai7it flowers. 
Auriadas. — A tender wash of gamboge, shaded 
with sap green and carmine, blended together 
Round the centre leave a broad while space, which 
shade with Indian ink and green sap, mixed; stip- 
ple the gamboge with a purple extracted from 
logwood; the cup, in the inside, strong yellow, 
shaded with Dutch pink, or gall-stones; stipple it 
with white, darkening the white gradually with 
Indian ink, us the shade increases. 

Anemones. — A thin wash of gamboge, shaded 
with bistre, or carmine and sap green blended to- 
getlier; the stripes carmine, shaded with the same, 
indigo in the darkest parts, or stipple witli it. The 
leaves sap green, shaded with indigo and French 
berries: the stalk brown. 

Yellow Crown Imperials. — A thin wash of gam- 
boge, upon that another of washed red lead, shad- 
ed with carmine. The leaves sap green, shaded 
with indigo and French berries. 

Roses. — A light tint of pure carmine, over which 
another equally light of Peruvian blue, which will 
give the flowers a tint of that bloom which appears 
in nature; proceed with darker sliades of carmine, 
of the best sort. In the darkest parts of the flower, 
add a little indigo, whicli will give h roundness 
and body to your work. — If the seeds are seen, lay 
on some gamboge, shaded with gall stone; the up- 
per side of the leaves sap green, shaded with indi- 
go and French berries mixed; the under part, 
white indigo and sap green, mixed; shaded with 
the same. The stalks brown, made of sap green 
and carmine, shaded with indigo. 

Rose-buds. — A pale wash of carmine, shaded with 
a stronger wash of the same; let the hatchings be 
extremely tender, preserving that transparency 
and sweetness the flower has by nature. The stalks 
and leaves begin and finish with sap green, after 
which, a slight wash of carmine. 

Orange Crown Imperials. — A thin wash of red 
lead, the light shades carmine, the daik vermilion 
and bistre mixed; the seed the same as the flower. 
The leaves and stalks as the preceding. 

Honey Suckles. — The inside of the petals white 
shaded with sap green, or gamboge and bistre; 
which insides are to be shewn by curling the leaves 
back at the ends, or splitting them. The outsides. 
a thin wash of ermine and lake mixed, shaded with 
carmine, — indigo for the darkest shades. It is to 



56 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



be observed, t'lat some of the flowers growing on 
the same stalk are inclinable to purple, others ir 
carmine; the style and buttons, to be seen at the end 
of the flower, are of a faint green. The stalks, 
sap-green and carmine; the leaves, sap green, 
shaded with indigo and French berries. 
To draiv birds in luater colours. 

E'^Qfles. — Black and brown, shaded with indigo; 
the t^athers heightened b)' brown ochre and white; 
the beak and claws saffi'on, shaded with bistre; the 
eyes with vermilion, heightened with masticot or 
saffron, shaded with vermilion. 

Turkeys. — Both mak and female: — the back 
black and white, mixed gradually, shaded off" to a 
■white under the belly; sprinkled and shaded with 
black. 

Swans. — Wliite shaded with black; the legs and 
bills black; the eyes yellow, a ball in the midst. 

Geese. — Ceruse shaded with black; the legs 
black; the bill red. 

Pheasants. — White and black mixed; the ej^es 
like those of the falcon; the legs Dutch pink, shad- 
ed with black. 

Owls. — Ochre mixed with white, in different 
shades; the legs yellow ochre. 

Rules for pamting landscapes in roaier colours. 

The most useful colours for landscapes are, lake, 
burnt ochre, gamboge, indigo, or light red, sepia, 
Prussian blue, and terra de sienna. 

Skies are tinted with indigo; and the distant hills 
may also receive a finish wash of the same colour. 
Buildings, ground, and road, should be tinted with 
ochre. The bushes and grass may be forwarded 
with a tint of gamboge. The distances may be 
heightened vvitli a tint of lake, and the dark sha- 
dows of the building may be tinted with sepia. 

In retiring liilis, tint the whole with weak blue, 
then the nearer ones with indigo and lake; then add 
a little gamboge to the next, keeping rne subordi- 
nate to the otTier; the most distant being lost in 
the aerial tints. Clouds should be tinted'with se- 
pia. Opposing masses of trees should be tinted 
with sepia and indigo, and distant trees with grey. 
The lights warmed with gamboge and ochre, and 
their shades deepened with indigo. Force is ac- 
quired by adding sepia to indigo, in the cold parts, 
and sepia with lake to the glowing parts. Breadths 
of light are obtained by destroying the scattered 
lights with greys. 

7'o prepare a landscape. 

The student is first to sketch the outlines faintly 
with a black lead pencil, and then proceed with 
the hair pencil to tint and shadow, without the in- 
tervention of the crow-pen, or without any other 
fixed outline than what the tints and shadows pro- 
duce. 

The mixture of the grey colour is made of burnt 
umber, indigo, and lake; each to be rubbed in a 
saucer separately, and then mixed in due propor- 
tion in a fourth saucer, so as to produce the exact 
colour, which may be called a warm gn'ey. 

The colour is then to be thinned with water for 
the light tints, as the sky, distances, Stc. Deeper 
are to be used for the darker shadows, and near 
parts, finishing ofl:, and softening with water, till 
the exact effect is produced. 

He may then proceed to colour according to the 
following directions. 

Colours to be used. — Coal brown, rosy madder, 
Prussian blue, indigo, ultramarine, brown sienna, 
Roman ochre, yellow ochre, Venetian red, gam- 
boge, burnt sienna, lamp black, Vandyke brown, 
purjjle lake. 

To select tJie colours. 

The clouds are produced by a thin mixture of in- 
digo and lake. 

The azure sky, towards the horizon, is of lake 



and gamboge, and should be done with a clear 
brush. 

The lower, or horizontal clouds, are tinged with 
ultramarine. 

The distant lands are of ultramarine and lake. 

The distant trees are also of ultramarine, with a 
wash of indigo, gamboge, and burnt sienna. 

The middle distance trees are produced by a 
thin wash of burnt sienna and gamboge. 

The nearer trees are tinted with a wash of burnt 
sienna, indigo, and gamboge; towards the shadows 
more of indigo is incorporated. 

The grass is washed with a mixture of burnt sien- 
na, indigo, and gamboge; that in shadow has rather 
more indigo. 

The road and paths are produced by a mixture 
of lake, burnt umber, and burnt sienna. 

The house is sometimes tinted with a mixtwre 
of lake and gamboge. The tiling and shadows have 
an excess of lake. 

The windows are of indigo and burnt umber. 

The smoke is lake and indigo. 

The sheep are of burnt umber and gamboge. 

The figures are touched with lake and indigo. 

For landscapes, no other colours than the above 
are requisite, and they can be purchased in prepajv 
ed cakes. 



TO PAINT IN CRAYONS. 

Implements. 

The student must provide himself with some 
strong blue paper, the thicker the better, if the 
grain is not too coarse or knotty, the knots should 
be levelled with a penknife or razor, otherwise 
they will prove exceedingly troublesome. After 
this is done, the paper must be p.n.ssed very smooth 
on a linen cloth, previously strained on a deal 
frame, the size according to the artist's pleasure: 
on this the picture is to be executed; but it is most 
eligible not to paste the paper on till the whole 
subject is first dead coloured Now lay the paper 
with the- dead colour on its face upon a smouth 
board, when, by means of a brush, the back side of 
the paper must be covered with paste: the frame, 
with the strained cloth, must then be laid on the 
pasted side of the paper; after which turn the 
painted side uppermost, and lay a piece of clean 
paper upon it, to prevent sraeiring it; this being^ 
done, it may be stroked over gently by the hand, 
by which means all the air between the cloth and 
the paper will be forced out. 

When the paste is perfectly dry, the painting 
may be proceedsil with. 

Draxeing the outlines. 

Let the outlines be drawn on the glass ivith a 
small camel's hair pencil dipped in lake, ground 
them with oils, which may be done with great ex- 
actness. After this is accomplished, take a sheet 
of paper of the same size, and place it on the glass, 
stroking over all the lines with the hand, by which 
means the colour will adhere to the paste, which 
must be pierced with pin holes pretty close. The 
paper must be next laid upon the table, and the 
pierced paper laid upon it; then with some fine 
pounded charcoal, tied up in a piece of lawn, rub 
over the pierced lines, which will give an exact 
outline; but great care must be taken not to brush 
this otf till the whole is drawn over with sketching 
chalk, which is a composition made of whiting and 
tobacco-pipe clay, rolled like the crayons and point- 
ed at each end. 

Painting from life. 

When a student paints immediately from life, it 
will be prudent to make a correct drawing of the 
outlines on atiother paper, the size of the picture 



CRAYONS. 



5"< 



he 18 going to x>nint, -wlicnhe may trace by the pre- 
ceding metho<1, because erroneous strokes of the 
sketching chalk will preveat the crayons from af'- 
hering to the paper, owhig to a certain greasy qua- 
lity in the compositiun. 

Posture and light. 

The student w; il find the sitting posture with the 
box of crayons h, his lap the most convenient me- 
thod for him to paint. The part of the picture he 
is immediately painting, should be rather below 
his face; for if it is plsced too high, tlie arm will 
be fatigued. Let the window of the room where 
he paints be darkened at least to the height of six 
feet from the ground; and the subject to be painted 
should be situated in such a manner, that the light 
may fall with evciy advantage on the face, avoiding 
much shadow, which seldom has a good effect in 
portrait painting. 

features of ike face. 

The features of the face being correctly drawn 
with thnlks, let the student take a crayon of pure 
carmine, and carefully draw the nostril and edge of 
the nose next the shadov; then with tiie faintest car- 
mine tint, lay in the highest light upon the nose 
and forehsad, which must be executed broad. Then 
proceed gradually with the second tint, and the 
succeeding ones, till arrived at the shadows, which 
must be covered brilliant, enriched with much lake, 
earraine, and deep green. 1'his method appears 
at first uninviting, but in the finishing it will pro- 
duce a pleasing effect, colours being much easier 
tullied when too bright, than, when its colouring is 
dull, to raise the picture into a brilliant state. 'I'he 
several pearly tints distinguishable in fine com- 
plexions, must be imitated with blue verditer and 
white, wliich answers to the ultramarine tints used 
in oil. But if the parts of the face ^vhere tliese 
tints appear are in shadow, the crayons composed 
of black and white must be substituted in their place. 
When the student begins the eyes, let him draw 
them with a crayon inclined to the carmined tint, of 
■whatever ctdDur the irises are; he must lay them on 
brilliant ;\nd thin of colour, not yet noticing the pu- 
pil : he must then let the light of the eye incline 
very much to the blue cast, cautiouslj- avoiding a sta- 
rintr white appearance, preferring a broad shadow 
thrown on the upper p;;rl of the eye-lash. A black 
and heavy tint is also to be avoided in the ej'e brows; 
it is therefi re best to execute tliemlike a broad glow- 
ing sbado •• at first, •in whicli, in the finishing, the 
hairs of the brow tire to be painted; by which me- 
thod of proceeding the formertints will shew them- 
selves through, and ^u-oduce the most pleasing 
effect. 

The student should begin the lips with pure car- 
mine and lake, and in the shadow use some car- 
mine and black; the strong vermilion tints should 
be laid on ai'ter wards. He must be aware of exe- 
cuting them with stiff hard lines, gently intermix- 
ing each with the neighbouring colours, making 
the shadow beneath broad and enriched witii bril- 
liant crayons. He must form the corner of the 
mouth with carmine, brown ochre, and greens, va- 
riously intermixed. If the hair is dark, he should 
preserve much of the lake and deep carmine tints 
therein; .'his may be overpoivei'ed easily by the 
warmer hair-tints, which, as observed in pair.ting 
the eye-l'rows, will produce a r.cher effect when 
the picture is finislied; on the contrary, if this me- 
thod is neglected, a poverty of colouring will be 
discernible. 

After the artist has dead coloiired the head, he 
is to begin rubbing the forehead at the strongest 
light, first over with his finger, passing it very 
lightly til! he unites it with the next tint, and so on 
till the whole is softened together, often wiping 
his finger to prevent tlie colours being rubbed. 
H 



After the liead is forwarded let liim lay in the back- 
ground, covering it as thin as possible and rubbing 
it into the paper with a leather stump. Near the 
face the paper should be almost free from colour. 
In the back-ground also those crayons which are 
the most brilliant should be usiid, next paint the 
edges of the hair over in a light and free man- 
ner. 

The artist may now note what parts are too light 

and what too dark. He is then to complete the 

i back-ground, and the hair, as the dust in painting 

I these will fall on the face, and would much injure 

j it if completed first. 

I In the last painting of the forehead, begin the 

1 highest light with the most faint vermilion tint; in 

the next shade, succeeding the lightest, the student 

must work in some light blue tints, composed of 

! verditer and white, intermixing with them some ot 

i the deeper vermilion tints, so as to let them insen- 

1 sibly melt into each other: some brilliant yellows 

may be sparingly used; and towards the roots of 

the hair, strong verditer tints, intermixed with 

! green, will apply well. Beneath the eyes the 

, svvfeet pearly tints are to be kept composed of ver- 

j diter and white, and under the nose, and on the 

j temples, the same may be used: benepth the lips 

I the same is also proper, mixing them with light 

green and some vermilion. 

In finishing the cheeks, clear them with pure 
I lake, then with the same intermix bright vermi- 
I lion; aiid last of all, if required, a few touches of 
I the orange coloured crayon. After, sweeten that 
j part with the finger as little as possible, for fear of 
producing a heaviness on the cheeks. 

The eye is the most difficult feature to execute, 
I If the eye lashes are dark he must use some of the 
I carmine and brown ochre, and the crayon of car- 
I mine and bi&ck; and with these last, of brown or 
j haiel, make abroad shadow caused by the eye-lash. 
I The pupil of the eye must be made of pure lamp 
j black; between this and the lower part of the iris 
the light will catch very strong, but it must be 
gently diffused round the pupil till it is lost in 
shade. When the eye-balls are sufficiently pre- 
pared, the shining speck must be made with a pure 
white crayon, first broken to a point, and then laid 
on firm; but as it is possible they may be defective 
in neatness, they should be corrected with a pin, 
taking off the redundant parts. 

The difficulty with respect to the nose is to pre- 
serve the lines properly determined, and at tlie 
same time so artfully blended into the cheek, as to 
express its projection, and yet no real line to be 
perceptible upon a close examination; in some cir- 
cumstances it should be quite blended with the 
cheek, which appears behind it, and determined 
entirely -itith a slight touch of red chalk. The 
shadow caused by the nose !;• gt atraii/ 'he darkest 
in the whole face. Carmine and brown othre, and 
carmine and black, will compose it best. 

Having prepared the lips with the strongest lake 
and carmine, they must, with these colours, be 
madrt perfectly correct; and when finished, intro- 
duce the strong vermilions, but with great caution 
as they are extremely predominant. This, if pro- 
perly touched, will give the lips an appearance, 
equal, if not superior, to those executed in oils, 
notwithstanding the seeming superiority the latter 
lias by means of glazing. 

The neck, &c. 
To paint the neck, the artist should avoid ex- 
pressing tlie muscles too strong in the stem, nor 
should the bones appear too evident on the chest, 
as both have an unpleasing effect denoting a violent 
agitation of the body — a circumstan^ta- Sijldom ne- 
cessary to express in poi rait painting. The most 
necessary pai-t to be expressed, aad wluvS should 



58 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT ROOK. 



ever be obsefved, even in the most delicate subject, 
is a strong marking just above the place vi'here the 
collar bones unite; and if the head is much, thrown 
over the shoulders, some notice should betaken of 
a large muscle that rises frora behind the ear, and 
is inserted into the pit between the collarbones. 
All inferior muscles should be in general quite 
avoided. The student will find this caution neces- 
sary, as most sulijects, especiall}' thin persons, have 
the muscle of the neck much more apparent than 
would be judicious to imitate. In colouring the 
neck, let the stem of a pearly hue pi-edominate, 
and the light not so strong as on tlie chest. If any 
part of the breast appears, its transparency must 
also be expressed by pearly tints; but the upper 
part of the chest should be coloured with beautiful 
vermilions, delicately blended with the other. 
Drapnries, &c. 

Dark blue, purple, black, pink, and all kinds of 
red draperies also, should be first tinged witli car- 
mine, which will render the colours much more 
brilliant than any other method; over tills should 
be laid on tlie paper the middle tint, (a medium 
between the light and dark tints, of which the dra- 
pery is to be painted), except the dark masses of 
shadow; whicii should be laid on at first as deep as 
possible ; these sweetened with the finger, be- 
ing destitute of smaller folds, will exhibit a mas- 
terly breadth, which the lesser folds, when added, 
ought by no means to destroy. With the light and 
dark tints, the smaller parts are next to be made 
with freedom, e-cecuting as much with the crayon, 
and as little with the finger as possible : in eac!i 
fold touching tlie last stroke with the crayon, which 
stroke the finger must never touch. In the case of 
reflections, the simple touch of the crayon will be 
too Imrsh, therefore fingering will be necessary af- 
terwards, as reflected lights are always more gentle 
than those wliich are direct. With respect to re- 
flections in general, they must always partake of 
the same colour as the object reflecting; but in 
cases of single figures, it may be useful to make 
some particular observations. 

In a blue drapery, let the reflections be of a green- 
ish cast: in green draperies, make them of a yel- 
low tint, in yellow of an orange, in orange reflect 
a reddish cast; jin all reds sometliing of their own 
nature, but inclined to the yellow; black should 
liave a reddish reflection; tlie reflection of a reddish 
tint will also present purples to the best advantage. 
Of whatever colour the drapery is, the reflection of 
the face must partake thereof, otherwise the pic- 
ture, like painting on glass, will have but a gaudy 
eflect. 

Linen, lace, fur, &c. should be touched spirit- 
edly with the crayon, fingering very little, except 
the latter; and the last touches even of this, like 
all other parts, should be executed with the crayon, 
without sweetening witli the finger. 

To prepare coloured crayons. 

Take a large vessel of water, put t<ie whiting 
into it, and mix them well together; let this stand 
about half a minute, then pour the top into another 
vessel, and throw the gritty sediment away; let 
what is prepared rest about a minute, then pour it 
off" as before, which will purify the whiting, and 
render it free from all dirt and grittiness. Wlien 
this is done, let the whi:ing settle, and then pour 
the water from it, after which, lay it on the chalk 
to dry, and keep it for use, either for white cray- 
ons, or the purpose of preparing tints with other 
colours, for with this all other tints may be safely 
pi-epared. If the student wishes to make crayons 
of the whiting directly after it is washed, it is not 
necessary to dry it on the chalk, for it may be 
mixed instantly with an_, other colour, which will 
save considerable trouble. All colours of a heavy or 



gritty nature, especially blue verditer, must be 
purified by washing after this method. 

The student must be provided with a large flexi- 
ble pallet-knife, a large stone and muUer to levi- 
gate the colours, two or three large pieces of chalk, 
to absorb the moisture from the colours after they 
have been levigated, a piece of flat glass, to pre- 
vent the moisture from being absorbed too much, 
till the colours are rolled into form, and vessels 
for water, spirits, &c. as necessity and conveni- 
ence shall direct. 

Reds. 

It is rather diflicult to procure either good car- 
mine or good lake. Good carmine is inclined to 
the vermilion tint, and good lake to the carmine 
tint. The carmine crayons are prepared in the 
following manner. 

Carmine. 

As their texture is inclinable to hardness, in- 
stead of grinding and rolling them, take a suffi- 
cient quantity of carmine, laying it upon the grintl- 
ing-stone; mix it with alevigating-knife with spirit 
of wine, till it becomes smooth and even. The 
chalk-stone being ready, lay the cover upon it to 
absorb the spirit; but be careful that it is laid in 
a proper state for painting. If it is levigated too 
thin, the crayons will be too flat, and if too thick, 
it will occasion a waste of colour, by their adher- 
ing to the pallet-knife; but practice will render 
the proper degree of consistence familial-. The 
simple colour being prepared, the next step is to 
compose the difterent tints by the mixture w^itb 
whiting; the proportion to be observed consisting 
of twenty gradations to one, which maybe clearly 
understood by the following gradations. Take 
some of the simjile colour and levigate it with 
spirit of wine, adding about one part of washed 
whiting to three parts of carmine, of which, when 
properly incorporated, make two parcels. The 
next gradation should be composed of equal parts 
of carmine and whiting, of which four crayons 
may be made. The third composition should have 
one-fourth carmine, and three-fourths whiting; of 
this mix six crayons, which will be a good pro- 
portion for the rest. The last tint should be made 
of whiting, very faintly tinged with carmine, of 
which make about twenty cravons, which will 
complete the above-mentioned proportion. As 
these compound tints are levigated, they are to be 
laid immediately upon the cloth, tiiat the moisture 
may be absorbed to the proper degree of dryness 
to form it into crayons, which may be known by 
its losing the greater part of its adhesi-e quality 
when taken into tlie hand; if the consistency is 
found to be riglit, it may be then laid upon the 
glass, which, having no pores, will prevent the 
moisture from being carried off" before it is conve- 
nient to form it into crayons, otherwise the cray- 
ons will be full of cracks and very brittle, which 
will be a great inconvenience when they are used 
in painting. 

Lake. 

This is a colour very apt to be hard, to prevent 
which the student must observe the following par- 
ticulars. Take about half the quantity of lake in- 
tended for the cray-ns; and grind it very fine with 
spirit of wine; let it dry, and then pulverize it, 
■which, if tlie liike is good, is easily done; then 
take the other half and grind it with spirit; after 
which mix it with the pulverized lake, and lay it 
out directly in crayons on 'lie chalk. This colour 
will not bear rolling. The simple colour being 
thus prepared, proceed with the compound cray- 
ons as directed before, and in the same gradation 
as the carmine tint. 

VeT-milion. 

The best is inclined to the carmine tint. Notli- 



CRAYONS. 



69 



fng is required to prepare this colour more than 
to mix it on the stone with soft water or spirit, af- 
ter which it may be rolled with crayons. The dif- 
ferent tints are produced by a mixture of the sim- 
ple colour with whiting, according to the propor- 
tions already given. 

Bhies. 

Prussian blue is a colour very apt to bind, and 
is rendered soft witli more difficulty than carmine 
and lake. The same method of preparation to be 
followed with this, as directed with respect to lake, 
only it is necessary to grind a large quantity of the 
pure colour, as it is chiefly used for painting dra- 
peries. The different tints may be made accord- 
ing to necessity. Blue verditer is a colour natu- 
rally gritty, and therefore it is necessary to make 
it well. Its particles are so coarse as to require 
some binding matter to unite them, otherwise the 
crayons will never adhere together. To .locom- 
plish this, take a quantity sufficient to form two or 
three crayons, to which add a piece of .laked plas- 
ter of Paris, about the size of a pea; mix these 
well together, and form the crayons upon a chalk. 
This blue is extremely brilliant and will be of 
great use in heightening draperies, &c. The tints 
must be formed with whiting, as directed in the 
former instances, and are highly serviceable in 
painting flesh, to produce those pearly tints so 
beautiful iii crayon pictures. It is not necessary 
to mix the compound with spirit, as clear water 
will be sufficient. 

Greens. 

Brilliant greens are produced with great diffi- 
culty. In Switzerland they have a method of 
making them far superior to ours. We usually 
take yellow ochre, and, after grinding it with spi- 
rit, mix it with thr powder of Prussian blue ; then 
temper it with a knife, and lay the craj^ons on the 
chalk without rolling them. Instead of this, some 
use King's yellow mixed with Prussian blue, and 
others, brown ochre with Prussian blue. The 
crayons made of the two last may be rolled. Va- 
rious tints may he produced by these colours, ac- 
cording to fancy or necessity; some to partake 
more of the blue, and others of the yellow. 
Yellows. 

King's yellow is the most useful and the most 
brilliant, levigated with spirit of wine, to compose 
the different tints as before directed. Yellow 
oclu'e, and Naples yellow ground with spirits, will 
' roduce useful crayons. Orange is produced with 
King's yellow and vermilion ground together, 
and the tints formed as in other cases, but no great 
quantity i i'them is required. 
Brovjns. 

CuUen's e-irth is a fine dark brown. After six 
or eight of the simple crayons are prepared, several 
rich compound tints may be prepared from it, by 
a moisture of carmine of various degrees. Black 
carmine, and this colour, mixed together, make 
useful tints for painting hair; several gradations 
may be produced from each other of these by a 
mixture with whiting. Roman, or brown ochre, 
is an excellent colour, either simple or compound- 
ed with carmine. Whiting, tinged in several de- 
grees with either of these, will prove very service- 
able in painting. Umber may be treated in just 
the same maimer, only it is necessary to levigate 
with spirit of wine. 

Purples. 

Prussian blue ground with spirit and mixed with 
pulverized lake, will produce a good purple. Car- 
mine, thus mixed with Prussian blue, will produce 
a purple somewhat different from the former. Va- 
rious tints may be made from either of these com- 
pounds, by a mixture with whiting. 



Black. 

Lamp-black is the only black that can be used 
with safety, as all others are subject to mildew, 
but as good lamp-black is very scarce, tlie student 
will, perhaps, find it most expedient to ma)ke it 
himself; the process of which is as follows : Pro- 
vide a tin cone, fixed over a lamp, at such a height 
that the flame may just reach the cone for the soot 
to gather within it. When a sufficient quantit}' is 
collected, take it out and burn all the grease from 
it, in a crucible. It must then be ground with spi- 
rits, and laid on the chalk to absorb all the mois- 
ture. Various grey tints maybe formed from this 
by a mixture with whiting, as mentioned in former 
instances. Vermilion mixed with carmine : this 
is a composition of great use, and tints made from 
this with whiting, will be found to be very servi 
ceable. Carmine and black is another good com- 
pound, of which five or six gradations should be 
made, some partaking of the black, and otliers hav- 
ing the carmine most predominant, besides seve- 
ral tints by a mixture with whiting. Vermilion and 
black is also a very useful compound, from which 
several tints should be made. Prussian blue and 
black is another good compound, and will be fount 
of singular service in painting dr.iperies. 

It is impossible to lay down rules for the form 
ing of every tint necessary in composing a set of 
crayons, there being many accidental compositions 
entirely dependent upon fancy and opinion. Th/ 
student sho'.ild make it a rule to save the lea^^ngs 
of his colours, for of these he may form various 
tints, which will occasionally be useful. 

The different compositions of colours must be, 
cut into a proper magnitude, after they are prepar- 
ed, in order to roll ii.to pastils, for the conveni 
ence of using them. Each crayon should be form- 
ed in the left hand, with the ball of the right, first 
formed cyllndrlcally, and then tapering at each 
end. If the composition is too diy, dip the finger 
in water; if too wet, the composition must be laid 
on the chalk again, to absorb more of the moisture. 
The crayons should be rolled as quick as possible, 
and when finished, must be laid on the chalk again, 
to absorb all remaining moisture. After the grada 
tion of tints from one colour is formed, the stoni 
should be scraped and well cleaned Avith water, be- 
fore it is uied for another colour. 

• Arrangement of the crayovs. 

Wiien the set of crayons is completed, they 
should be arranged in classes, for the convenience 
of painting with them. Some thin drawers, divid- 
ed into a number of partitions, is the most conve- 
nient method of disposing them properly. The 
bottom of the partitions must be covered with bran, 
as a bed for the colours, which will preservs them 
clean and unbroken. The box made use of, when 
the student paints, should be about a foot square, 
with nine partitions. In the upper corner on the 
left hand (supposing the box to be on the lap when 
he paints), let him place the black and grey cray- 
ons, those being the most seldom used; in the se- 
cond partition, the blues; in the third, the greens 
and browns; in the first partition on the left hand 
of the second row, the carmines, lakes, and ver- 
milions, and all oeep reds; the yellows and or- 
ange in the middle, and the pearly tints next; and 
as these last are of a very <lelicate nature, tliey 
must be kept very clean, that the gradation of co- 
lour may be easily distinguished; in the lower row 
let the first partition contain a fine piece of liaen 
rag, to wipe the crayons with while they are using,* 
the second, all the pure lake and vermilion tints; 
and the other partition may contain those tints 
which, from their complex ' °ture, cannot be class- 
cd with any of the former. 



60 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



TO PAiNT ON IVORY AND MINIATURE 
PAINTING. 

To prepare ivory for tniniatiires. 
Take the ivory leaves, or tables on which the 
painting is to be made, and having cleansed them, 
rub them over with the juice of garlic. 

This takes off that greasiness which is so much 
complained of, as preventing the colours flora tak- 
ing on the ground, and wiiich is not otherwise to 
be remedied by the use of soap, or even gall. 

Another method. — Ivory is never sold in a state 
sufficiently polished or white. The process of 
whitening must be done by placing it in a mode- 
."ately heated oven, or in the sun, which will warp 
me side; turn it then on the other, and -when it 
las the degree of whiteness required, take it out, 
that it may not become too dry; for in that case it 
loses its transparency, and is apt to split when cut. 
This operation finished, proceed to the polishing. 
Some painters use a large scratcber; othei-s, an in- 
strument, with a blade three or four inolies long, 
and of a triangular shape. To either of these, the 
use oTa razor is preferable; to benefit completely 
by it be sure it has not the smallest notch in it, or 
tliat it be not too sharp. Open it so tliat the back 
part of the blade touches the handle; in that way 
use it to scrape the ivory from angle to angle. 
When the whole is thus polished, begin again from 
the contrary angles, in oi;der that no traces of tlie 
saw may remain upon the side required to be 
painted. Having provided pounce-sione, pulver- 
ized and passed through a silk sieve, place the 
ivory in the middle of the bottom of a hand box, 
holding it firm with one hand, while with the other, 
take a small bit of paper, ard rub the pounce on 
the side of the ivory which lias been polished; 
being always careful to do it with a circular roiove- 
ment. 

If the ivory be now of a dead white, and has lost 
the shine given to it by the razor, take it out of 
the box, holding it so that the fingers do not touch 
the surface, so troublesome to prepare, and brush 
off lightly with a painting brush any grits that may 
have adhered to it; for this purpose, take one of 
the largest hair-pencils; it may be serviceable to 
remove, in the same way, any specks or dust while 
painting. 

Never suffer the fingers to touch the ivory; hold 
it always at the extremities, for the colour- will not 
settle in a place touched by the hands. If, however, 
such an accident happens, have recourse to the 
pumice-pov/der, and with a paper stump, rather 
pointed, gently rub the place affected. But, to 
avoid, as niuch as possible, a recurrence of such 
accidents, when at work, take a sheet of paper to 
rest tlie hand upon, and when there is occasion to 
use boily-colour, have a piece of wood or paste- 
board made for the same purpose, in sucli a way 
that it touch not the miniature: for, inconsequence 
of the gum which is in the colours, the heat of the 
hand might cause the paper to stick to the paint- 
ing. The ivory at last pi'epared, begin the work 
by placing it on the desk, in the middle, with a 
sheet of paper under it, and the sketch above. 
To soften ivory. 
Slice half a pound of mandrake, and put it into 
a quart of the best vinegar, into whie.i put the ivory; 
let it stand in a warm place for 48 hours, and the 
ivory may be bent in any direction. 
Mamie r of sketching. 
Begin by attacking the strongest shades of the 
head: it is only when perfectly sure of the form of 
the four features, that the pupil may try to express 
the exterior shape of the head, and the wave of 
tl\e hair. Endeavour, while indicating carefully 
the form, not to render the lines too hard. If, 



when painting the eyes, the lids are marked oy too 
strong an outline, it will be very difficult to soften 
it afterwards. The same may be observed relative 
to the eye-lashes, and the shade of tlie nose and 
.hin: begin by sketching them lightly; observe if 
they are exactly of thu same colour and shape as 
those of the model; then go over them several, 
times, till they have acquired the necessary strength. 
In order to succeed upon what tlie pupil is now 
employed, ^uppose it to be the head of an old man 
painted by Greuse) take care at first to use only 
warm colours, and do not till afterwaxVj employ ■ 
tliose grey tints which are perceived at the edge of 
the middle tints, towards the side apiiroaching the 
light, otherwise the shades would not be sufficient- 
ly transparent. Be very careful to preserve the 
lights, particularly those which are placed upoji 
tlie upper part of the cheeks, the extremity of the 
nose, and the forehead. 

There are some painters who make use, with 
success, of a pen-knife, to scratch out che coloui-, 
but it requires skill, and the edge of the blade 
must only be employed, avoiding to touch with tho 
point: it is better to pr.ceed carefully, to be oblig- 
ed to add colour ratlier than take it otf. Work by 
etching; endeavour to place them at equal distar oes 
the one from the otlier, that they may as nearly as 
possible denote tlie forms of the flesh, and the mo 
tions of the muscles. 

If, notwitlistanding these precautions, the colour 
is found too thick, in some parts, or in consequence 
of taking too much water in your brush, some clot- 
ted strokes are perceived, use the point of tbe 
brush, di|)ped in water, tinged with the slightest 
quantity of colour, in order to dissolve it wiihou' 
entirely taking it away. It is essential, also, to 
avoid working too long upon the same spot, for 
fear of disturbing the colours alrea<lv put on. 
Colours to be cmljlotji^'l. 
The principal shades of the head are made with 
bistre, mixed with burnt sienna, and in some 
places with precipit", or a mixture of lake and 
larap-black. Tlie middle tints are made with yel- 
low uchre, ultramarine, and very little of the mix- 
ture above-mentioned. The flesh-tints are made 
with red brown, upon which touch with a small 
quantity of orange-lake. Tho green tints, near the 
mouth and neck, are made with yellow-ochre, ul- 
tramarine, and a little lake. The grey hairs of 
this old man are prepared in the shades with tints 
of bistre and black: in the middle tints, with ultra- 
marine, to which add some precipite . 

The eye-balls are made with burnt sienna and 
bistre; it would be well to make u.v; of indigo for 
their outlines. In the white of the eyes there are 
ultramarine, black, and lake; make the mouth with 
brown-red mixed with lake and ultramarine. For 
the mouth of a wi.>i.ian, or young man, one mav 
employ, with good effect, a little vermilion in the 
under lip, as it usually is of a higher colour. At 
present it will be sufficient to touch the corners 
with burnt sienna and lake. 
Colours to be used in sketching a vjoman''s hcaa. 
Be careful to put scarcely any bistre in the 
shades, but make them with the same colours as 
those already named for the middle tints of the 
old man, namely, ochre, ullranarine, and prect- 
pite; the local shades of the ilesh are made with 
orange-lake, which must be enlivened in the parts 
most highly coloured with pure lakj and even a 
little vermilion. 3Iake the middle tints with "i 
slight mixture of lake, ochre, aad ultramarine. 
Sketch the mouth with lake and vermilion, and 
retouch the u|:per-lip with a little red-brown, ul- 
tramarine, nm\ preapite; put also a small quantity 
of ultramarine m the cast shadow of the upper-lip, 
and slightly heighten the corners of the moutli with 



MINIATURE PAINTING. 



Gl 



\ touch of yellow-ochre, or burnt sienna, mixed 
with lake. 

In painting the neck and breast do not lose sight 
of the local lint of the flesh, which must be done 
with orange-lake let the shading be very transpa- 
rent; wash in well the contours; try to round thero 
in placing the etching nearer to each other tou nrds 
the edge, being careful not to lose the original 
form. If the woman's iiair is of a bright chesnut, 
in order to give this colour, sketch it with bistre, 
mixed with a little black; put also a mixture of car- 
rame, lake, and lamp-bbick in the strongest shades, 
and after having carefully preserved the lights, go 
over them with water, coloured \vith very little 
ochre. There is nothing in nature, lighter, more 
transparent, or more uncertain, than hair; there- 
fore endeavour to study and express it accordingly. 
Miike the extremities harmonize with the back- 
ground, and do not begin the latter till the head be 
in some degree of forv/ardness. Sketch it boldlj', 
but with light tints, and work upon them as equal- 
ly as possible. The blue parts are made with ul- 
tramarine, then add, in those that are grey, some 
black, and a little precipit?. Work it over with 
tints of burnt sienna in the auburn parts, then har- 
monize the whole with one single tint to finish it: 
that is to say, if the general effect be too blue, em- 
ploy Idack for that purpose; if too black, use blue; 
and if too cold, add some yellow. As to the dress, 
which is muslin, employ lake mixed with yellow- 
ochre and ultramarine. Put some glazing of In- 
dian yellow in the reflected light, and shade with 
sienna, lake, and a little black. 

Use and advantage of body-colours. 

The use of body-colours is absolutely necessary 
in painting in miniature for those thatare desirous 
of producing much effect. It would be nearly im- 
possible to make a good copy of a painting in oil, 
without employing them; besides which, for those 
who are becon\e proficient, in the use of ttiem, they 
possess the great advantage of enabling them to 
paint faster. Before making use of these colours 
it is necessary to know them; the following is the 
list. 

French colours — English colours. 

Blanc leger. Light white. — Oere jaune. Yellow 
oehre. — Vere de rut, Roiium ochre. — Orpin jaune, 
Yellow orpiment. — Orpin roage, Red orpiment. — 
Terra de sienne brulee. Burnt sienna. — Brim 
rouge, Liglit or Indian red. — Vermilion, Vermil- 
ion. — Laque, Lake. — Precipite- Violet, Mixture of 
carmine, lake Avilh Indigo. — Carmin, Carmine. — 
Indigo, Indigo. — Blue de Prusse, Prussian blue. — 
Bistre, Bistre. — Terre de Cologne, Cologne earth. 
— Noir de bougie, Lamp-black. — Gorame gutie, 
Gamboge. — Verd de vessie, Mixture of sap-green 
with permanent green. 

In colouring flesh, the lights are oidy obtained 
by the assistance of the transparency of the colours, 
and the natural whiteness of the ivory; with body- 
colours, on the contraiy, it is entirely covered, and 
the relief can only be produced by the use of co- 
loiu's more or less luminous. 

To cut and paste the ivory. 

Cut the ivory according to the form desired for 
the picture before beginning to paint with body- 
colours; for this purpose make use of scissars, and 
take care always to direct the points towards the 
centre from which ever side the pupil is cutting, in 
order to prevent the ivory from splitting; tlien 
paste it upon a sheet of very white pasteboard, of 
a thickness proportioned to the size of the minia- 
ture. 

For tills purpose use paste extremely white, such 
«s is made with starch; then leave it under a press 
for some hours. Some painters use sheets of sil- 
ver .vhich they place between the ivory and the 



pasteboard, to give brilliancy to the paintmg; but 
the eflect produced by this is very tiifling, and fre- 
quently turns out in the end very bad, as this me- 
tal is subject to become stained. When there is a 
back-ground, or a dra|)ery to paint in body-colours, 
beg.n by making a mixture upon the palette, a;»- 
proaching as nearly as possible to the general tint 
of the object intended to represent, observing', 
however, that, it is better to sketch with too dark 
than too light a tint, foi it is always easier to add 
to the lightness than to the darkness of a body-co- 
lour. Avoid wetting the pencil more than is ab- 
solutely necessary for spreading the colour. It is 
belter to use a little more in making the mixture 
than for spreading it upon the ivory; but be very 
careful not to begin ])ainting till it evaporates a 
moment, as the painting will be better and quicker 
done if the colour employed be sufficiently dry. 
To sketch portraits on ivory. 

Take for the model the picture of a man boldly 
dravvn, but, at the same time, finished. Choose a 
dark man, because black hair is more easily ex 
pressed upon a back-ground done with body-coloar, 
Procure before-hand a glass of the same size as the 
model, if you wish to preserve the copy; and when 
the sketch is finished, use the same glass to trace 
the form of the picture upon the ivory, with the 
assistance of a leaden pencil. Be very careful to 
trace in such a manner, as that the head may be in 
every direction at the same distance from the oval, 
as it is in the model. In painting from nature, the 
pupil will perceive the importance of placing the 
head in its proper place, in order to give grace to 
the picture. It sliould approach more or less to 
the border at the top, according to the height of 
the person, but in no case should it ever touch, and 
there should alwa3"s be at least the distance of two 
parts, equivalent to the half of the head. 

Now carefully sketch the head, attentively exa- 
mining the model, to know what colours to use; 
but, while endeavouring to render the work neat and 
even, do not put the etchings too close, or be in 
too great a hurry to finish. In finishing too soon, 
the pupil is frequently obliged to go again over the 
painting with large touches, in order to give it 
strength; the colour in consequencebecomes heavy, 
and the shades are rarely transparent. Sketch the 
hair with black, mixed with bistre, then touch it 
in certain parts with pure black; and, in finishing, 
spread some glazings of lake and larap-blaclc, and 
burnt sienna, with a great deal of gum. For the 
back-ground take a large pencil, with which make 
a rai.\ture on the palette of body-colours with white, 
black, ochre, and Cologne earth, to which add a 
slight quantity of indigo. Then compare the ef- 
fect of this mixture with the back-ground of the 
model, and if it is the same, take a pencil of squir- 
rel's hair, with not too large a point, and spread 
carefully round the head and shoulders the colour 
of the back-ground. Endeavour as little as possi- 
ble to alter the masses of hair, or the contour of the 
shoulders. Now use a larger pencil for the pup- 
pose of spreading the colour with wide short etch- 
ings placed one beside the other. 

VVhen this work has become perfectly dry, go 
over it in the same manner, but without ever pass- 
ing twice over the same spot, for fear of taking it 
oft. Continue doing this until the ivoiy no longer 
appears in any part. If any unevenness or thick- 
ness be perceived, caused by dust falling from the 
colours, or the inequalit)"^ of the work, (as soon as 
the back ground is perfectly diy) use the flat side 
of the blade of a scratcher, in order to smooth it 
To imitate the variety of colours in the model, 
bring forward the head, and give transparency aud 
vagueness to the back-ground: make a greyish tint 
with white, black, and a small degi'ee of ochre. 



62 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



take a very little of this in a large pencil, being 
sareful to pass it over a piece of paper, or upon the 
corners of the ivory, that there may not remain too 
much colour; then touch with confidence, but 
lightly, the parts of the back-ground which ap- 
proach to the head. 

In consulting the model the pupil will discover 
if it be necessai-y to go over it again. Touch the 
other parts with glazings of ochre, or burnt sienna, 
always mixed with a little white, to be able to ma- 
nage them. These last strokes must be given 
boldl}', using scarcely any thing but water coloured, 
keeping as near as possible to the tint. To make 
Ihe coat, which is blue, use indigo, lake, and a lit- 
'le white for the local tint; for the shades black and 
'■ndigo, with a little gum. Add to the local tint 
-ather more white and touch the lights with it, 
using for that purpose a smaller pencil. To pre- 
vent the outline of the coat from appearing too 
hard upon the back-ground, touch the edges with 
slight glazings made with the colours employed 
for both. Endeavour to avoid, particularly in fe- 
male pictures, letting the back-ground of body co- 
lour touch the extremities of the flesh; but fill up 
this space with etchings, made with the colour of 
the back-ground a little lightened; it is the only 
method of harmonizing the carnations with body- 
colour. In order to finisli the hair, the prepara- 
tion of which is already explained, and the lights 
of which are of body-colour, make a mixture com- 
posed of white, indigo, red-brown, and ochre, then 
touch with it the locks of hair, where lights have 
been reserved, veiy slightly, and with a pencil 
nearly dry: add then a little white to the same mix- 
ture, and make use of it to give another touch to 
the masses that rise the most. To represent the 
small locks which are made upon the back-ground, 
and give lightness, employ a colour rather paler 
than that of the hair, otherwise it will appear much 
too dark upon the body-colour, and will want the 
ti'ansparency which is always found in nature. 
Use of the magnifying glass. 

In miniature painting the magnifying glass is of 
great use: in the first place, to find out in the mo- 
del the method of colouring, employed by the mas- 
ter intended to copy: secondly, to give to the work 
the necessary finish, and to touch accurately some 
parts of the head, and at times tlie accessories. 
What is done without the magnifier is always 
softer; make it a rule to have recourse to it only 
when the naked eye perceives nothing more to be 
done. 

Procure also a little bottle of gum arable dis- 
solved in water, with a quantity of sugar candied 
equivalent to a fourth part of the gum; this prepa- 
ration is of the utmost necessity to mix the colours 
before putting them on the palette, for it will hap- 
pen that in painting, and above all in using body- 
colour, it will be required for some pai-ticular 
touches. 

To execute light kair. 

Draw the mass as correctly as possible, covering 
it over with a general tint, without, however, los- 
ing the contours. Make this tint with a little yel- 
low ochre, black, and a small quantity of lake; 
prepare the shades with black, ultramarine, and 
bistre, dot them with tinged water, preserving al- 
ways the lights, and finish them as much as possi- 
ble; retaining, however, their transparency: were 
the light parts to be covered too much, they would 
become heavy when touching them with body-co- 
lour. When the hair is in a state of forwardness, 
that is to say, when by finishing it, it becomes very 
transparent and very silky, then take a short camel- 
hair pencil, and make a mixture of yellow ochre 
and white, with which touch the light you have left 
bndoae. Add a little more to this same mixture. 



in ordcT to do the stronger lights; tlien touch the 
chief shades with bistre, lake Avith lamp-black, and 
a great deal of gums. 
To represent velvet and satins of different colours. 

.Black velvet. — In order to mplic's black velvet, 
first cover the ivory with a local tii t made of lamp- 
black, with very little gum, and as smooth as pos- 
sible; denote the shades with black mixed with in- 
digo and a little more gum; make the lights with 
a mixture of black and blue, with half the quantify 
of gum, to which add a little brown-red and yellow 
oclire. Be very careful, with the assistance of a 
mixed tint, to blend the darker with the lighter 
shades; then add a little white to this same tint, 
and touch the lights with it as freely as possible; 
to finish, do over the shades with mixed black, in- 
digo, precipit'-, and as much gum as possible, then 
pass over smootlily the reflected lights with lake, 
vandj'ke brown, or burnt sienna. 

Violet velvet. — Take some indigo and carmine to 
cover the ivory as equally as possible, avoiding 
with care to make thicknesses; then draw the 
shades over it with some black, carmine, and more 
gum than in the local tints; for the last touches, 
make use of carmine and white, with halfthe quan- 
tity of gum mixed with a little white and carmine, 
to touch the lights; then harmonize the shades 
with a little violet precipit? with a great deal of gum 
if the lights are too raw, smooth them over with a 
little carmine and lake, with much gum. 

Green velvet. — Green velvet is made with a pre- 
paration of Prussian blue and red orpiment, well 
and smoothly laid on; the shades are drawn with 
black and precipite, then some white and Prussian 
blue, with a little gum, is used to mark the lights; 
the whole is then touched with the finest sap-green. 
The strong lights may again be touched witli a mix- 
ture of white, ultramarine, but very slightly with 
sap-green. 

Jied velvet. — 'To make red velvet, mix a local 
tint of carmine with a little red brown; use this 
mixture with great care, only doing it over again 
when thoroughly dry, that coloin- being very diffi- 
cult to use as body-colour; indicate the shades witli 
precipite and guro; for the strongest parts mark the 
lights with pure carmine, and afterwards touch 
those most brilliant with pure white, then again 
glaze them lightly with carmine. 

The models copied will show you sufficiently the 
manner in which to place the light on the velvets; 
yet it will be useful to point out that this drapery 
is only brilliant in the reflected lights, and that it 
is different in its effects from all others. 

White satin. — It is very difficult to produce the 
effect of white satin with body-colour; it would be 
better attained by dotting the shades, the middle 
tints, and touching the lights with a little white. 
To obtain the desired effect, it is necessary, at first, 
to indicate with exactness the folds of the drapery, 
to make the silvery middle tints that are seen in 
it, take a little ultramarine, very little lake, and a 
touch of 'yellow ochre; for the strongest parts use 
Indian yellow, black, and ultramarine. Be parti- 
cular in making the shades of the satin partake of 
the tints of the objects around it. When thus 
sketched, prepare the lights with some white and 
a little gum, which smooth as much as possible; 
finish the middle tints with the same colour used 
to begin them, only adding a little ultramarine, and 
the most brilliant lights with white without gum, 
the shades with bistre, ultramarine, and precipite 

Coloured satins, as well as many other silk dra- 
peries, may be done with body-colour. 
To paint -white feathers. 

Outline the shape and the wave with care, ther, 
sketch them in with ultramarine, ochre, and a 
touch of lake; dot them lightly over, without at 



mNIATURE PAINTING. 



63 



♦endiii" at first to the minutiE, after -which mark 
out the more massy shades, by the addition ot a 
little black to the first tint; then, with care, begin 
to put in the white, and lightly indicate the little 
particles of the feather which hang over the back 
I, oiind or the drapery; with the point of a stronger 
pencil mark out the lines of the body of the fea- 
ther, being careful to avoid roughness; toucii the 
sti'on'gest shailes with precipite, and do the lights 
with Avhite without gum. 

To gild in body-colours. 
Wien there is an embroideiy or some other 
gilding to do over a drapery or body-coloured 
otowkI, draw the outline of it with Roman ochre, 
Ind sketch with the same tint; do the middle tints 
with bistre and burnt sienna, the lights with yellow 
ochre and white; then dot the shades with^?'ea>- 
te, and a little bistre; in these last touches there 
should be a great deal of gum. The more power- 
ful lights are done with white mixed with a little 
gamboge. 

To make the same gilding with dots, prepare 
them with a simple wash of pure burnt sienna, and 
do it over in the manner above mentioned. 
To execute linen, lace, and gauze. 
The difficulty of painting linen is extreme, and 
every attention ought to be paid to it. The shades 
of white draperies always partake of the colours of 
the grounl and surrounding objects; wliite not 
being considered as a colour, it would be allblack, 
were they not to be reflected by other objects from 
which they borrow their colouring. Muslin, be- 
cause of its transparency, partakes much of the co- 
lour of the flesh which it is near, and more parti- 
cularly when it covers it; this drapery requiring 
little light, the shades of it consequently should be 
very soft. 

Laces, blond, and gauzes are made over the ob- 
jects they are to decorate; the lights are dotted 
with brilliant white, and the under colours are 
used for the shades; it should border on the yel- 
low, that being the predominant colour of these 
draperies. For instance, if you wish to make a 
lace or blond trimming over a violet-coloured 
gown, and the folds of the trimming approach tlie 
flesh, the tint in that case should be of a red grey — 
when over the dress of a violet grey; because then 
the tint becomes mixed and partakes of the colour 
of the flesh, the gown, and the blond, the shades 
of which are grey. 

To represent pearls upon the flesh, hair, &c. 
If the pupil has a pearl necklace to make, draw 
the outline of each pearl with ultramarine, then 
make the shade with a little burnt sieuna and ulira- 
marine, the reflected lights with ochre, the cast 
shadow upon the flesh w'ith burnt sienna, softening 
the extremities with some ultramarine: the middle 
lint on the side of the light is made with ultrama- 
rine, and the light is touched with while. Be care- 
ful to proportion the strength of the shading to the 
size of the pearl. 

When pearls are to be made either upon the hair, 
above the back-ground, or upon draperies, where 
the pearl is to be placed, first, with a wet pencil, 
take the unaer colour off, until the ivoiy, which 
answers the purpose of local tint, appear; then 
make the pearls with the tints above mentioned, 
being careful, however, particularly if they be ra- 
ther large, to make tnem partake in the reflected 
parts of the objects which surround them. 
Colours to be employed in sketcldng a portrait from 
nature. 
We shall now give some rules upon the proper- 
ties and the employment of the colours, advising 
the pupil, at the same time, not to make the ap- 
plication of them until he feels convinced that na- 
ture indicates it. Sketch boldly; place the etch- 



ings, as much as possible, at equal distances from 
each other, and make tliem in such a manner as to 
Fhow the movement of the muscles, and the form 
of the featur^. In the shades, use some lustre and 
burnt sienna, mixed with a little predpit". The 
grey tints are done witli ultramarine and predpite; 
the green tints with yellow ochre, idtramarine, 
mixed more or less with lake, to lieighten them 
and make them brighter. The local tints of the 
flesh must always be chosen from the model, and 
serve in a greater or less degree to modify all the 
others. Observe in painting the eyes, that the 
ball being transparent, and tlie light passing 
through it, ought to be rather less dark on the op- 
posite side to the white speck. However, endea- 
vour not to commit the fault, so common to all be- 
ginners in painting from nature — that of never giv- 
ing sufiicient vigour to the eye-balls. In \ andyke, 
particularly in his portraits of women and children, 
the colour of the eye-balls is much stronger than 
any of the shades of the head: this is one of the 
means employed, with success, to give, at the same 
time, expression and softness to the physiognomy. 
To make the pupil or black spot, make use of 
black, and a Y\i.\.\e predpit^. The edge of tlie eye- 
lid is made with bistre, mixed with red predpite. 
If the person, whose portrait is painting, has a 
florid complexion, replace the bistre with yellow 
ochre mixed with lake. 

The white of the eye is made with ultramarine, 
pure near ttie ball ; in the corners, add a little 
ochre and lake; in men's heads, employ on the 
shaded side a small quantity of bistre, black, and 
predpite; which is heightened, if necessaiy, with 
a glazing of burnt sienna. Observe, that the setting 
of the eves towards tlie extremities of the lids, and 
the lid itself, is generally of a violet tint, which 
must, however, be heightened with a little yellow 
ochre, and to which vigour may be given, in cer- 
tain heads, by a touch of bistre, mixed with pred- 
pite. The lower part of the face is almost always 
of a greenish shade, mixed with lake. The shadow 
cast by the head \ipon the neck, is nearly of the 
same tint, although stronger and warmer in certain 
parts, which will he discovered by consulting the 
model. 

The chin in women is nearly of the same tint 
as the cheeks in the parts most highly coloured. 
It is the same in men, with this exception, that it 
is of a stronger tint, and there must be added to it, 
as well as to all the lower part of the face, a greater 
quantity of ultramarine, to indicate the using of the 
beard. The mouth is the greatest difficulty for all 
beginners, not so much for the colouring, as for the 
form and expression. They generally place it too 
far from the nose, in consequence of the serious 
and wearied expression frequently to be found in the 
countenance of the model while sitting. In endea- 
vouring to remedy this evil, they raise the corners, 
and believe by this means that they produce a 
smile, which is never natural but when the eyes, 
nose, and all the muscles of the face partake of 
this expression. The upper lip ought always to be 
of a stronger tint, but of a less brilliant colour than 
the under one. They are, generally, both of a very 
lively coloui-, and modelled in young persons, iii a 
determined manner, while in old men, the relaxa- 
tion of their forms, and ttie loss of their original 
colour, scarcely allows them to be distinguished 
from the local tint of tlie flesh. The corners ot the 
mouth are made with a mixture of carmine, lake, 
ultramarine, aud raw sienna. The last shadow of 
the under lip is made with nearly the same tint, 
adding to it a little touch of bistre. Observe that 
the reflect of the chin is of a brighter and warmer 
tint than that of the top of the cheek, particularly 
where the bosom is uncovered. It ought, m every 



64 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



other instance, without losinp^ the tint of the 
flesh, to partake more or less of tiiat of the drapery 
which surrounds it. 

When beginning the hair, observe^hat its shade 
upon the flesh lias always a warmer tint, with a 
bluish edge. There is also a greyish tint at the 
rise of the hair upon the forehead, which must be 
indicated, othervvise the i'esh will appear too ab- 
ruptly cut. It is the same with the eye-brows, 
which appear, at the extremity of tlie temple, of 
a pinker colour, and .must be blended with the 
flesh at the ojtposite extremity by a greyish tint. 
Many painters use too mucli lake at the extremity 
of the nose; it produces a disagreeable effect to 
the sight, and destroys the charm of the portrait. 
To avoid this, sketch this part lightly with the lo- 
cal tint which nature presents, and model it with 
tints more or less grey. In portraits of women, 
the middle tints on the side of the light, which are 
perceived upon the bosom and arms, are made 
with a slight mixture of ochre, aUL-amarine, and 
lake; on the shaded side add yellow ochre, some- 
times red precipite and bistre, in particular where 
the back ground is deeply coloured. The local 
tint of the hands ought to be the same as that of 
the flesh; the nails are rather more violet; the 
ends of the fingers pink. 

The shadow cast by llie hand upon the flesh, is 
made with brown mixed with ultramarine and pre- 
cipite; The cast shadow is always stronger than 
the shade of the fingers or the hand that occasions 
it, and must always be separated from it by a re- 
flected light. Generally speaking, the reflected 
parts ought to have more strength than the middle 
tints, but less than the shades. 

To adjust the drapery. 

We shall now proceed to the accessor, as of a 
portrait: these consist of the drapery, the back- 
ground, and many objects which may be introduc- 
ed and infinitely varied according to the subject 
represented. They should be subordinate in co- 
lour, light, and efTeot, to the head, which must, in 
preserving the same energy and the same truth, 
unceasingly attract the sight and observation. 

The manner of adjusting the drapery contri- 
butes more, than is generally believed by portrait 
painters, to give animation and character, and 
even expression, to their figures. Raphael, the 
model of perfection in every style, has taught us 
that the draperies aie intended to cover, but not to 
hide, the foi-ms. The large folds ought always to 
be placed on the largest parts of the hoAy. If tlie 
nature of the drapery requires small folds, give 
them but little lolief, in order that they may yield 
in eff"ect to those which indicate the principal 
parts. Denote the curved folds at the bending of 
the joints, and it should be the form underneath 
which determines those of the drapery. Place 
also larger folds upon the projecting parts, than 
upon the receding ones, and be careful never to 
indicate two folds of the same size and form be- 
side each other. 

All the great masters succeeded in expressing 
by the drapery, not only the exact form of tht-ir 
models at the moment taken, but even discovered, 
by their scientific execuiion, the position in which 
they were placed the instant before. In order to 
produce this effect, study it in nature; never be- 
gin to dress until the jtrincipal lines of it are 
drawn from the person sitting: afterwards it may 
be adjusted upon a lay figure, the immobility 
of which will allow the effect to be more easily 
represented. This machine, made use of by al- 
most all painters, resembles a skeleton in its con- 
struction; it even expresses the movements, by the 
assistance of balls placed in the joints: it is stuffed 
with horse-hair, covered with knitting, and is 



made in imitation of the interior forms <jf the hu« 
man figure. After dressing it in the drapery in-* 
tended to copy, place it exactly in the same situa- 
tion and the same attitude as those of the model. 
Then, attentively examine if the folds it offers re- 
semble those which were prestnted by nature. If 
this be not the case, remedy it as much as possi- 
ble, bj making this figure perform some move- 
ments of the body and arms, and then, Slightly 
with the finger) arranging the folds into which the 
drapery falls in the most natural manner, and fol- 
lowing, as far as possible, the I'ules just given. 

The exec',:tion of the draperies has great influ- 
ence on the harmony of a portrait, not only from 
the colour and variety of tints, but also from the 
becoming arrangement of the folds, the distribu- 
tion of the light, and the bleniling of the light with 
the shade. There are colours that agree together, 
others that are injurious to each other; in general, 
strong contrasts, produced by opposing colours, or 
briglii lij^lits and strong shades abru])tly brought 
tos ether, offend the sight, and are contrary to the 
law s of harmony. A portrait-painter, notwith- 
standing the very Kttle latitude usually allowed 
\\\n\, ought, however, to endf^ivour to follow these 
laws as near as he possibly can, and for this pur- 
pose, avail himself of the advantage which he can 
obtain from the arrangement of the fclds, the 
chiaro oscuro, and the expression of the reflected 
lights. 

To execute the back ground. 

In the composition of the back-ground, the opi- 
nion of the artist is usually of much importance in 
the mind of the person painted. The colours em- 
ployed in this will offer many resources for giving 
effect to the head and drapeiy, and to correct the 
general aspect of them, when that is necessary If 
the portrait require colour and i-elief, and the vi- 
gour of it is not increased, for fear of destroying 
the resemblance, then make a bright back-ground, 
of a grayish tint mixed with blue: this M'ill con- 
tribute to bring it forward, and make it appear 
more animated. If, on the contrary, the head b?. 
of too high a colour, by the assistance of a waria 
and deep-coloured back-ground, an aspect may be 
giv^en it more resembling that of nature. However 
simple may be the back-ground it is thought right 
to adopt, it must on no account be of an equal 
shade throughout, - and it is highly essential, by 
the variety of die primitive tints and glazings by 
which they are covered, to produce some differ- 
ence in the tints, particularly around the iiead. 
This will give space and uncertainty, detach the 
head, and give it roundness. 

Primitive colours and Iheir combinations. 

We have confined ourselves to indicating 12 
combinations of the principal colours of the flesh, 
and, in reality, we might confine ourselves to 4, 
for with black, blue, red, yellow, and reserving 
the lights upon the ivory, we might succeed in 
m.'sking all the mixtures necessary for miniature 
painting. 

The history of the fine arts teaches that the emi- 
nent masters executed for a length of time witli 
only red, blue, £nd yellow, which are the tliree 
primitive colours, black being only the abstraction 
from light, and white the light itself. A learned 
German, named Mayer, has calculated that with 
the three primitive colours, n^odified more or less 
with black and white, we might pi-oduee by their 
different combinations, eight hundred aPxd nineteen 
tints. We have, then, reason to believe that the 
Greeks, who have left us such beautiful master- 
pieces in sculpture, had readied an equal degree 
of perfection in painting. 
Discovery of nexo substances by modern painters. 

Modern painters have discovered in nature sub- 



MINIATIJRE PAINTING. 



65 



stances vvliich presented, ready prepared, the same 
mixture which the ancienis were obliged to seek 
for upon their palettes, have increased their num- 
ber of materials for paintiiv^, and have furnished 
artists with newer and speediermeans of acquiring 
p'.!rfection in their art. 

There have, however, been painters, who, since 
these discovei'ies, have thought they might dispense 
with making use of them. Santerre, a French art- 
ist, living at" the commencement of the last century, 
was one of these. He voluntarily confined himself 
to the five colours used by the ancients. Notwith- 
standing this, his productions were remarked for 
their soft and pleasing colouring ; the only sub- 
stances he employed were ultramarine, massicot, 
red, brown, French white, and Polish black. This 
proves, that it is not the great variety of tints upon 
the palette which produces fine colouring, but the 
manner of employing them. 
Manner of laying the body colours 07i the palette. 

AVhen the pupil is desirous of renewing the co- 
Ic'jrs upon the palette, or of putting on fresh, re- 
member, that ochres, raw sienna, brown, bistre, 
black, vermilion, and ultramarine, require to be 
ground again, and to have gum: habit can alone 
give a just idea of the degree necessary. Lake, 
carmine lake, andprecipite, are generally sold with 
gum ; experience will teach whether in sufficient 
quantity, but there is no harm in grinding them as 
much as possible. 

In laying the body-colour on the palette, put a 
large quantity of each, and let .liere be only three 
or four at most on one side of the palette, in such a 
manner as to leave room for the mixtures. Grind 
them as much as possible, and add a moderate quan- 
tity of gum. We only make use of light white for 
miniature painting, the white of lead being subject 
to become black from the effect of the air. Put 
some of this white into two different places: one 
of these quantities, with much less gu»n, will serve 
to go a second time over the lights which are pre- 
pai-ed with the other, in order to render them more 
brilliant. Some painters, who wish to give more 
solidity to the back ground and draperies in body- 
colours, put more gum in the first sketch; this pre- 
caution is unnecessary, when the ivory is properly 
prepared; but, in order to succeed in painting bo- 
dv colours, they must not have too much gum. 
"\Vhen the pupil has finished, and has been able to 
express all that he was desirous of executing, with 
the assistance of glazings of a warm tint, he may 
make that grey and earthy aspect, which it so often 
presents, disappear. 
Different substances used in miniature pamting. 

Miniature painting cau be executed upon several 
kinds of white substances, such as marble, alabas- 
ter, and even egg-shell: artists have succeeded in 
preparing and softening the latter by means of hu- 
midity; they may then be easily spread upon a 
plate of metal, or a thick sheet of paste-board, after 
which they are susceptible, as well as ivory, of re- 
ceiving the preparation already explained. The 
paper and Bristol paste-board, used for the aqua- 
relles, cannot be chosen too fine or too even ; as they 
then require no other preparation than that of the 
Bgate- stone. Vellum, which must be carefully 
stretched upon paste-board, or a plate of metal, 
may be lightly pounced. 

Ivory has generally been adopted in preference 
to any of these substances, because it is subject to 
fewer inconveniences, and in its local tint comes 
nearer to that of the flesh itself; and because it is 
capable of receiving a higher finish, and of being 
executed upon with greater vigour, and, conse- 
quently, produces works of longer duration. It 
ought t J be chosen extremely white, without appa- 
rent veins, very even, and cut in very thin sheets; 



because, in proportion to its thickness, its opaeity 
will give it a yellow tint, when otherwise, if it be 
transparent, the whiteness of the paper or paste- 
board it is placed upon, will penetrate and increase 
that which is natural to it. 

Choice ofbrjcshes. 

It is extremely important to know how to make 
a judicious choice of X'encils: th.ose for the back 
ground ought to be square at the end, short and 
thick; they must be dipt in water, and then be 
tried upon paper to see if they remain un'ted, and 
if there be not one hair longer than the others 
The pencils of squirrel's hair, made for sketching, 
ought not to be too long, their points should be 
round and firm. The sable pencils must be full of 
hair; the colpur will not then dry so quickly, and 
in consequence render the touch larger and softer; 
the points should be firm, supple, and elastic. In 
order to be assured of this, wet them, and turn 
them in eveiy direction upon the finger, or upon 
paper: if they make but one point, it may then be 
concluded that they are good; if, "n the contrary, 
they do not unite well, or that some hairs are 
longer than others, in that case they are good for 
nothing. The pupil may, however, still make use 
of a pencil too pointed, (provided the hair remains 
united) by cutting ihem with scissors, but be very 
careful not to do it too much. A. surer method of 
making a proper point is by wetting it, and pass- 
ing it rapidly through the flame of a wax taper. 

Most miniature painters have a hal)it of passing 
their pencils between the lips while painting, in 
order to unite the hair and make a good point; if 
there be too much water, they, by this means, draw 
it from the pencils, and leave only sufficient to ena- 
ble them to employ the colour with softness. There 
is no fear of this being injurious, for all colours 
used in miniature painting, when prepared (except 
the orpiment, which is a poison), have no bad 
qualities, or disagreeable taste. This last men' 
tioned dangerous colour does not make a part of 
the flesh palette, therefore it will be better to em- 
ploy this method for the purpose of making the 
work even, and prevent its being too much loaded 
with colour. In painting with body colour, gather 
only the Viair of the pencil, and if there be too 
mnch colour, discharge it upon paper, or upon the 
palette itself. In short, it will only be after hav- 
ing bought both bad and good pencils, that the pu- 
pil will be able to discover those most favourable 
to his own particular manner. 



TO PAINT ON VELVET. 

Materials required. 

Best white cotton velvet, or velveteen. Box of 
water colours. Assieite rouge, or saucer of pink 
dye. Towne's. alumina. Velvet scrubs. Fitch 
pencils of different sizes. Small saucers to con- 
tain the diluted colours. 

Subjects for the same. 

Flowers, as the rose, demand peculiar attention: 
likewise fine ripe fruits, large and beautiful shells, 
and the charming tints of the feathered tribe, &c. 

Animals, especially the lion, tiger, leopard, &o. 
may be imitated with great fidelity. In landscapes 
choose from artic scenery, without attending to 
the minuteness of figures. 

In the selection of subjects, ever prefer those 
that admit of the broadest light and shade; attempt 
first the most simple, as a flower or two: the faci- 
lity with which they may be completed will pre- 
pare and encourage for greater works. 
^ippropinate colours. 

Reds. — I^ke, carmine, vermilion, light red, and 
assiette rouge. 

F i 



b6 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK, 



JBlites. — 'Prussian, indigo, Antwerp, verditer. 
Tellotvs. — ^Gamboge, yellow and Roman ochre. 

Terra de sienna, burnt and u.iburnt.— Umber, 
do. do. — 'Vandyke brown. — Bistre. — Lamp-black. 
— ^Indian ink. 

Compound colours. 

JVeutral tint, compounded of lake, indigo, and 
lamp-black. 

Green, compounded of Prussian blue and gam- 
boge in various sliades, or vrith raw terra de sienna, 
or with burnt terra de sienna.. 

Purple, of Prussian blue, or indigo, with lake 
or carmine. 

Orange, of gamboge with carmine, Roman ochre 
with vermilion, yellow ochre with red lead, the 2 
siennas with light red. 

Bro-wn, of umber, lake and lamp-black, differ- 
ent shades, (a deep shade) of lake or carmine, with 
lamp-black or Indian ink. 

Directions to paint on velvet. 

The only preparation velvet reqr.ires is, the 
making it pertectly smooth by passing over the 
back of it a warm iron. 

Fitoh pencils should be cut almost to a point, in 
the same tmnner as the velvet scrubs. Except for 
very large pieces, the former are preferable to the 
latter, being sufticiently strong to force the colour 
into the velvet, without injuring the foil. 

The subject being chosen, it will be requisite 
for those who are not proficient, to trace in the 
same by attaching it to the velvet, and holding both 
against a window, making a neat and faint outline 
with a black lead pencil; but as velvet does not ad- 
mit the same correcticn as paper, great care must 
be taken at first to obtain a correct outline, by 
tracing the subject with any smooth round point; 
the impression thus will also be left on the vel- 
vet. 

Dilute the colours with alumini, except the pink 
dye, carmine, and lake; with those use lemon 
jaice, particularly the pink dye, which is prefera- 
ble to any other colour for the red rose. 

In diluting the colours make them of a creamy 
consistence; in the same manner prepare in sau- 
cers the requisite compounds from the primitive 
colours. 

The assiette rouge is an exception to this direc- 
tion. With a fitch and lemon juice wash some of 
it from the saucer into smaller ones, in shades 
from the faintest tinge to the deepest hue of the 
rose. 

Lay in the drawing with the faintest colouring. 
By this means the design will be seen at one view, 
and so correct any little inaccuracy by ihe subse- 
quent shades. Observe in this stage to rub the 
colour well into the velvet with the scrubs orlaige 
fitcher, then let the work dry, and if the velvet is 
not well saturated vv'ith the colour, repeat the ope- 
ration, but by no means in this stage attempt a 
great depth of colouring. 

Proceed with the .shadows, lay them with a fitch 
forming the flowers, or any other subject, as accu- 
rately as possible, softening off the edges of the 
shadows when necessary, according to the size of 
the design, either with a scrub or fitch, before the 
■work gets too dry. 

Before proceeding any further, the drawing 
should be well examined ; the shadows deepened 
and the light heightened as they may require; cor- 
rect the whole, and add the finishing tints; then 
vein thp leaves. 

For large flowers, especially the rose, damp the 
back of the velvet moderately to assist the colour- 
ing through; wherever there is a large surface to 
DC covered, this mode will be found advantageous. 

Towards the extremities of the design and form- 
ing any part oi the outline, do not let the fitch be 



too full of colour, but rather diyer than the other 
parts; attention to this point will preserve the 
drawing perfectly neat and correct. 

Be careful that the scrubs and fitches be kept 
perfectly clean, otherwise they will injure the bril- 
liancy of the drawing, a fault it will be in some 
cases impossible to correct on velvet. 

Have always ready some clean fitches to take oft" 
any super-abundance of coloui-, also for blending 
the colour while wet. 

To paint on silks, satins, &c. 

Wlien the outline is made, lay on a wash of isin- 
glass with care, to take away the glare of the satin, 
otherwise the colours will not work freely. Melt 
the isinglass thin in very clear water, over the fire, 
otherwise it will discolour the satin, and spoil the 
colours. 

The lights are to be made b}' a small tincture of 
the colour of the intended flower, mixed with the 
flake white, so as just to make a degree from the 
colour of the satin; if white, or of any other colour, 
to be mixed proportionably to the colour of I'le 
flower. If a blue flower, use a very small quaatiiy 
of bice or verditer with the white, using less of it 
as the shades grow darker; and in the most dark, 
use indigo alone, it being by that time rendered 
opaque enough; but take care not to lay the colours 
on too thick, otherwise they will crack. A little 
white sugar-candy will be found necessary, when 
mixed with the gum water, as a preventive to 
cracking. If a flower happens to be of so deep a 
colour as not to aJmit of any pure white in the 
lightest of the parts, a sort of priming of white 
should be laid on; after which, when dry, begin 
with the ground-colour of the flower, and proceed 
gradually with the shades, with any selected ex- 
amples, peculiarly chosen from nature, for that 
purpose. 



LITHOGRAPHY. 

To -write and engrave upon stone. 

The stones should be of a calcareous natur?, 
pure, hard, and of a fine grain. They must imbibe 
both moisture and grease with equal avidity. The 
chalk is a composition of grease, wax, shell-lac, 
soap, and black. The lithographic ink is com- 
posed of the same mater' als, but rather softer. 

The stone must be rubbed down with fine sand, 
to a perfect level, after which it is ready to receive 
the drawing: a weak solution of nitric acid should 
be thrown over the stone. This operation will 
slightly corrode its surface, and dispose it to im- 
bibe moisture, with more facility. While the 
stone is still wet, a cylinder of about three inches 
in diameter, and covered with common printer's 
ink, should be rolled over the whole surface of the 
stone. While the wet part refuses to take the ink, 
the chalk, being greasy, will take a portion of it 
from the roller. The stone is then ready for 
printing. 

The press consists of a box drawn by a wheel, 
under a wooden scraper, pressing on it with great 
power. After the first impression, the stone must 
be wetted afresh, again rolled over with the cylin- 
der, drawn under the scraper, and so on. 

Tite same process is emploj'ed for ink drawings, 
except that the solution of aqua-fortis must be 
stronger, and the printing ink stifi^er. 

Imitations of wood cuts are pi-oduced by covei 
ing the stone with lithographic ink, and sci-aping 
out the intended lights. As the finer touches may 
be added with a hair pencil, prints far superior to 
wood cuts may be obtained, but the chief advan- 
tage of wood cuts, that of printing them at the 
same time with the text of the book, is lost. 



LITHOGRAPHY. 



61 



Engraving upon stone is performed by polish- 
ing the stone, and covering it with a thin coating 
of gum and black. 

The part intended for the drawing must be 
scraped out. and when finished, of course, it ap- 
pears white, instead of black. The thicker lines, 
as in copper, must be cut deeper, and when the 
■whole IS 6nis;ivid, the stone should be rubbed with 
linseed oil, which not being nh\e to penetrate the 
coating of gum, will only touch the stone, where 
it is scraped away. 

Laurent's new method of drmvinir in stone. 

Take the outline of the original design upon 
transparent paper, by tracing all the lines of the 
original with a dry point; the outline is then glued 
by its edges on a board, and there is spread over it, 
with a piece of fine linen, a tolerably hard paste, 
formed of lithographic ink, dissolved in essence of 
turpentine. The ou'line is then rubbed hard with 
a piece of clean linen, until the linen ceases to 
have a black tint. The outline is then transferred 
to the stone by means of the press, placing in a 
vertical paper press the stone and the outline in 
contact, laying upon the latter five and twenty 
sheets of paper, wetted in water with some solu- 
tion of calcined muriate of lime. Upon these last 
sheets are placed large plates of paper, about an 
inch tviick, to prevent injury from a thick and 
straight plank, wliich is to be laid over them. 
Pressure is now applied for one hour, when the 
outline v/ill be found adhering to the stone. The 
paper is to be removed by hot water and the de- 
sign will be left on the stone, which is now wash- 
e J with cold water till no trace of the paper re- 
mains. 

Thenard and Blainvi.lle''s lithograpldc ink. 

Soap one-fourth; mutton suet one-half; yellow 
wax one part; mastic in tears one-half, and as 
much lamp black as necessary. 

Three different methods of printing from stone. 

In the chemical printing office at Vienna, three 
different methods are em])loyed, l)ut that termed 
in relief, is most frequently used. This is the 
general mode of printing music. 

Tiie second method is tti';-, sunk, which is pre- 
ferred for prints. 

The tliird method is the fiat, that is, neitlier 
i-aised nor sunk. This is useful for imitating 
drawings, particularly where the impression is in- 
tended to resemble crayons. For printin,^ and 
engraving in this method, a block of marble is 
em|)loyed, or any other calcareous stone that is 
easily corroded, and will take a good polish. It 
should be two inches and a half thick, and of a 
size propoi'iioned to the purpose for which it is 
intended. A close texture is considered as advan- 
tageous. When the stone is well polished and 
dry, the first step is to trace the drawing, notes, 
or le'tersto be printed with a pencil; the design 
.s not very conspicuous, but it is rendered so by 
passing over the strokes of the pencil a paiticular 
ink, of which a great secret is made. This ink is 
made of a solution of lac in potash, coloured with 
the soot from burning wax, and appears to be the 
most suitable black for the purpose. When the 
design has been gone over with this ink, it is left 
to dry about two hours. After it is dry, nitric acid, 
more or less diluted, according to the degree of 
relief desired, is poured on the stone, which cor- 
rodes every part of it, except when defended by 
the resinous ink. The block being washed with 
water, ink, similar to that commonly used for 
printing, is distributed over it by printer's balls; 
a sheet of paper disposed on a frame is laid on it, 
and this is pressed down by means of a copper 
roller or copper press. 

The sunk, or chalk method, differs from that 



termed relief, only in having stone much more 
corroiied by the nitric acid. In the fiat method, 
less nitric acid is used. It is not to be supposed 
tliat the surface is quite plain in this way, Ijul the 
lines are very little raised so that lliey can scarcely 
be perceived" to stand above the ground, but by the 
finger, 

I'rocess for printing desigiis idth porcelain plates. 
Lithography offers to" draughtfmen the means 
of multiplying original designs at iileasure; but it 
can-ies with it great difficulties for the impression. 
If the stones are defective, if the workman is not 
clever and has not had long experience, the <ie- 
signs are speedily impaired. It is then generally 
to be wished, that lithography might be rendered 
more simple, that the traits may not grow larger, 
and that it may be easy to clean the parts of the 
stone not occupied by the drawing. M. jMnglois, 
porcelain manufacturer at Bnyevx, has discovered 
a peculiar composition which gives him the me- 
thod of tracing with the pencil, and of fixing by a 
second dressing, designs on the porcidain plates 
covered with enamel, and of ren.lering the traits 
sufficiently rough to retain the ink in the impres- 
sion, whilst the enamel is washed that surrounds 
them. By this method proofs may be multiplied 
to injinity, without impairing the designs, and 
traits extremely sharp, fine grains, and even smooth 
tints may be obtained. 

To apply lithography to -wood aigraving. 

The stone sliould be covered witli a fat varnish, 
which may easily be removed with an engraver's 
point. Then let the stone be liollowed out or bit, 
as copper is done, with aqua fortis, so as to pro- 
duce, however, a contrary effect, for the traces of 
the design, instead of being hollow, are here in re- 
lief. The traces should be afterwards worked up 
and repaired, and the hollow part dug still deeper, 
so as to be out of the reach of the printer's ball, 
in this state, the stone will resemble a.T engraving 
on wood, and may, in case of necessity, answer 
the same purpose," but it would not have the same 
solidity. It may be used, however, as a matri.x 
for casting metal plates, presenting the adverse of 
the impressioii, and with the relief being now hol- 
low, may themselves serve to cast new matrixes, 
in every respect similar to the stone. By this 
means, an endless number of impressions may be 
taken, because ttie matei-ials themselves may be 
multiplied. 

The invention is of advantage, not only for vig- 
nettes and figures to be inserted in the text, but 
also for imitating exactly Turkish or Chinese cha- 
racters, &c. It may also be applied to printing of 
paper. 

To make lithographic pencils. 

Mix the following ingredients: 

Soap 3 ounces, tallow 2 ounces, wax 1 ounce. 

When melted smooth, add a sufficient quantity 
of lamp black, and pour it into moulds. 
To take impressions on paper from designs mack 
in stone. 

The stone should be close grained, and the 
drawing or writing should be made with a pen 
dipped in ink, formed of a solution of lac, in leys 
of pure soda, to which some soap and lamp black 
should be added, for colouring. Leave it to har- 
den for a few days ; then take impressions in tjie 
following manner: Dip the surface in water, then 
aab it with printer's ink and printer's balls. The 
ink will stick to the design and not to the stone, 
and the impressions may be taken with wet paper, 
by a rolling or screw press, in the ordinary way. 
Several hundred copies may be taken from the 
same design, in this simple manner. 

Cheap subsiitulefir Uthogral. hie stone. 

Paste-board, op card paper, covered with an ag. 



68 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT KOOK. 



gillo-calcareous mixture, has been employed with 
complete success, and efftcts a great saving. The 
material is to be reduced to a powder, and laid on 
A'et; it sets, of course, immediately, and may be 
api>liecl to a more substantial article than paper, 
and upon a more extensive scale than the inventor 
has yet carried it to. Tliis coating receives the 
ink 01' crayon in the same way that the stone does, 
and furnishes impressions precisely in the same 
manner. 



TO PAINT AND STAIN GLASS AND POR- 
CELAIN. 

To paint upon^lass is an art which has gene- 
rally appeared difficult; yet there is no represen- 
tation p^ore elegant than that of a mezzotinto paint- 
ed in this manner, for it gives all the softness that 
can be desired in a picture, and is easy to work, 
as there are no outlines to draw, nor any sliades to 
make. 

The prints are those done in tnezzotlnto: for 
their shades being rubbed down on the glass, the 
several lines, which represent the shady part of uny 
common print, areby this means blended together, 
and appear as soft and united as in any drawing of 
Indian ink. 

Provide such mezzotintos as are wanted; cut off 
the margin; then get a piece of fine crown glass, 
the size of tlie print, and as flat and free iY-om knots 
and scratches as possible; clean the glass, and lay 
some Venice tm-pentine, quite thin and smooth, on 
one side, with a brush of hog's hair. Lay Iho print 
flat in water, and let it remam on the surface till it 
sinks, it is then enough; take it carefully out, and 
dab it between some papers, that no water may be 
seen, yet so as to be damp. 

Next lay the damp print with its face uppermost 
upon a flat table; then hold tlie glass over it, with- 
out touching the turpentine, till it is exactly even 
with the print, let it fall gently on it. Press the 
glass down carefully with the fingers in several 
parts, so that the turpentine may stick to the print; 
after wliieh take it up, then hohhng the glass to- 
wards you, press the prints with the hngers, from 
the centre towards the edges, till no blisters re- 
main. 

When this is done, wet the back of the paint with 
a sponge, till the paper will rub off with the fingers; 
then rub it gently, and the white paper will roll olf. 
leaving the impression only upon the glass; then 
let it dry, and, with a camel's hair peu3il, dipped 
in oil of turpentine, wet it all over, and it will be 
perfectly transparent and fit for painting. 
Imp7'07iecl method. 

The first thing to be done, in order to paint, or 
stain glass in the modern way, is to design, and 
even colour the whole subject on paper. Then 
choose such pieces of glass as are clear, even, and 
smooth, and proper to receive the several parts. 
Proceed to distribute the design itself, or the pa- 
per it is drav/n on, into pieces suitable to those of 
the glass; always taking care that the glasses may 
join in the contours of the figures, and the folds of 
tlie draperies; that the carnations and other finer 
parts may not be impaired by the lead with whioii 
the pieces are to be joined together. The distri- 
t)Ution being made, mark all tliie glasses, as well 
as papers, that they may be known again: which 
done, apply every part of the design upon the gias? 
intended for it; and copy or transfer the design 
upon this glass with the black colour diluted in 
gum-water, by tracing and following all tlie lines 
and strokes that appear tlirough th.e glass, with the 
point of a pencil. 

When these strokes are well dried, which wijl 



be in about two days; ^the work being only in 
black and white,) give it a slight wash over with 
urine, gum-arabic, and a little black; and repeat 
this several times, according as the shades are de- 
sired to be heightened, with this precaution, never 
to appl}- a new wash till the former is sufficiently 
dried. This done, the lights and risings are given 
by rubbing off the colour in the respective places 
with a w ooden point, or by the handle of the pencil. 

The colours are used with gum-water, the same 
as in painting in miniature, taking care to apply 
tiiem lightly, for fear of effacing the outlines of 
I the design; or even, for the greater security, to- 
apply them on the other side; especially yellow, 
which is veiy pernicious to the other colours, by 
blending therewith. And here too, as in pieces of 
bhick and white, particular regard must always be 
had not to lay colour on colour, till such time a? 
the former is well dried. 

When the painting of all the pieces is finished, 
they are carried to the furnace to anneal, or to bake 
the colours. 

Coloitrs proper to paint tvith upon glass. 

The several sorts of colours, ground in oil for 
this purpose, may be had at all the capital colour 
shops, &c. 

Whites. — Flake white, podium. 

Jilacks. — Lamp-black, ivoiy-black. 

JRroxvns. — Spanish brown, umber, spruce ochre, 
J Dutch pink, orpimeiit. 

JSlues. — Blue bice, Prussian blue. 

Reds. — Rose pink, vermilion, i-ed lead, Indian 
i-ed, lake cinnabar. 

Telk-ws. — English pink, raasticot, English ochre, 
Saunders blue, smalt. 

Greens. — Verdigris, terra vert, verditer. 

The ultramarine for blue, and the carmine for 
red, are rather to be bought in powders, as in that 
state they are less apt to dry; and as the least tint 
of these will give the picture a cast, mix up what 
is wanted for presv=nt use with a drop or two of nut 
oil upon the pallet with tlie pallet-knife. 

To get the colour out, prick a hole at the bottom 
of each bladder, and press it till there is enough 
upon the pallet for us( . 

Then lay a sheet of white paper on the table,. 
and taking the picture in the h;ft hand, with the 
turpentine side next you, hold it sloping, (the bot- 
tom resting on the white paper), and all outlines 
and tints of the prints will be seen on the glassf 
and nothing remains but to lay on the colours pro- 
per for the different parts, as follow : — 
To use the colours. 

As the lights and shades of the picture open, lay 
the lighter colours first on the lighter parts of the 
print, and the darker over the shaded parts; and 
having laid on the brighter colours, it is not mate- 
rial if the darker sorts are laid a little over them; 
for the first colour will hide those laid on after- 
wards. For example: — 

Meus. — Lay on the first red lead, and shade with 
lake or carmine. 

Yellows. — ^Tlie lightest yellow may be laid on 
first, and shaded with Dutch pink. 

Ulues. — Blue bice, or ultramarine, used fov the 
lights, may be shaded with indigo. 

Greens. — Lay on vei'digris first, and then a mix- 
ture of that and Dutch pink. This green may be 
lightened by an addition of Dutch pink. 

W^hen any of these are too strong, they may be 
ligiitened, by mixing white with them upon the 
pallet; or darken them as much as required by 
mixing them with a deeper shade of the same co- 
lour. 

The colours must not be laid on too thick; but 
if troublesome, thin them before using them, witb 
a little turpentine oil. 



TO PAINT ON GLASS. 



69 



Take care to have a pencil for each colour, and 
never use that which has been used for green with 
any other colour, witiiout first washing it well with 
turpentine oil, as that colour is apt to appear pre- 
dominant when the colours are dry. 

Wash all the pencils, after usina:, in turpentine 

Oil. 

The glass, when painted, must stand three or 
four days free from dust, before it is framed. 
To dra-iV on glass. 

Grind lamp-black wit,h gum water and some 
common salt. With a pen or hair pencil, draw 
the design on the glass, and afterwards shade and 
paint it with any of the following compositions. 
Colour for grounds on glass. 

Take iron filings and Dutch yellow beads, equal 
parts, if a little red cast is wanted, add a little 
copper filings. With a steel rauller grind these 
together, on a thick and strong copper plate, or ou 
porphyiy. Then add a little gum arable, borax, 
common salt, and clear water. Mix these with a 
little fluid, and put the composition in a phial for 
use. 

Wlien it is to be used tliere is nothing to do but, 
with a hair pencil, to lay it quite flat on the design 
drawn the day before; and, having left this to dry 
also for another day, with the quill of a turkey, the 
nib unsplit, heighten the lights in the same manner 
as with crayons on blue paper. Whenever there 
are more coats of the above composition put one 
upon another, the shade will naturally be stronger; 
and, when this is finished, lay the colours for gar- 
ments and complexions. 

To prepare lake for glass. 

Grind the lake with water impregnated with gum 
and salt: then make use of it witK the brush. The 
shading is operated by laying a double, treble, or 
more coats of the colour, where it is wanted 
darker. 

Blue purple for the same. — Make a compound of 
lake and indigo, ground together with gum and 
salt water; and use it as directed in tlie preceding 
article. 

Green. — Mix with a proportionable (quantity of 
gamboge, ground together as above. 

Yellow. — Grind gamboge with salt water only. 

fVMte. — Heighten much the white parts witlj a 
pen. 

To transfer engravings on glass. 

Metallic colours prepared and mixed with fat 
oil are applied to- the stamp on the engraved brass. 
Wipe with the baud in the manner of the printers 
of coloured plates; take a proof on a sheet of silver 
paper, wliich is immediately transferred on tl»e ta- 
blet of glass destined to be painted, being careful 
to turn the coloured side against the glass; it ad- 
heres to it, and as soon as the copy is quite dry, 
take off the superfluous paper by washing it with a 
aponge; there will remain only the colour trans- 
ferred to the glass; it is fixed by passing the glass 
through the ovens. 

The basis of all the colours employed in painting 
on glass are oxidated metallic substances. 

In painting on glass it is necessary that the mat- 
ter should be veiy transparent. 
To prepare metallic calces, and precipitates of 
gold. 

A solution of gold in aqua-regia, which is evapo- 
rated to dryness, leaves a cUi.x of gold, which is 
used for glass, enamel, and porcelain gilding; or 
by precipitating tlie solution with green vitriol dis- 
solved in water, with copper, or perhaps all the 
raetals a similar calx is produced. This calx is 
mixed with some essential oil, as oil of spike, and 
calcined borax, and the whole made to adhere to 
tlw surface of the glass, by a solution of gum ara- 



ble. It is then applied witli a fine pencil, and burnt 
in under a muffle. 

To prepare oxide of cobalt. 

Wlien reguluB of cobalt Ls exposed to a moderate 
fire in the open air, it calcines, and is reduced to a 
blackish powder. 

This calx vitrifies with vitrifiable matters, and 
forms beautiful blue glassr?. Cobalt is, at pre- 
sent, the only substance known which has the pro- 
perty of furnishing a very fine blue, that is not 
changed by the most intense heat. 
To prepare zaffre. 

ZafFi-e is the oxide of cobalt, for painting pottery 
ware and porcel-iin of a blue colour. Break thl- 
cobalt with hammers into pieces about the size of 
a hen's egg: and the stony involucrum, witli sucli 
other lieterogeneous matters as are distinguish- 
able, separate as much as possible. Pound the 
chosen mineral in stamping-mills, and sift it 
through brass wire sieves. Wash oft" the lighter 
parts by water, and afterwards put it into a large 
flat-boltomed arched furnace, resembling a bakinr 
oven, where the flame of tlie wood reverl»erates 
upon the ore ; which stir occasionally, and turn 
with long-handled iron hooks, or rakes; and the 
process is to be continued till its fumes cease. 
The oven or furnace terminates by a long horizon- 
tal gallery, which serves for a chimney; in which 
the arsenic, naturally mixed with the ore, sub- 
limes. If the ore contains a little bismuth, as this 
semi-metal is very fusible, collect it at the bottom 
of the furnace. The cobalt remains in the state 
of a dark grey oxide and is called zafprs. This 
operation is continued four, or even nine hours, 
according to the quality of the ore. The roasted 
ore being taken out from the furnace, such parts as 
are concreted into lumps, pound and sift afresh. 
Zaffre, in commerce, is never pure, being mixed 
with two or rather three parts of powdered flints. 
A proper quantity of the best sort of these, aftei 
being ignited in a furnace, are to be thrown into 
water, to render them friable, and more easily re- 
duced to powder; which, being sifted, is mixed with 
the zaffre, according to the before-mentioned dose; 
and the mixture is put into cabks, after being moist- 
ened with water. This oxide, fused with three 
parts of sand, and one of potass, forms a blue glass 
which, when pounded, sifted, and ground in mills, 
(included in large casks), forms sma't. 

The blue of zaffre is the most solid and fixed of 
all the colours employed in vitrification. It suffers 
no change from the most violent fire. It is suc- 
cessfully employed to give shades of blue to ena- 
mels, and to crystal glasses made in imitation of 
opaque and transparent precious stones, as the lapis 
lazuli, the turquoise, the sapphire ami others. 
Purple precipitate of Cassius. 

Dissolve some pure gold in nitro-muriatic acid, 
add either acid, or metal, until saturation takes 
place. Now dissolve some pure tin in the same 
kind of acid; observe the same point of saturation 
as with the gold; and pour it into the solution of 
gold. A purple powder will be precipitated, 
which must be collected and washed in distiileil 
water. 

This beautiful purple colour, as before mention- 
ed, is extremely useful to enamellers, and to glass 
stainers. 

When brought into fusion with a clear transpa- 
rent glass, it tinges it of a purple, red, or violet 
colour. Hence the method of making false rubies 
and garnets. 

To paint coloured drawings on glass. 

This art is exercised two ways. 1. Plates of 
stained glass are cut into tl>e shape of figures, and 
joined by leaden outlines. On these plates, a 



70 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



shading' is afterwards traced hj the painter, which 
.s>;ives features to the face, and folds to the drapery. 
2. Vitrifiable colours are attached to plates of white 
glass, which are afterwards placed in the oven, and 
thus converted into a transparent enamelling. The 
first sort is cheaper, but the shading wears off, by 
the insensible corrosion of the atmosphere. The 
second sort defies every accident except fracture, 
but the colour of the figures suffers in the oven. 
For small objects, the first sort, and for lai-ge ob- 
jects, the second, as far as art is concerned, seems 
best adapted. 

To paint or stain glass black. 
The colours used in painting or staining glass 
are very different from those used in painting either 
in water or oil colours. 

For black, take scales of iron, 1 oz. scales of 
copper, 1 oz. jet, half oz. Reduce them to pow- 
der, and mix them. 

To paint or stain glass blue. 
Take fine white sand, twelve ounces, zaffre and 
minium, each three ounces; reduce them to a fine 
powder in a bell metal mortar, then put the pow- 
der into a very strong crucible, cover it and lute it 
well, and, oeing dry, calcine it over a quick fire 
for an hour; take out the matter and pound it: then 
to sixteen ounces of this powder, add fourteen of 
nitre powder; mix them well, and put them into 
the crucible again: cover and lute it, and calcine it 
for two hours on a very strong fire. 

To paint glass caimqlion. 
Take red chalk, 8 oz. iron scales, and litharge 
of silver, each 2 oz. gum arabie, half oz. Dissolve 
in water; grind altogether for half an hour till stiff, 
then put the compound in a glass, and stir it well, 
and let it stand for 14 days. 

G'^een. — 'Take red lead, 1 lb. scales of copper, 
J. lb. and flint, 5 lbs. Divide them into three parts, 
and add to them as much niti'ate of potass; put 
them into a criTcible, and melt them by a strong 
fire; and when the mass is cold, powder it, and 
grind it on a slab of porphyry. 

Gold colour. — Take silver, 1 oz. antimony, half 

oz. Melt them in a crucible, then pound the mass 

to powder, and grind it on a copper plate; add to 

it, yellow ociire, or brick-dust calcined again, 15 

ounces, and grind them well together with water. 

Ficrple. — Take minium, 1 lb. brown stone, I lb. 

white flint, 5 lbs. Divide them into three parts, 

and add to them as much nitrate of potass as one 

of the parts; calcine, melt, and grind the compound. 

Red. — T.ake jet, 4 oz. litharge of silver, 2 oz. 

red chalk, 1 oz. Powder them fine, and mix them. 

WIdte. — Take jet, 2 parts, white iiint, ground 

on a glass very fine, 1 part. Alix them. 

Telloxv. — Take Spanish brown, 10 parts, silver- 
leaf, 1 part, antimony, half part. Put all into a 
crucible, and c;.leine them well. 



TO COLOUR PAPER HANGINGS. 

There are three methods of effecting this. The 
first by printing the colours; the second by using 
the stencil; and the third by laying them on v/ith 
a pencil, as ia other kinds of painting. 
PHnting the colours. 

When the colours are laid on, the impression is 
made by wooden prints, which are cut in such a 
manner that the figure to be expressed is made lo 
project from the surface, by cutting away all ti.e 
other part, and this being charged with >.ix colours 
properly tempered (by letting it gently down on 
the block on which the colour is previously spread, ) 
conveys it to the ground of the paper, on which it 
is made to fall forcibly by means of its weight, and 
Dy the effort of the arm of the person who uses the 



print. There must be as many separate prints as 
there are colours to be printed. 
Stencilling. 
The maimer of stencilling \\ie colours is this: 
The figure, which all the parts of any particular 
colour make in the uesign to be painted, is to be 
cut out in apiece of tinned iron, thin leather, oroil- 
cloth; these pieces are called stencils; and being 
laid flat on the sheets of paper to be printed, spread 
on a table or floor, are to be rubbed over with the 
colour, properly tempered, by means of a large 
brush. The colour passing over the whole, is con- 
sequently spread on those parts of the paper where 
the tin, cloth, or leather is cut away, and give the 
same effect as if laid on by a print. This is, never- 
theless, only practicable in parts where there are 
only detached masses or spots of colours; for where 
there are small continued lines, or parts that run 
one into another, it is difficult to preserve the con- 
nexion or continuity of the parts of the cloth, or to 
keep the smaller corners close down to the paper: 
therefore in such cases prints are preferable. 
PenciJUng. 
Pencilling is only used in the case of nicer work, 
such as the better miitations of India paper. It is 
performed in the same manner as other paintings 
in water or varnish. It is sometimes used only to 
fill the outlines already formed by printing, where 
the price of the colour, or the exactness of the 
manner in which it is required to be laid on, ren- 
der the stencilling, or printing, less proper; at 
other times, it is used for forming or delineating 
some parts of the design, where a spirit of free- 
dom and variety, not to be had in printed outlines, 
are desirable in the work. 

To makejiock paper hangings. 
The paper designed for receiving the flock, is 
first prepared with a varnish ground with some 
proper colour, or by that of the paper itself It is 
frequently practised to print some Mosaic, or other 
small running figure in colours, on the ground, be- 
fore the flock be laid on; and it may be done with 
any pigment of the colour desired, tempered with 
varnish, and laid on by a pi-int cut correspondently 
to that end. The method of laying ou the flock is 
this: a wooden print being cut, as above described, 
for I.iying on the colour in such a manner that the 
part of the design which is intended for the flock 
may project beyond the rest of the surface, the 
varnish is put on a block covered with leather, or 
oil-cloth, and the print is to be used also in the 
same manner, to lay the varnish on all the parts 
where the flock is to be fixed. 

The sheet thus prepared by the varnished im- 
pression, is then to be removed to another block, 
or table, and to be strewed over with flock, which 
is afterwards to be gently compressed by a board, 
or some other flat body, to make the varnish take 
the better hold of it: and then the sheet is to be 
hung on a frame till the varnish be perfectly dry; 
at which time the superfluous parts of flock are to 
be brushed off by a soft camel's hair brush, and the 
proper flock will be found to adhere in a very 
strong manner. The method of preparing the flock 
is by cutting woollen rags or pieces of cloth, with 
the hand, by means of a large bill or chopping 
knife; or by means of a machine worked by a horse- 
mill. 



TO COLOUR MARBLE. 

This is a nice art, and, in order to succeed in it, 
the pieces of maible on which the experiments are 
tried, must be well polished, and free from the 
least spot or vein. The harder the marble is, the 
better it will bear the heat necessary in the opera- 



TO COLOUR MARBLE. 



71 



am; therefore alabaster, and the common soft 
w hite maiblCj are very improper for performing 
Jiese operations upon. 

Jlpplication of heat. 

Heat is always necessary for opening the pores 
of marble, so as to render it fit to receive the co- 
lours; but the marble must never be made red-hot; 
for then the texture of it is injured, and the colours 
are burnt, and lose their beauty. Too small a de- 
gree of heat is as bad as too great; for, in this case, 
though the marble receives the colour, it will not 
be fixed in it, nor strike deep enough. The pro- 
per degree is that which, without making the mar- 
ble red, will make the liquor lioil upon its surface. 
Menstriiums to strike in the colours. 

These must be varied according to the nature of 
the colour to be used. A lixivium made with 
horse's or dog's urine, with four parts of quick 
lime, and one of pot-ashes, is excellent for some 
colours; common ley of wood-ashes is very good 
for others; for some, spirit of wine is best; and 
lastly, for others, oily liquors, or common white 
wine. 

Colours. 

The colours which have been found to succeed 
best with the peculiar menstruums are these: stone- 
blue dissolved in six times the quantity of spirit of 
wine, or of the vinous lixivium, and litmus dissolv- 
ed in common lev of wood-ashes. An extract of 
saffron, and that colour made of buckthorn berries, 
and called sap-green, both succeed well when dis- 
solved in wine and quicklime. Vermilion, and a 
very fine powder of cochineal, also succeed very 
well in the same liquors. Dragon's blood succeeds 
in spirit of wine, as does also a tincture of logwood 
in the same spirit. Alkanet-root gives a fine colour; 
but the only mensU-uum to be used with it is the 
oil of turpentine. 

Di^y and umrdxecl colours. 

Besides tliese mixtures, there are other colours 
which must be laid on dry and unmixed: viz. dra- 
gon's blood of the finest kind, for a red; gamboge 
tor a yelloiu; green wax, for a green; common 
brimstone, pitcii, and turpentine, for a brown co- 
lour. The marble for these experiments must be 
made considerably hot, and then the colours are to 
be rubbed on dry in the lump. 

To give a fine gold colour. 

Take crude sal ammoniac, white vitriol, and 
verdigris, of each equal quantities. Mix the whole 
thoroughly in fine powder. 

To stain marble red or yellota. 

The staining of marble to all degrees of red or 
yellow, by solutions of dragon's blood or gamboge, 
may be done by reducing these gums to powder, 
and grinding them with the spirit of wine in a 
glass mortar. But, for smaller attempts, no me- 
thod is so good as the mixing a little of either of 



those powders witli spirit of wine in a silver spoon, 
and holding it over burning charcoal. By this 
means a fine tincture will be extracted: and with a 
pencil dipped in this, the finest traces may be made 
on the marble while cold; which, on the Iieating of 
it afterwards, either on sand, or in a baker's oven, 
will all sink very deep, and remain perfectly dis- 
tinct on the stone. It is very easy to make the 
ground colour of tlie marble red or yellow by this 
mode, and leave white veins in it. Tbis is to be 
done by covring the places where the wiiiteness is 
to remain with some white paint, or even with two 
or thi'ee doubles only of paper; either of which 
will prevent the colour from penetrating. 
To give a blue colour. 

Dissolve turnsole in lixivium, in lime and urine, 
or in the volatile spirit of urine; but a better blue, 
and used in ah easier manner, is furnished by the 
Canaiy turnsole. This is only to be dissolved in 
water, and drawn on the place with a pencil: it pene- 
trates very deeply into the marble; and the colour 
may be increased, by drawing the pencil wetted 
afresh several times over the same lines. This 
colour is subject to spread and diffuse itself irre- 
gularly; but it may be kept in regular bounds, by 
circumscribing its lines with beds of wax, or any 
such substance. It should always be laid on cold, 
and no heat given afterwards to the marble. 
To prepare brimstone in imitation of marble. 

Provide a flat and smooth piece of marble; on 
this make a border or wall, to encompass either a 
square or oval table, which may be done either 
with wax or clay. Then having several sorts of 
colours, as while lead, vermilion, lake, ori)iment 
masticot, smalt, Prussian blue, &c. melt on a slow 
fire some brimstone in several glazed pipkins; put 
one particular sort of colour into each, and stir 't 
well together; then having before oiled the marble 
all over within the wall with one colour, quicklj 
drop spots upon it of larger and less size; after 
this, take another colour and do as befoi'e, and so 
on till the stone is covered with spots of all the co- 
lours designed to be used. When this is done, 
consider next what colour the mass or ground oi 
the table is to be: if of a grey colour, then take fine 
sifted ashes, and mix it up with melted brimstone; 
or if red, with English red ochre; if white, with 
white lead; if black, with lamp or ivory black- 
The brimstone for the ground must be pretty hot, 
that the coloured drops on the stone may unite 
and incorporate with it. When the ground is 
poured even all over, next, if necessary, put a thin 
wainscot board upon it: this must be done while 
the brimstone is hot, making also the board hot, 
which ought to be thoroughly dry, in order to 
cause the brimstone to stick better to it. When 
the whole is cold, take it up, and polish it with a 
cloth and oil, and it will look very beautiful. 



BNaiKE£3££ING. 



The art of enamelling consists in the applica- 
tion of a smooth coating of vitrified matter to a 
bright polished metallic surface. It is, therefore, 
a kind of varnish made of glass, and melted upon 
the substance to which it is applied, affording a 
fine uniform ground for an infinite variety of orna- 
ments which are also fixed on by heat. 



The only metals that are enamelled are gold aad 
copper; and with the latter the opaque enamels 
only are used. "Where the enamel is transparent 
and coloured, the metal chosen should not only 
have its surface unalterable when fully red-hot, 
but also be in no degree chemically altered by the 
close contact of melted glass, containing an abim- 



72 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



dance of some kind of metallic oxide. This is the 
chief reason why coloured enamelling on silver is 
impracticable, though the brilliancy of its surface 
isnot impaired by mere heat; for ifan enamel, made 
yellow by oxide of lead or antimony, be laid on 
the surface of bright silver, and be kept melted on 
It for a certain time, the silver and the enamel act 
on each other so powerfully, that the colour soon 
changes from a yellow to an orange, and lastly to a 
dirty olive. Copper is equally altered by the co- 
loured enamels, so that gold is the only metal 
which can bear the long contact of the coloured 
glass at afull red heat without being altered by them. 
To enamel dial plates. 
A piece of thin sheet copper, hammered to the 
requisite convexity, is first accurately cut out, a 
hole drilled in the middle for the axis of the hands, 
and both the surfaces made perfectly bright with 
it brush. A small rim is then made round the cir- 
sumference, with a thin brass band rising a little 
above the level, and a similar i-im round the mar- 
win of the central hole. The use of these is to 
confine the enamel when in fusion, and to keep 
the edges of the plate quite neat and even. The 
substance of the enamel is a fine white opaque 
glass; this is bought in lump by the enamellers, and 
is first broken down with a hammer, then ground 
to a powder sufficiently fine, with some water, in 
an agate mortar; tiie superfluous water being then 
poured oft", the pulverized enamel remains of about 
the consistence of wetted sand, and is spread very 
evenly over the surface of the copperplate. In 
most enaraeliings, and especially on this, it is ne- 
cessary also to counter-enamel the under concave 
surface of the copperplate, to prevent its being 
drawn out of its true shape by the unequal shrink- 
ing of tlie metal and enamel, on cooling. Vac 
this kind of work, the counter-enamel is only about 
half the thickness on the concave, as on the convex 
side. For flat plates, the thickness is the same on 
both sides. 

The plate, covered with the moist enamel pow- 
der, is warmed and thoroughly dried, then gently 
set upon a thin earthen ring, that supports it only 
by touching the outer rim, and put gradually into 
the red hot muffle of the enameller's furnace. This 
furnace is constructed somewhat like the assny- 
furnace, but the upper part alone of the muffle is 
much heated, and some peculiarities are observed 
in the construction, to enaWe the artist to govern 
the fire more accurately. 

The precise degree of heat to be given here, as 
in all enamelling, is that at which the particles of 
the enamel run together into an uniform pasty con- 
sistence, and extend themselves evenly, showing a 
fine polished face; carefully avoiding, on the otlier 
hand, so great a heat as would endanger the melt- 
ing of the thin metallic plate. When the enamel 
is thus seen to sweat down, as it were, to an uni- 
form glossy glazing, the piece is gradually with- 
drawn and coded, otherwise it would fly by the 
action of tiie cold air. 

A second coating of enamel is then laid on and 
fired as before; but this time, the finest powder of 
enamel is taken, or that which remains suspended 
in tiie washings. It is then ready to receive the 
figures and division marks, which are made of a 
black enamel, ground in an agate mortar, to a 
most impalpable powder, worked up, on a pallet, 
with oil of lavender, and laid on with an extremely 
Sne hair brush. The plate is then stoved to eva- 
porate the essential oil, and the figure is burnt in 
as before. Polishing with tripoli, and minuter 
parts of the process, need not be here described. 
To make the purple enamel used in the Mosaic pic- 
tures of Si. Feter''s at Rome. 
Take of sulphur, saltpetre, vitriolj antiraony. 



and oxide of tin, each, 1 lb. minmm, or oxide of 
lead, 60 lbs. 

Mix all together in a crucible, and melt in a fur- 
nace: next take it out and wash it to carry off" the 
salts: after melting in the crucible, add 19 ounces 
of rose copper, half an ounce of prepared zaffi-e, 1 
ounce and a half of crocus martis, made with sul- 
phur, 3 ounces of refined borax, and 1 lb. of a com- 
position of gold, silver, and mercuiy. 

When all are well combined, the mass is to be 
stirred with a copper rod, and the fire gradually 
diminished to prevent the metals from burning. 
The composition thus prepared is finally to be put 
into crucibles and placed in a reverberatory fur- 
nace, where they are to remain 24 hours. The 
same composition will answer for other colours, by 
merely changing the colouring matter. This com- 
position has almost all the characters of real stone; 
and when broken, exhibits a vitreous fracture. — 
Plulosoph. Mag. 

'1 'o make wldte enamel, for porcelain. 
Mix 100 parts of pure lea'd with from 20 to 25 
of the best tin, and bring them to a low red heat 
in an open vessel. The mixture then burns nearly 
as rapidly as charcoal, and oxidates very fast. 
Skim off" the crusts of oxide successively formed, 
till the whole is thoroughly calcined. 

Then mix all the skimmings, and again heat as 
before, till no flame arises from them, and the 
whole is of an uniform gi-ey colour. Take 100 
parts of this oxide, 100 of white sand, and 25 or 
30 of common salt, and melt the whole by a mo- 
derate heat. This gives a greyish mass, often po- 
I rous and apparently imperfect, but which, how- 
ever, runs to a good enamel when afterwards 
heated. 

For metals and finer works. 
The saftd is previously calcined in a very strong 
heat with a fourth of its weight; or, if a more fusi- 
ble compound is wanted, as much of the oxides of 
tin and lead as of salt are taken, and the whole is 
melted into a white porous mass. This is then 
employed instead of the rough sand, as in the pre- 
ceding process. 

The above proportions, however, are not inva- 
riable, for if more fusibility is wanted, the dose of 
oxide is increased, and that of the sand diminished, 
the quantity of common salt remaining the same. 
I'he sand employed in this process is not the com- 
mon sort, however fine; but a micaceous sand, in 
I which the mica forms about one-fourth of the mix- 
ture. 

JVew enamel for porcelain. 
Melt together, pulverized feldspar, 27 parts, 
borax 18 parts, sand, 4 do. potash, nitre, and pot- 
ter's earth, 3 parts each. 

Then add three parts of borax reduced to fine 
powder. 

From the trial which the society of Arts in Lon- 
don ordered to be made of this enamel, it has been 
found superior to any hitherto known. It is easily 
and uniformly applied, and spreads without pro- 
ducing bubbles, or spoutings out; it neither co- 
vers nor impairs even the most delicate colours. 
It incorporates perfectly with them, and the por- 
celain which is covered over with it may pass a 
second time through the fire, without this enamel 
cracking or breaking out. 

Material for opaque enamels. 
Neri, in his valuable treatise on glass making, 
has long ago given the following proportions for 
the common material of all the opaciue enamels, 
which Kuuckel and other practical chemists have 
confirmed. — Calcine 30 parts of lead, with 33 of 
tin, with the usual precautions. Then take of this 
calcined mixed oxide 50 lbs. and as much of pow- 
dered flints ^prepared by being thrown into wattt 



ENAMELLING. 



when red hot, and then ground to powder), and 8 
ounces of salt of tartar; melt the mixture in a 
strong fire kept up for ten hours, after which re- 
duce the mass to powder. 

To make it -white. 

Mix 6 lbs. of the compound with 48 grains of 
the best black oxide of manganese, and melt in a 
clear fire. When fully fused, throw it into cold 
water, then re-melt and cool as before, two or 
three times, till the enamel is quite white and fine. 
Rich red coloured enamel. 

The most beautiful and costly colour known in 
enamelling, is an exquisitely fine ricii red, with a 
purplish tinge, given by the sails and oxides of 
gold; especially by the purple precipitate, formed 
by tin in one form or other; and by nitromuriate 
of gold; and also by the fulminating gold. This 
beautiful colour requires much skill in the artist, 
to be fully brought out. When most perfect it j 
should come from the fire quite colourless, and af- 
terwards receive its colour by the flame of a can- 
dle. 

Other, and common reds, are given by the oxide i 
of iron; but this requires the mixture of alumine, 
or some other substance refractory in the fire, 
otherwise at a full red heat, the colour will de- 
generate into black. 
fo prepare the flux for enamelling on glass vessels. 

Take of satximus glorificatus, I lb. natural crys- 
tal, calcined to whiteness, 1-2 lb. salt of polverine, 
lib. 

Mix them together, and bake in a slow hept for 
about 12 hours, then melt the mass, and pulverize 
the same in an agate mortar, or any other proper 
vessel, which is not capable of communicating any 
metallic or other impurity. 

To prepare glorificattis. 

Take litharge of white lead, put it in a pan, 
pour on distilled vinegar, stirring it well over a 
gentle fire till the vinegar becomes impregnated 
with the salt of the lead; evaporate half the vine- 
gar, put It in a cool place to crystallize, and keep 
the crystals dry for use. 

To make green enamel. 

Take of copper-dust, 1 oz. sand, 2 oz. litharge, 
1 oz. nitre, ^ oz. Or, copper, 2 oz. sand, 1 oz. 
litharge, 2 oz. nitre, l^ oz. 

Mix them with equal parts of flux, or vary the 
proportions of them as may be found necessary, 
according to the tint of colour required. 

Black enameli — Take of calcined iron, cobait, 
crude or prepared, each 1 oz. Or, zaffre, 2 oz. 
manganese, 1 oz. 

Mix them with equal parts of flux, by melting 
or grinding together. 

Yellow enamel. — Take of lead and tin ashes, 
litharge, antimony and sand, each 1 oz. nitre, 4 
ounces. 

Calcine, or melt them together; pulverize, and 
mix them with a due proportion of flux, as the na- 
ture of the glass may require; or take more or less 
of any or ah of the above, according to the depth 
of colour desired. 

Blue enamel. — Take of prepared cobalt, sand, 
red-lead, and nitre, each 1 oz. flint glass, 2 oz. 

Melt them together by fire, ptdverized and flux- 
ed according to the degree of softness, or strength 
of colour required. 

Olive enamel. — Take, of the blue as prepared 
above, I oz. black, ^ oz. yellow, ^ oz. Grind 
them for use. If necessary add flux to make it 
softer. 

White enamel, — ^Take of tin, prepared by aqiia- 

fortis, and red-lead, each I oz. white pebble-stone, 

or natural crystal, 2 oz. nitre, 1 oz. arsenic i 

drachm, with equal parts of flux, or more or less, 

K 



as the softness or opacity may require: melt to- 
gether, calcine, or use raw. 

JPurple enamel. — Take the finest gold ; dissolve 
it in aqua-i-egia, regidated with sal-ammoniac; put 
it in a sand heat for about 48 hours, to digest the 
gold, collect the powder, grind it with 6 limes its 
weiglit of sulphur, put it into a crucible on tlie fin^ 
till the sulphur is evaporated; then amalgamate the 
powder with twice its weight of mercury, put it 
into a mortar or other vessel, and rub it together 
for about six hours, with a siiiall quantity of water 
ill the mortar, which change frequently; evaporate 
the remaining mercury in a crucible, and add to 
the powder 10 times its weight of flux, or more or 
less, as the hardness or softness of the colour may 
require. 

Rose-coloured enamel. — Take purple as pre- 
pared above, mix it with 30 times its weight of 
flux, and lOOth part of its weight of silver leaf, or 
any preparation of silver, or vary the proportion of 
the flux and silver as the quality of the colour may 
require; or any of the other preparations for pur- 
ple will do, varying the x>roportions of tlie flux 
and silver as above; or any materials, from which 
purple can be produced, will, with the addition of 
silver and flux, answer. 

Brown enamel. — Take of red-lead, i ounce, cal- 
cined iron, 1 oz. antimony, 2 oz. litharge, 2 oz. 
zaffre. I oz. sand, 2 oz. 

Calcine, or melt together, or use raw, as may 
be most expedient; or vary the proportions of any 
or all the above, as tint or quality may require. 
JMode of application. 

The preceding colours may be applied to vessels 
of glass in the following manner, viz. by painting, 
printing, or ti-ansferring, dipping, floating, and 
grounding. 

By painting. — Mix the colours (when reduced 
by grinding to a fine powder) with spirits of tur- 
pentine, temper tliem with thick oil of turpentine, 
and apply them with camel-hair pencils, or any 
other proper instrument, or mix them with nut or 
spike oil, or any other essential or volatile oil, or 
with water, in which case use gum arable, or any 
other gum that will dissolve in water, or with spi- 
rits, varnishes, gums of every kind, waxes, or re- 
sins; but the first is conceived to be the best. 

By printing. — Take a glue bat, full size for the 
subject, charge the copperplate with the oil or co- 
lour, and take the impression with the bat from the 
plate, which impression transfer on the glass: if 
the impression is not strong enough, shake some 
dry colour on it which will adhere to the moist co- 
lour; or take any engraving or etching, or stamp, 
or cast, and having charged it with the oil or co- 
lour, transfer it on the glass by means of prepareci 
paper, vellum, leather, or any other substance 
that will answer; but the first is the best. Any 
engravings, etchings, stamps, casts, or devices, 
may be chai'ged with waters, oils, varnishes, or 
glutinous matters of any kird, reduced to a proper 
state, as is necessary in printing in general; any 
or all of these may be used alone, or mixed with 
the colours. When used alone, the colour is ta 
be applied in powder. 

By dipping. — Mix the colour to about the con- 
sistency of a cream with any of the ingredieL;ts 
used for printing, in which dip the glass vessel, 
and keep it in motion till smooth. 

By floating. — Mix the colour with any of the 
ingredients used for printing, to a consistency ac- 
cording to the strength of the ground required, 
float it through a tube, or any other vessel, moving 
or shaking the piece of glass till the colour is 
spread over the part required. 

By grounding. — First charge the glass vessel 

u 



74 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



with oil of turpentine, with a camel-hair pencil, 
and while moist apply the colour In a dry powder, 
which will adhere to he oil, or, instead of oil of 
turpentine, use any of the materials used for print- 
ing; but the first is the best. 
Cautions to be obsei^ed in making coloured ena- 
mels. 

In making these enamels, the following general 
cautions are necessary to be observed. 1st. That 
the pots he glazed with white glass, and be such as 
will bear the fire. 

2d. That the matter of enamels be very nicely 
mixed with the colours. 

3d. When the enamel is good, and the colour 
well incorporated, it must be taken from the fire 
with a pair of tongs. 

General method of making coloured enamels. 

Powder, sift, and grind all the colours very nice- 
ly, and first mix them with one another, and then 
with the common matter of enamels; then set 
tbem in pots in a furnace, and when they are well 
mixed and incorporated, cast them into water, and 
when dry, set them in a furnace again to melt, and 
when melted take a proof of it. If too deep co- 
loured, add more of the common matter of ena- 
mels; and if too pale add more of the colours. 
To obtain black enamel with platina. 

Mix some chlorine of platina, dissolved in wa- 
ter, with neutv!r-nitrate of mercury, and expose 
the precipitate, which will be formed, to a lieat 
simply sufficient to volatilize theprolo-chlorine of 
mercury; there will be obtained a black powder, 
which, ap{)lied with a dissolvent or flux, gives a 
beautiful hlack enamel.— -Annales de Chimie. 
To make enamel, called niello. 

Take 1 part of pure silver, 2 of copper, and 3 
of pure lead, fuse them together, and pour the 
amr.lgam into a long-necked earthenware matrass, 
half filled with levigated sulphur; let the mouth 
of the vessel be immediately closed, and the con- 
tents left to cool. The mass which results, when 
levigated and washed, is ready for the purposes of 
the artist. The cavities left by the fusion having 
oeen filled with it, the plate is to be held over a 
small furnace, fed with a mixture of charcoal and 
wood, taking care to distribute the enamel with 
the proper instrument. As soon as fusion has ta- 
ken place, the plate is to be i-emoved; and, when 
sufficiently cooled, is to be cleared by the file, and 
polished by fine pumice and tripoli. 
To paint in enamel. 

Tlie enamel painter has to work, not with actual 
colours, but with mixtures, which he only knows 
from experience will produce certain colours after 
the delicate operation of the fire; and to the com- 
mon skill of the painter, in the aiTangement of his 
palette and choice of his colours, the enameller lias 
to add muclj practical knowledge of the chemical 
operation of one metallic cxide on another; the fu- 
sibility of his materials; and the utmost degree of 
heat at which they w'll retain, not only the accu- 
racy of the figures which he has given, but the pre- 
cise shade of colour which he intends to lay on. 

Painting in enamel requires a succession of fir- 
ings: first of the ground which is to receive the 
design, and which itself requires two firings, and 
then of the Uifterent parts ofihe design itselt. The 
ground is laid on in the same genei-al way as the 
coram 0.1 watch face enamelling. 'I'he colours are 
the different metallic oxides, melted with some 
vitrescent mixture, and ground to extreme fineness. 
These are worked up with an essential oil (iliat of 
spikenard is prefeiTed, and next to it oil o^ laven- 



der) to the proper consistence of oil colours, and 
are laid on with a very fine hair brush. The es- 
sential oil should be very pure, and the use of this, 
rather than of any fixed oil, is, that the whole may 
evaporate completely in a moderate lieat, and leave 
no carbonaceous matter in contact with the colour 
when red liot, which might affect its degree of oxi- 
dation, and thence the shade of colour which it is 
intended to produce. As the colour of some vitri- 
fied metallic oxides (such as that of gold) will 
stand at a very moderate heat, whilst others will 
bear, and even require a higher temperature to be 
properly fixed, it forms a great part of the techni- 
cal skill of the artist to supply the different colours 
in proper order; fixing first those shades which are 
produced bj^ the colours that will endure the high- 
est, and finishing with those lliat demand the least 
heat. The outline of the design is first traced on 
the enamel, ground and burnt in; after which, the 
parts are filled up gradually by repeated burnings, 
to the last and finest touches of the tenderest ena- 
mel. 

Transparent enamels are scarcely ever laid upon 
any other metal than gold, on account of the dis- 
coloration produced by other metals. If, however, 
copper is the metal used, it is first covered with a 
thin enamel coating, over which gold leaf is laid 
and burnt in, so tliat, in fact, it is still this metal 
that is the basis of the ornamental enamel. 
To manufacture Mosaic as at Home. 
Mosaic work consists of variously shaped pieces 
of coloured glass enamel; and when tliese pieces 
are cemented together, they form those regular 
and other beautiful figures which constitute tessel- 
lated pavements. 

The enamel, consisting of glass mixed with me- 
tallic colouring matter, is heated for eight days in 
a glass-house, each colour in a separate pot. The 
melted enamel is taken out with an iron spoon, and 
poured on polished marble placed horizontally; 
and another flat marble slab is laid upon the sur- 
face, so that the enamel cools into the form of a 
round cake, of the thickness of three-tenths of an 
inch. 

In order to divide the cake into smaller pieces, 
it is placed on a sharp steel anvil, called tagliulo, 
which has the edge uppermost; and a stroKe of an 
edged hammer is given ou the upper surface of the 
cake, which is thus divided into long parallele- 
pipeds, or pi-isms, whose bases are three-tenths of 
an inch scjuare. These parallelepipeds are again 
divided across their length by the tagliulo and ham- 
mer into pieces of the length of eiglit-tenths of an 
inch, to be used in the Mosaic pictui'es. Some- 
times the cakes are made thickei' and the pieces 
larger. 

For smaller pictures, the enamel, whilst fused, 
is drawn into long parallelopipeds, or quadrangu- 
lar sticks; and these are diviued across by the tag- 
liulo and hammer, or by a file; some'^imes, also, 
these pieces are divided by a saw without teeth, 
consisting of a copper blade and emery; and the 
pieces are sometimes polished on a horizontal 
wheel of lead with emery. 

Gilded Mosaic. 
Gilded Mosaic is fo'-med by applying the gold 
leaf on the hot S'lrface of a brown enamel, imme- 
diatelj after the enamel is taken from the furnace; 
the whole is put into the furnace again for a short 
time, and when it is taken out the gold is firmly 
fixed on the surface. In the gilded enamel, used 
in Alosaic at Rome, there is a thin coat oftratispa 
rent glass over the gold. 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



ISNGmklTllttG. 



The (lifTerent modes of engraving are the follow- 
ing: — 

1. lu sirokes cut through a thin wax, laid upon 
the copper, with a point, and these strokes bitten 
or corroded into the copper with aqua-fortis. This 
is called etcMng. 

2. In strokes with the graver alone unassisted by 
aqua-fortis. In this instance, the design is traced 
with a sharp tool, called a dry point, upon the 
plate; and tlie strokes are cut or ploughed upon the 
copper witli an instrument distinguished by the 
name of a graver. 

3. In mezzotinto, which is performed by a daric 
ground being raised uniformly upon the plate witli 
a torthed tool. 

4. In aquatinta, the outline is first etched, and 
afterwards a sort of wash is laid by the aqua-fortis 
upon the plate, resembling drawings in Indian ink, 
bistre, &c. 

5. On wood, performed with a single block. 

6. On wood, with two, three, or more blocks. 
This mode of engraving is called chiar' oscnro, 

and was designed to represent the drawings of the 
old masters. 

7. Engraving on steel. 

EtcMng. 

Etching is a method of working on copper, 
wherein the lines or strokes instead of being cut 
with a graver, are eaten with aqua-fortis. 
JMaterials, &c. 

The principal materials for this art are, the cop- 
per-plate, hard and soft ground, (the first for win- 
ter, and the other for summer,) a dabber, turpen- 
tine-varnish, lamp-black, soft wax, and aqua-fortis. 

The tools are an oil-rubber, a burnisher,a scraper, 
a hand-vice, etehing-boards, etching-needles, an 
oil stone, and a parallel ruler. 

To lau on the groxmd or varnish. 

Having provided a plate of the size of the draw- 
ing intended to be copied, rub it well with an oil- 
rubber made of swan-skin flannel, till all the marks 
of the charcoal used in polishing it, entirely disap- 
pear; then, wipe off the dirty oil with a linen i-ag, 
dip the finger in some clean oil, and touch it over 
every part of the plate; after which, with the bur- 
nisher, polish the plate; and in case any sand-holes 
or flaws appear, the scraper will assist in taking 
them out. The marks left by the scraper are to 
be taken out by the burnisher "till nothing appear. 
Having fixed the hand- vice at one end of the plate 
with a rag and whiting, clean the plate carefully 
from grease; then heat it over a charcoal fii-e, or 
lighted paper, lay the ground on thinly, and dab it 
all over with the dabber, till it is perfectly smooth 
and even; then warm the plate again, and, holding 
>t up with the ground downwards, smoke it all over 
with a wax candle, taking care that tlie snuff" of it 
does not touch the ground, and wave the candle 
continually over every part, so that the groftnd may 
not be burnt by heating it more in one place than 
Hnother. If the plate be large, bind four wax-ta- 
ners together. 

To trace the outlines. 

Ru' the back part of the drawing &11 over with 
a bi'„ o-{ rag or cotton, dipt in the scrapings of red 
chalk, and shake off the loose dust, or wipe it oft" 
gently with a clean rag. Place the red side upon 
the plate, making it fast at each corner with a lit- 
tle bit of soft wax. Lay tlie etciiing board under 
the hand, to prevent bruising the ground; t len with 
a blunt etching needle trace lightly the outlines 



and breadths of the shadows till the marks of them 
appear upon the ground, taking care not to pene- 
ti-ate it by tracing too hard. 

As great nicety is required in this part of the 
work, it will be necessary now and then to lift up 
one corner of the original, and examine whether 
eveiy part be traced before the taking it oft", as it 
will be extremely difficult to lay it down again in 
its former position. 

Directions for etching. 

Having carefully traced the original, take it off, 
and lay a silk handkerchief next the plate, and 
over that the etching board; then proceed to the 
etching; for which, observe the following direc- 
tions. 

Distances in landscapes, or the faint parts of any 
other picture, are the first tc be done: and these 
are to be worked closer, and with a sharper pointed 
needle: the darker parts must be etched wider, 
and with a blunter needle; but to prevent mistakes, 
the needles may be marked according to their dif- 
ferent degrees, and the uses t'or which they are in- 
tended. As for the very faintest parts of all, they 
ai'e to be left for the graver, or dry needle. 

In buildings, and all architecture in general, use 
a parallel ruler, till frequent practice enables the 
artist to do them well enough wiliiout. 

The needles may, when necessary, be whetted 
upon the oil-stone, keeping them turning in the 
hand, so as to whet them equally all round. The 
oil-stwne will be further-' useful in whetting the 
scraper, which is to be ribbed flat upon the stone, 
and with a steady hand, keeping oil constantly upon 
the stone. 

To bite or eat in the ivorh tuith agna foriis. 

Examine the work carefully and see that nothing 
is omitted; and if any sci-atches appear upon the 
ground, or mistakes be committed, stop them out, 
by covering them with a mixture of lamp-black 
and varnish, laid on thinly with a hair-pencil, 
whicli, when diy, will resist the aqua-fortis. I*: 
will be better, however, to stop these out, as they 
occur in the course of the work, as they wiil 
be less liable to escape notice; when the varnish is 
dry, etch it over again if required. 

Then inclose the work with a rim or border of 
soft wax, about half an inch high, bending the wax 
in the form of a spout, at one corner, to pour oft' 
the aqua-fortis; take care to lay the wax so close 
to the plate that no vacancies be left. 

The aqua-fortis must be single; and if too strong, 
as will be seen in the biting, lake it oft', and mix 
it with a little water, shaking them together in a 
bottle; and when, by often using, it becomes too 
weak, it may be strengthened by mixing it with a 
little double aqua-fortis. The bottle which con- 
tains the aqua-fortis, should have a large mouth 
and a glass stepper. 

Let the aqua-fortis lie on the plate a short time, 
wiping off ti>e bubbles as they arise with a feather, 
which may remain upon the plate while it is bit- 
ing; after which take it oft", and wash the jjlate with 
water; then let it dry, and by scraping oii'part of 
tiie ground from the faintest part of tlie work, tiy 
if it be bit enough; and if not, slop est the part 
whicli has been tried with the lamp-black and var- 
nish, and when that is diy, pour on the a,^ua-forti 
again. 

When the faint parts of the work »~e bit enoogti, 
stop them out, and proceed to bite the sti'onger 
parts, stopping them out as occasion requires, till 



76 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK 



the whole work is sufficiently bit; then warm the 
plate, and take off the soil wax: after which, heat 
the plate till the ground melts, pour on a little oil, 
and wipe tLe Avhole off with a rag. When the 
ground is taken off, rub the work well with the oil- 
rubber, and wipe the plate clean; then proceed to 
finish it with the grai'er. 

Engraving tools. 
The tools necessary for engraving, are the oil- 
rubber, burnisher, scraper, oil-stone, needles, and 
ruler, already mentioned to be used in etcliing; 
also gravers, ecsmpasses, ana a sand bag. 

Gravers are of two sorts, square and lozenge. 
Three of each sort should be provided. The first 
is used in cutting the broader strokes, the other 
for the fainter and more delicate ones. No 
graver should exceed the length of five inches and 
a half, the handle included, excepting for straight 
lines. 

The sand-bag or cushion is used to lay the 
plate on, for the convenience of turning it about. 
To ruhet and temper the graver. 

As great pains are required to whet the graver 
nicely, particularly the belly of it, care must be 
taken to lay the two angles of the graver, wliich 
are to be held next the plate, flat upon the stone, 
and rub them steadily, till the belly rises gradual- 
ly above the plate, sc that when the graver is laid 
flat upon it, the light may be just perceived unuer 
the point, otherwise it will dig into the copper, and 
then it will be impossible to keep a point, or exe- 
cute the work with freedom. Keep the right arm 
close to the side, and place the forefinger of the 
left hand upon that part of the graver which lies 
uppermost on the stone. When this is done, in 
order to whet the face, place the flat part of the 
handle in the hollow of the hand, with the beily of 
the graver upwards, upt^n a moderate slope, and 
I'ub the extremity or face upon the stone, till it has 
an exceeding sharp point. The oil-stone, while in 
use, must never be kept without oil. 

Wlien the graver is too hard, which may be 
known by the trequent breaking of the point, the 
method of tempering it is as follows: — 

Heat a poker red-liot, and tiold the graver upon 
it within half an inch of the point, waving it to and 
fro till the steel changes to a light straw colour; 
then put the point into oil to cool; or hold the 
graver close to the flame of a candle till it be of 
the same colour, and cool it in the tallow; but be 
careful either way not to hold it too long, for then 
it will be too soft; and in this case the point, which 
will then turn blue, must be broken off, whetted 
afresh, and tempered again if required. 
To hold the graver. 

Hold the handle in the hollow of the hand, and 
extending the fore-finger down towards the poiat, 
let it rest unon the back of the graver, so as to hold 
it flat and parallel witli the plate. 

Take care that the fingers do not interpose be- 
tween the plate and the graver, for they will pre- 
vent the artist from carrying the graver level with 
the plate, and from cutting the strokes so clean as 
they ought to be. 

To lay the design upon the plate. 

After polishing it fine and smooth, heat it so that 
it will melt virgin tuax, with which rub it thinly 
and equally over, and let it cool. Then the design 
must be drawn on paper with a black lead pencil, 
and laid upon the plate with its pencilled side upon 
the wax; press it to, and with a burnisher go over 
every \)art of the design; then with a sharp-pointed 
tool, trace it through the wax upon the plate, take 
off the wax and proceed to work. 

To engrave on copper. 

Place the sand-bag on a firm table, or fixed board 
with the plate upon it; and holding the graver as 



above directed, proceed to business in the follow 
ing manner: — 

For straight strokes, hold the plate firm upon the 
sand-bag with the left hand, moving the right hand 
forwards, leaning lighter where the stroke should 
be fine, and harder where it shi/uld be broader. 

For circular or crooked strokes, hold the graver 
steadfast, moving the hand or the plate as most 
convenient. Carry Uie hand with such a sleight, 
that the stroke may be ended as finely as it was be-« 
gun; and if there is occasion to make one part 
deeper or blacker than another, do it by degi-ees, 
taking care that the strokes be not too close nor too 
wide. 

In the course of the work, scrape off the bnr or 
roughness which arises with the belly of the grav- 
er, but be careful in doing this, not to scratch the 
plate; rub it with the oil rubber, and wipe the plate 
clean, which will take off the glare of the copper, 
and shew what has been done to the best advantage. 
Any mistakes or scratches in the plate may be 
rubbed out with the burnisher, and the part level- 
led with the scraper, polishing it again afterwards 
lightly with the burnisher. 

The piece may now be finished by graving up 
the several parts to the colour of the original, be- 
ginning, as in etching, with the fainter parts, and 
advancing gradually with the stronger, till the whole 
is completed. 

Tlie dry needle (so called because not used till 
the ground is taken off the plate) is principally em- 
ployed in the extreme light parts of water, sky, dra- 
pery, architecture, Stc. 

To prevent too gi-eat a degree of light, use a sash, 
made of transparent or fan paper, pasted on a frame 
and placed sloping at aconvenient distance between 
the work and the light. 

To engrave upon copl)er in alto relievo. 
The new art of engraving upon copper, which 
Mr Lizars of Edinburgh has in\ented, is a substi- 
tute for wood engraving, in the same manner as li- 
thography is a substitute for copper-plate engra- 
ving; but while Mr Lizars has given us a cheaper 
art for a more expensive one, he has also given us 
a more perfect art for one which is full ot imper- 
fections. 

In the common operation of engraving, the de- 
sired effect is produced by making incisions upon 
the copper-plate with a steel instrument of an an- 
gular sliape, which incisions are filled with print- 
ing ink, and transferred to tlie paper by the pres- 
sure of a roller, which is passed over 'ts surface. 
There is another mode of producing these lines oi 
incisions by means of diluted nitrous acid, in which 
the impression is taken in the same way. Mr Li- 
zars' new method of engraving is done upon a prin- 
ciple exactly the reverse, for instead of the subject 
beiiigcut into the copper, it is the interstice between 
the lines which is removed by diluted aqua-fortis, 
and the lines are left as the surface: from which 
the impression is taken by means of a common 
type printing press, instead of a copper-plate 
press. 

This is effected by drawing with common tur- 
pentine farnish, covered with lamp-black, whatever 
is i-equired upon the plate, and when the varnish 
is thoroughly dry, the acid is poured upon it, and 
the interstice of course removed by its action upon 
the uncovered part of the copper. If the subject is 
very full of dark sivadows, this operation will be . 
performed with little risk of accident, and with the 
removal of very little of the interstice between the 
lines: but if the distance between the lines is great, 
the risk and difficulty is very much increased, ajid 
it will be requisite to cut away the pai-ts which sur- 
round ♦^he lines, with a graver, in oraer to prevent 
the daboer with the printing ink from reaching 



ENGRA\1XG. 



the bottom, and thus producing a bluired impres- 
sion. It is obvious, therefore, that the more the 
plate IS covered with work, the less risk will there 
be in the preparation of it with the acid, after the 
'.subject is drawn, and the less trouble will there be 
in removing the interstice (if any) from those places 
where there is little shading. 

To make oordering tvcix for copperplates. 

Take one-third of bees wax, and two-thirds of 
pitch: melt them in a pipkin or iron ladle, and 
pour them into Iuke-^^■arm water. \Vl»en well 
mixed, and the water is squeezed out, form it into 
rolls of convenient size. 

When wanted for use, "t must be put into luke- 
warm water to soften it, and render it easily worked 
by the nand. When sufficiently pliable, it must 
be drawn out into long rolls, and p'lt round tbe 
edges of the plate, from half an inch to an inch 
high. Mould a spout at one corner to pour off the 
aqua-fortis. 

Another method. — Melt bees-wax with a small 
portion of Venice turpentine and tallow, until it 
becomes of a proper consistencj-. 

This IS used for placing round the plate about 
an inch high, previously to pouring on the aqua- 
fortis. At one corner a spout or gutter should be 
made fnr the purpose of pouring off the aqua-fortis, 
when the etching is sufficiently bit in. 
To make Remb"andfs -white varnish for engraving. 

Take of virgin-wax, one ounce, of mastic, half 
an ounce, of calcined asphaltum, or of amber, half 
an ounce. Pound the mastic and asphaltum sepa- 
rately in a mortar; put the wax into a new earthen- 
ware pot well glazed, and place it over a fire, till 
the wax be melted; then sprinkle in, by little and 
little, tbe mastic and asphaltum, and stir the mix- 
ture well together till the whole be incorporated. 
Pour the melted matter afterwards into clean water, 
and form it into a ball which must be kept for use. 

In using this varnish, it is proper to take particu- 
lar care of three things. The first, not to heat the 
plate too much when the varnish is put upon it. 
Tbe second, to lay the first coat of varnish as thin 
as possible, in order to be able to spread the white 
varnish upon it, without rendering the whole of too 
great a thickness: The tlxird, to omit blackening 
this varnish with smoke, as is done with the com- 
mon; but when it is become entirely cold, take a 
piece of white lead, and having ground it extreme- 
ly fine, temper it with gum water; and then, with 
a pencil, lay a coat of it veiy thinly and equally 
over the whole plate. Thi sis the manner in which 
Rembrandt varnished his plates. 

Callot's soft varnish. 

Take of virgin-wax, four ounces, of amber, (or 
of the best asphaltum calcined), and of mastic, 
each two ounces, of resin, common pitch, or shoe- 
maker's wax, each one ounce, and of varnish, or 
turpentine, half an ounce. 

Having prepared all these ingredients, take a 
new earthen-pot, and put it over the fire, witli the 
virgin-wax in it; and when that is melted, add gra- 
dually to it the pitch; and afterwards the powders, 
stirring the mixture each time in proportion to the 
addition made to it. When the whole is sufficiently 
melted and mixt together, take the pot from the 
fire, and having poured the mass in an earthen ves- 
sel, full of clean water, fo'-m it into balls, by work- 
ing it with the hands, and keep them in a box, free 
from dust, for use. 

The two ounces of mastic are to be used only in 
summer, because it hardens the varnish, and pre- 
serves it from being cracked by the engraver's lean- 
ing over the plate during the graving; but in that 
designed for winter, only one ounce should be 
put. 



Salmon''s soft vamish. 

Take of virgin-v/ax, four ounces, asphaltum, two 
ounces, amber and mastic, each one ounce. 

The preparation is much the same as for the 
preceding, only caution should be used that the 
fire be not too strong, as the varnish will, other- 
wise, be apt to burn. This varnish is only for 
summer use, and would be too hard for winter. 
Excellent Parisian soft varnish. 

Take of virgin- wax, and of asphaltum, or Greek 
pitoli, each one ounce; of black pitch, half an ounce, 
and of Burgundy pitch, a quarter of an ounce. The 
as])haltum must be pounded in a mortar, and the 
wax melted over a slow fire, in a pot of glazed 
earthenware; and tbe rest of the ingredients added 
little by little, stirring llie mixture accordingly, 
till tlie whole be well melted and incorporated; 
and takin£i, care that the matter ?3e not suffered to 
burn. Afterwards throw the whole mass into an 
earthen vessel full of clean water, and knead it 
with the hands, to form it into little balls; and then 
roll them up in new strong taffety for use. 

Another soft varnish. — Take of virgin-wax, two 
ounces and a half, of Burgundy pitch, three ounces, 
of resin, half an ounce, asphaltum, two ounces, 
and turpentine, one penny-worth: this varnish is 
very good, and well approved. The preparation 
is the same as that of those already given. 
La-wrence^s soft varnish. 

Take of virgin-wax and asphaltum, each two 
ounces, of black pitch and Burgundy pitch, each 
half an ounce. Melt the wax and pitch in a new 
earthen-ware glazed pot, and add to them, by de- 
grees, the asphaltum finely powdered. Let the 
whole boil till such time, as that taking a drop 
upon a plate, it will break when it is cold, on 
bending It double three or four times, betwixt the 
fingers; the varnish being then enough boiled, must 
be taken oiF the fire, and having been suffered to 
cool a little, must be poured into warm water, that 
it may work the more easily with the hands, so as 
to be formed into balls, which must be wrapt in 
taffety for use. 

It must be observed, first, that the fire be not too 
violent, for fear of burning the ingi-edients; a slight 
simmering will be sufficient: 2dly, that while the 
asphaltum is putting in, and even after it is mixt 
with them, the ingredients should be stirred con- 
tinually with a spatula; and 3dly, that the water, 
into which this composition is xiirown, should be 
nearly of the same degree of warmth with it, to 
prevent a kind of cracking that happens when the 
water is too cold. 

The varnish ought always to be harder in sum- 
mer than in winter, and it will become so, if it be 
suffered to boil longer, or if a greater proportion 
of the asphaltum or brown resin be used. 

To apply soft varnish to copper plates. 

The plate being well polished and burnished, 
also cleansed from all greasiness, by chalk or Spa- 
nish white, put it upon a chafing-dish, in which 
there is a moderate fire, observing to hold it so that 
it may not burn. It is to be left over the fire, til! 
it be so hot that the varnish, being brought in con- 
tact with it, may melt. Then take some of the 
soft varnish well wrapt up in taffety, that is free 
from all grease and dirt, and also strong and sound 
in every part. With this rub the plate, fixed over 
the fire till it grow hot. In doing this, it should 
be gently passed from one side to the otlier in s 
right line, so as to form several rows, till the plate 
be every where moderately covered. After this, 
with a sort of ball made of cotton, tied up in tafi^ety, 
beat every part of the plate gently, while tbe var- 
nish is yet in a fluid state; and to unite it still more, 
and give it a finer grain, it is proper **■■ take the 

-* z 



76 

plate from the fire immediately, and continue strik- 
mg it on every part with the ball, till it attain a 
harder consistence xvi coolinp;. This must not, 
nevertheless, be prolonged till the varnish be too 
cold, for tlien the ball would be ant to make it rise 
from the plate. 

Le Bosss's hard varnish. 

Take of Greek or Burgundy pitch and resin, or 
eolophony of Tyre, or common resin, each two 
ounces. Melt them together upon a moderate fire, 
in a new earthen pot, well glazed; and, these in- 
gredients being thoroughly mixt, put to them eight 
ounces of good nut, or linseed oil, and incorporate 
the whole well together, over the fi)'e, for a full 
half hour. Continue afterwards to boil the mix- 
ture till such time as, having taken a little of it 
out, and suffered it to cool, it ropes on touching it 
with the finger, like a very tliick syrup. Take the 
pot then from the fire, and the varnish being a lit- 
tle cooled, pass it through a new linen cloth, into 
some vessel that will not soak it up, and can be well 
corked. Varnish made in this manner, may be 
kept for twenty years, and will, indeed be the bet- 
ter for age. 

To blacken the varnish. 

When the plate is uniformly and thinly covered 
with the varnish, it must be blackened by a piece 
of flambeau, or large wax candle which affords a 
copious smoke: sometimes 2, or even 4 such can- 
dles are used together, for the sake of dispatch, 
that the varnish may not grow cold during the ope- 
ration. The plate must be heated again, that it 
may be in a melted state when the operation of 
blackening is performed; but threat cai-e must be 
taken not to burn it, which may be easily perceiv- 
ed by the varnish smoking and running into little 
lumps, as if it had contracted some foulness. 

It is proper likewise to be very cautious in keep- 
ing the flambeau or candle at a due distance from 
the plate, for fear the wick should touch the var- 
nish, which would both sully and mark it. If it 
appear that the black has not penetrated the var- 
nish, the plate must be again placed, for a short 
time, over the ohaf.ng-dish; and it will be found, 
that in proportion as the plate grows hot, the var- 
nish will melt and incorporate with, tlie black, 
w.iich lay above it, in such a manner that the whole 
will be equally pervaded by it. 

Above all things, the greatest catition should be 
used ;n this opt i-ation to keep a moderate fire all 
the time, and to move the plate frequently, and 
change the place of all the parts of it, that tlie var- 
nish may be alike melted every where, and be 
kept from burning. Care must be taken, that du- 
ring this time, and even till the varnish be entirely 
cold, no filth, sparks, nor dust, fly on it, for they 
would then stick fast and spoil the work. 

To apply hard varnish to copperplates. 

The plate being perfectly cleansed and freed 
from greasiness, must be put on a chafing-dish, 
containing a small fire; and when it is become mo- 
derately hot, it must be taken off again, in order 
to receive the varnish, which must be thus laid on: 
• Take a proper quantity of the varnish, and put- 
ting it on the end of the finger with a stick or other 
small instrument, touch the plate with it gently, 
in order that it may be spread in small spots of the 
same size, at as equal distances as possible over 
ever)^ part; and if the plate cool too much before 
the whole be finished, heat it again as at first, care- 
fully preserving it, nevertheless, from any dust or 
foulness that may be liable to fall upon it. When 
this is done, spread the varnish with a little ball, 
or puff, made of the cotton and tafFety, as is done 
sn the case of the soft varnish. 
To take soft varnish off the plates ^vhen the corro- 
sion isfinislied. 

When the soft varnish is to be taken off, after 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



finishing the corrosion, the plate must firs be 
warmed at the fire, and the border of wax rou I ii 
removed. Then it must be made hotter till the 
mixture or composition, as well as the vainnr.h 
melt, when it must be well vijicd with y 'aeati 
linen cloth, afterwards rubbed heartily in rrei_fl| 
part with oil of olives: which being pcrfornnrad, it 
is ready to be re-touched by the graver, if tliete h" 
occasion. 

To remove the hard varnish. 
Choose a very soft coal of fallow wood, anrt, 
without burning it, strip off the bark, and then 
dipping it in water, of which some likewise should 
be poured on the plate, rub the varnish with it, 
but continually the same way as in polishing the 
copper, which will take off the varnish. Be par- 
ticularly careful, nevertheless, to prevent any gra- 
vel fivm falling on the plate; as also to observe 
that there are no hard grains in the coal, for eirlier 
of these would make scratches on the plate, whicli 
would be very difficult to efface, especially upori 
the tender parts. 

To cleanse copperplates after the remiyval of thf. 
varnish. 
When the varnish is all taken off from the plate, 
the copper remains of a disagreeable colour, from 
the effect the fire and water have had upon it; but 
in order to restore it to its usual appearance, use 
this method; — 'Take some of the refiners' aqua 
fortis, and if it be pure, put two-thirds, or more, 
of water to it. Then take a linen rag dipped in 
the aqua fortis tlius lowered with water, and rub 
with it all the engraved parts of the copper, by 
which it will be found to become bright and clean, 
and of the common colour of copper. 

Wipe the plate immediately after this with an- 
other linen rag that is dry and clean, till not the 
least of tlie aquafortis and water remain on it, and 
pour upon it afterwards a little olive oil, and with 
a small piece of old hat, or other such thing, rub 
the oil strongly over every part of it. After this 
clean the plate with a linen cloth, being cautious 
not to employ the rag for that puqiose which had 
been used to wipe off the refiners' aqua fortis. 
To prepare box-xoood for engraving. 
The wood being chosen, and cut into a proper 
form and size, it must be planed as even and truly 
as possible, and will be then ready to receive the 
drawing or chalking, of the design to be en- 
graved. 

Now take white lead and temper it with watei 
by grinding;, then spread it first thinly on the sur- 
face by a brush pencil, and afterwards rub it well 
'with a fine linen rag, while yet wet, and, when it 
is dry, brush off any loose or powderj' part by a 
soft pencil. 

If the design be sketched on the wood by draw- 
ing, it may be done by Indian or common ink (but 
the first is far preferable), either by a pen or pen- 
cil, or by a black-lead pencil, though that scarcely 
marks strong enough for finer work. 

To free copperplates from grease. 
When the plates are designed for etching, being 
thus finished with the burnisher, they should be 
well washed with clean water, and then dried by 
the fire. After wnich they should be wiped dry 
with a linen cloth; and to be certain that there 
may be no kind of grease upon them they should 
be rubbed over with the crumb of very stale bread. 
Scraping very soft chalk over it, and rubbing the 
plate well, are very sure means of preventing either 
any grease, bread, or other foulness whatever re- 
maining. 

To secure copperplates from corrosion. 

Take equal p<»rts of wax and turpentine, and 

double the quantity of olive oil, with the same 

quantity of hog's lard. Melt the whole over the 

fire in an eaithen vessel, taking care to mix the 



ENGRAVING. 



79 



ingredients well, and leave them to boil some 
time, till they be well incorporated. 

The advantage of this mixture is, that it may at 
any time, being warmed, be put with the finger on 
the places desired to be covered; by which means 
the farther operation of the aqua fortis on such 
places, may be instantly prevented without any 
other trouble or preparation, or without interru])t- 
ing or delaying the principal operation. 

Yliis mixture may be employed equally well 
witii the hard as with the soft varnish; the inten- 
tion of using such a composition is, if any scratches 
or false strokes happen in the etching; they are to 
be stopped out with a hair pencil dipped in this 
composition mixed with lamp-black, previously 
to laying on the aqua fortis, or as it is called, bit- 
ing in. * 

To choo-ie copper for engraving. 

Plates intended for engraving ought to be of the 
best copper, which should be very malleable, firm, 
and with some degree of hardness, free from veins, 
or specks, or dissimilar parts. The redness of 
copper is a presumptive mark of its being good, 
but not an infallible one; for though it is, in gene- 
ral, a proof of the purity of the copper, yet it does 
not evince that the quantities may not be injured 
by too frequent infusion. 

Copper-plates may be had ready prepared in 
most large towns; but when these cannot be had, 
procure a pretty thick sheet of copper, rather 
larger than the drawing, and let the brazier plan- 
ish it well; then take a piece of pumice-stone, and 
with water rub it all one way, till it becomes toler- 
ably smooth and level; a piece of charcoal is next 
used with water for polishing it still farther, and 
removing the deep scratches made by the pumice- 
stone, and it is then finished with a piece of char- 
coal of a finer grain, with a little oil. 
To engrave in mezzo tinto. 

This art is recommended for the amazing ease 
with which it is executed, especially by those who 
have any notion of drawing. 

Mezzotinto prints are those which have no 
hatching or strokes of the graver, bat whose lights 
and shades are blended togetlier, and appear like 
a drawing of Indian ink. 

The tools used in this art, after procuring a 
well-polished copperplate, are — oil-stone, ground- 
mg-tools, scrapers, burnishers, and needles. 
To lay the ground. 

Mark oft' upon the bottom of the plate the dis- 
tance intended for the writing, coat of arras, kc. 
then lay the plate, with a piece of swan-skin flan- 
Tiel under it, upon the table, bold the grounding- 
tool in the hand perpendicularly; lean upon it mo- 
derately hard, continually rooking the hand in a 
right line from end to end, till the plate is wholly 
covered in one direction: next cross the strokes 
from side to side, afterwards from cornet to cor- 
ner, working the tool each time all over the plate, 
in every direction, almost like tho points of a com- 
pass; taking all possible care not to let the tool cut 
{in one direction) twice in a place. -,' This done, 
the plate will be full, or all rough alike, and 
would, if it were printed, appear completely 
black. 

Having laid the ground, take the scrapings of 
black chalk, and with a piece of rag, rub tliem 
over the plate; or, with two or three candles, 
smoke it, as before directed for etching. 

Now take the print or drawing, and having rub- 
bed the back with red chalk-dust, mixed with 
white lake, proceed to trace it on the plate. 
'J'o -whet the grounding-tool. 

Ifa tooth of the tool should break, it may be 
perceived jn the working by a streak or gap, 
which will appear in the ground in a sti-aight line; 



in which case the tool must be whetted on the 
back, holding it sloping, and in a circular manner, 
like the bottom of the tool. 

To scrr'^e the picture. 

Take a blunt needle, and mark the outlines 
only; then with a scraper, scrape off tlie lights in 
every part of the plate, sis clean and as smooth as 
possible, in proportion to the strength of the lights 
in the picture, taking cpre not to hurt the outlines: 
and in order to see better, with the thumb and 
fore-finger of the left hand, hold a piece of trans- 
parent paper, sloping, just over the rigiit hand, 
and the artist will soon be a judge of llie dilterent 
tints of the work he is doing; soi-aping off more or 
less of the ground, as the different strengths of 
lights and tints require. 

I'he use of the burnisher is to soften and rub 
down the extreme light parts after the scrai)er is 
done with: such as the tip of tiie nose, forehead, 
linen, &c. which might otherwise, when proved, 
appear rather misty than clear. 

Another method. — Etch the outlines of the ori- 
ginal, as also of the folds in (h'apeiy, marking the 
breadth of the shadows by dots, which having bit 
of a proper colour with aqua fortis, take off the 
ground used in etching, and, having laid the mez- 
zotintogroimd, proceed to scrape the plate as aoove. 

Four or five days before the plates are ready foi 
proving, notice must be given to the rolling press 
printer to wet som'; Frencli paper, or a thick mel- 
low paper in imitat)cn of it, as tliat time is neces- 
sary for it to lie in wet. When the proof is dry, 
touch it with wliite chalk where it should be light- 
er, and with black chalk where it should be dark- 
er; and when the print is re-touched, proceed a? 
before for the lights, and for the shades use a small 
gvounding-too!, as much as is necessary to bring 
it to the proper colour; and when this is done, 
prove it again, and so ])roceed to prove and touch 
till it is entirel)' finished. When the plate tar- 
nishes, a little vinegar and salt, kept in a phial, 
will take it off, wiping it dry with a clean rag. 

Avoid as much as possible over-scraping any 
part before the first proving, as, by this caution, 
the work will appear the more elegant. 
To engrave in aquatinta. 

This very much resembles drawing in Indian 
ink. Tlus process consists in corroding the cop- 
per with aqua-fortis, in such a manner, that an im- 
pression from it has the appearance of a tint laid 
on the paper. This is effected by covering the 
copper with a substance which takes a granulated 
form, so as to prevent the aqua-fortis from acting 
where the particles adhere, and by this means 
cause it to corrode the copper partially, and in in- 
terstices only. When these particles are extreme- 
ly minute, and near to each other, the impression 
from the Y>late appears to the naked eye like a 
wash of Indian ink. But when tiiey are larger, 
the granulation is more distinct; and as this may 
be varied at pleasure, it is capable of being adapt- 
ed to a variety of purposes and subjects. 

The matter generally used for this purpose, is 
composed of equal parts of asphaltum and transpa- 
rent resin, reduced to powder and sifted on the 
plate, (which has been previously greased, ) through 
a fine sieve. Tlie ■ plate is then heated so as to 
make the powder adhere, and tne artist scrapes it 
away when a strong shade is wanted, and covers 
those parts with varnish where he wishes a very 
strong light to appear. The aqua-fortis, properly 
diluted with water, is then put on within a fence 
of wax, as in common etching for engraving, and 
by repeated applications, covenng the light parts 
still with varnish, the effect is produced. 
To engrave on -wood. 

The block is cocimonly made of pear-ti-ee or 



80 



UNI^^RSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



box, and differs in thickness according to its size, j, 
The surflice for the engraving is on the transverse 
section of the wood; the subject is drawn upon it 
with a pen and Indian ink, with all the finishing 
that it is required to have in the impression. The 
spaces between the lines are cut away with knives, 
chisels, and gouges, leaving the lines that have 
been drawn with the ink. 

The taking impressions from blocks of wood 
differs from that of copperplate in this, that in the 
latter they are delivered from the incision, while 
in the wooden blocks they are delivered from the 
raiseu part. 

CJdar' oscuro. 

This method of engraving is performed with 
three blocks. The outline is cut in one, the deep 
shadows in a second, and the third gives a tint 
over the whole, except where the lights are cut 
away. These are substituted in their tur;i, each 
print receiving an impression from each block. 
This mode of engi'aving was designed to represent 
the drawings of the old masters. 

To etch upon glass. 

Procure several thick clear pieces of crown 
glass, and immerse them in melted wax, so that 
each may receive a complete coating. When pei'- 
fectly cold, diaw on them, with a fine steel point, 
{lowers, trees, houses, portraits, &c. Whatever 
pgrts of the drawing are intended to be corroded 
with the acid, should be perfectly free from the 
least particle of wax. When all" these drawings 
are finished, the pieces of glass must be immersed 
one by one in a square leaden box or receiver, 
where they are to be submitted to the action of 
fluoric acid, or fluoric acid gas. 

It will be necessary to have some water in the 
receiver for the absorption of the superabundant 
gas; and the receiver should have a short leaden 
pipe attached to it for the recepiion of the beak of 
the retort. This should be well luted with wax. 
At the top of the receiver there is a sliding door 
for the admission of the plates: this is to be well 
luted whilst the gas is acting. When the glasses 
are sufficiently corroiled, they are to be taken out; 
and the wax is to be removed by first dipping them 
in warm, and then in hot water. Various colours 
may be applied to the corroded parts of the glass, 
whereby a very fine painting inay be executed. In 
the same manner, sentences and initials of names 
may be etched on wine-glasses, tumblers, &c. 

Another meihod. — Glass may also be etclied, by 
immersing it in liquid fluoric acid, after having 
been coated with wax and drawn on, as in the last 
method. There is this difference, ho^vever, in the 
use of the liquid and the gas, that the former ren- 
ders the etching transparent, whilst tliat produced 
by the gas is quite opaque. 

In this method the potass of the glass is set free, 
v/hilst the silex or sand is acted on; consequently 
no vessel of glass can ever be employed with safety 
to contain this acid in a liquid state, as it would 
soon be con-oded into holes: it is, therefore, gene- 
rally preserved in leaden bottles, on which it has 
10 power to act. 

Varnish coating preferable. 

In coating the glass with wax as above directed, 
it is almost impossible to lay it on sufficiently thin. 
The consequence of this is, that the lines traced 
by the point will be found irregular, ragged, and 
destitute of that delicacy which is required. The 
strong varnish used by engravers answers much 
better, provided it be very carefully applied. Be- 
fore doing so, the glass must be thoroughly clean- 
ed and heated, so that it can hardly be held. The 
varnish is then to be applied lightly over, and 
made smooth by dabbing it witli small balls of silk, 
stuffed with cottoD When dry and even, the 



lines may be traced on it, the plate lying on a pane 
of glass fixed in a table, slightly inclined so that 
the light may be thrown under it. 
Simple nethod of etching glass, as applied to ther- 
mometers. 

Coat the glass to be graduated, &c. with yellow 
wax, and trace with a steel point whatever is in- 
tended to be etched. Now dip the glass in sul- 
phuric acid, and shake over it some finely pulver- 
ized fluate of lime (fluor spar). This salt will be 
decomposed by the affinity of lime for sulphuric 
acid. Accordingly the fluoric acid will be set free 
to attack the silica of the glass. Con'osion ot 
those parts which are uncovered by the wax, will 
be the consequence. 

To engi'ave on precious stones. 

The first thilig to be done in this branch of en- 
graving, is to cement two rough diamonds to the 
ends of two sticks large enough to hold them stea- 
dy in the hand, and to rub or grind them against 
each other, till they be brought to the form desir- 
ed. The dust or powder that is rubbed off, serves 
afterwards to polish them, which is performed by 
a kind of mill that turns a wheel of soft iron. The 
diamond is fixed in a brass dish; and, thus applied 
to the wheel, is covered with diamond dust, mix- 
ed up with oil of olives; and when the diamond is 
to be cut facet-wise, first one face, and then an- 
other is applied to the wheel. Rubies, sapphires, 
and topazes, are cut and formed the same way on 
a copper wheel, and polished with tnpoli diluted 
in water. Agates, araethysts, emeralds, hyacinths, 
granites, rubies, and others of the softer stones, 
are cut on a leatleti wheel moistened with emery 
and water, and polished with tripoli on a pewter 
wheel. Lapis-lazuli, opal, &c. are polished on a 
wooden wheel. 

To fashion and engrave vases of agate, ciystal, 
lapis-lazuli, or the like, a kind of lathe is made 
use of, similar to that used by pewterers, to hold 
the vessels, which are to be wrought with jiroper 
tools. The engraver's lathe generally holds the 
tools, which are turned by a wheel; and the vessel 
cut and engraved, either in relievo or otherwise; 
the tools being moistened from time to time with 
diamond dust and oil, or at least emery and water. 
To engrave figures or devices on any of these 
stones, when polished, such as medals, seals, &c. 
a little iron wheel is used, the ends of whose axis 
are received within two pieces of iron, placed up- 
right, as in the turner's lathe; and to be brought 
closer, or set further apart, at pleasure; at one end 
of the axis are fixed the proper tools, being kept 
tight by a screw. Lastly, the wheel is turned by 
the foot, and tlie stone applied by the hand to the tool, 
then shifted and conducted as occasion requires. 

I'he tools are generally of iron, and sometimes 
of brass; their form is various. Some have small 
round iieads, like buttons, others like ferrels, 
to take tne pieces out, and others flat, &c. When 
the stone has been engraved, it is polished on 
wheels of hair-brushes and tripoli. 

To engrave upon steel. 

Steel blocks, or plates of sufficient size to re- 
ceive the intended engraving, are softened, or de- 
carbonated upon their substances, and thereby ren- 
dered a better material for receiving all kinds ol 
work, than even copper itself. After the intended 
work has been executed upon the block, it is hard- 
ened with great care by a new process, which pre- 
vents injury to the most delicate work. A cylin- 
der of steel, previously softened, is then placed in 
the transferring press, and repeatedly passed over 
the engraved blocks, by which the engraving is 
transferred, in relief, to the periphery of the cy- 
linder, the press having a vibrating motion, equal- 
ling that of the cylinder upon its axis, by which 



ENGRAVING. 



8t 



new surfaces are presented eqnallinj^ the extent of 
fingrsviiii!;. This cylindei* is then hardened, anil 
IS ready tor indenting either copper or steel plates, 
which is done by placing- it in ihe same press be- 
fore descril)ed, and repeatedly pressinp; it over the 
copper or steel plates, liicreby producing another 
engraving identically like tliat upon the original 
block. I'his may be repeated upon any required 
number of plates, as the original engraving will 
remain to produce other cylinders, if ever requir- 
ed, and when transferred to steel plates, and hard- 
ened, they will also serve as additional matrices 
(i,r the production of new cylinders. 



Etc/dug Uq^tor for pUiies of soft steel. 

Dissolve a quarter of an ounce of corrosive subli. 
mate and the same quantity of alum, both powder- 
ed, in half a pint of hot water. 

IJirections fur use. 

When cold, pour it on to your plate, and keep 
stirring it with a camels' hair brush; wash the 
jdate perfectly after each biting, and tlirow away 
the portion of li(iuid you have employed; delicate 
tints are obtained in about three minutes, stronger 
ones in proportion. 



DlTESIHa, XM ^3^1^ STS ITi^RlETISlS. 



To prepare mordants. 

Dyeing is a chemical process, and consists in 
combining a certain colouring matter with fibres 
of cloth. The facility with which cloth imbibes a 
dye, depends upon two circumstances; the union 
of the cloth and 'ho dye-stuff, and the union of the 
dye-stuff, or dyeing material, and the fluid in v.'hich 
it is dissolved. Wool unites with almost all co- 
louring matters, silk in the next degree, cotton 
considerably less, and linen the least of all. To 
dye cotton or linen, the dye-stuff, or colouring ma- 
terial, should, in many cases, be dissolved in a 
substance for which it has a weaker connexion than 
with the solvent employed in the dyeing of wool 
or silk. Thus we may usa the colour called oxide 
of iron, dissolved in sidphuric acid, to dye wool; 
but to dye cotton and linen, it is necessary to dis- 
solve it in acetous acid. Were it possible to pro- 
cure a sufficient number of colouring substances, 
having a strong affinity for cloths, to answer all the 
purposes of dyeing, that art would be exceedingly 
simple and easy. But this isbyno means the case. 
ThisdiKiculty has, however, been obviated byavery 
ingenious contrivance. Some other substance is 
employed which strongly unites with the cloth and 
the colouring matter. This substance, therefore, 
is previously combined with the cloth, whtch is 
then dipped into a solution containing the colour. 
The colour then combines with the intermediate 
substance, which, being firmly combined with the 
cloth, secures the ];>erraanenee of ihe dye. Sub- 
stances employed for thlsptn-pose are denominated 
mordants. 

To choose and apply them. 

The most important part of dyeing is, therefore, 
the choice and application of mordants; as upon 
them, the permanency of almost every dye depends. 
Mordants must be previously dissolved in some li- 
quid, which has a weaser imion with the mordants 
than the cloth has; and the cloth mrst then be 
steeped in this solution, so as to saturate itself with 
the mordant. The most important, and most gene- 
rally used mordant is alumine. It is used either in 
a state of common alum, in A»hich it is combined 
with sulphuric acid, or in that state called acetite 
ef alumine. 

Use of alum as a mordant. 

Alum, to make a mordant, is dissolved in water, 
and very frequently, a quantity of tartrate of potass 
is dissolved with it. Into this solution wooi.LE>f 
cloth is put, and kept in it till it has absorbed as 
much alumine as is necessary. It is then taken 
out, and for the most part washed and dried. It is 



now a good deal heavier than it was before, owing 
to the alum which has combined with it. 
Acetite of alumine 

Is prepared as a mordant by pouring acetite of 
lead into a solution of alum. This mordant is em- 
ployed for coTTOx and linejt. It answers for these 
nuich better than alum; the stuff is more easily sa- 
turated with alumine, and takes, in consequence 
a richer and more permanent colour. 
White oxide of tin. 

This mordant has enabled the moderns greatly 
to surpass many of the ancients in the fineness of 
their colours; and even to equal the famous Tyrian 
purple; and by means of it scarlet, the brightest of 
all colours, is produced. It is the white oxide of 
tin, alone, which is the real mordant. 

Tin is used as a mordant in three states: dissolv- 
ed in nitro-rauriatic acid, in acetous acid, and in a 
mixture of sulphuric and muriatic acids; but nitro- 
muriate of tin is the common mordant empbyed by 
dyen: They prepare it by dissolving tin in dilut- 
ed nitric acid, to which a certain pi-oportion of 
common salt, or sal ammoniac, is added. 

When die nitro-muviate of tin is to be used as a 
mordant, it is dissolved in a large quantity of water, 
and the cloth is dipped in the solution, and allowed 
to remain till sufficiently saturated. It is then taken 
out, washed and dried. Ty,'tai is usually dissolv- 
ed in the water along with the nitro-rauriate. 
Jied oxide of iron. 

This is also used as a n^ordant in dyeing; it has 
a very strong affinity for all kinds of cloth, of which 
the permanency of red iron-spots, or iron-moulds, 
on linen and cotton is a sufficient proof As a mor- 
dant it is used in two states: in that of sulphate of 
iron, or copperas, and that of acetite of iron. The 
first, or copperas, is commonly used for -wool. The 
copperas is dissolved in water, and the cloth dipp- 
ed into it. It may be used also for cotton, but in 
most cases acetite of iron is preferred, irhich is 
prepared by dissolving iron, or its oxide, in vin^.'- 
gar, sour beer, or pyroligneous acid, and the longer 
it is kept the better. 

Tan, &c. 

Tan is very frequently employed as a mordant. 
An infusion of nut-galls, or of sumach, or of any 
other substance containing tan, is made in water, 
and the cloth is dipped in this infusion, and allowed 
to remain till it has absorbed a sufficient quantity. 
Tan is often employed also, along with other mor- 
dants, to produce a compound mordant. Oil is also 
used for tlie same purpose, in dyeing cotton and 
linen. The mordants with which tan is "nost fre-- 



82 



UNIVERSAL RKCEIPT BOOK. 



quent'.y combined, are alumine, and oxide of 
iron. 

Besides these mordants, there are several other 
substances frequently used as auxiliaries, either to 
facilitate the combination of the mordant with the 
clotli or to alter the shade of colour: the chief of 
these are, tartar, acetate of lead, common salt, sal 
ammoniac, sulphate of copper, &e. 

Mordants not only render the dye permanent, 
but have also considerable influence on the coloar 
produced. The same colouring matter produces 
very different dyes, according as the mordant is 
changed. Suppose, for instance, that the colouring 
matter is cochineal; if we use the aluminous mor- 
dant, the cloth will acquire a crimson colour; hut 
the oxide of iron produces with it, a black. 

In dyeing, then, it is not only necessaiy to pro- 
cure a mordant wliich has a sufficiently strong affi- 
nity for the colouring matter and the cloth, and a 
colouring matter which possesses the wished-for 
colour in perfection; but we must procure a mor- 
dant and a colouring matter of such a nature, that 
when combined together, they shall possess the 
wished-for colour in perfection; and even a great 
variety of colours may be produced with a single 
dye-stuff, provided we change the mordant s:iffi- 
ciently. 

To determine the effects of various salts or mor- 
dants on colovrs. 
The dye of madder. 

For a madder red on woollens, the best quantity 
of madder is one half of the weight of the woollens 
that are to be dyed; the best ])roportion of salts to 
be used is five parts of alum and one of red tai'tar 
for sixteen parts of the stuff. 

A variation in the proportions of the salts, wholly 
alters the colour that the madder naturally gives. 
If the alum is lessened, and the tartar increased, the 
dye proves a red cinnamon. If the alum be entirely 
omitted, the red wholly disappears, and a durable 
tawny cinnamon is produced. 

If woollens are boiled in weak pearl-ash and wa- 
ter, the greater part of the colour is destroyed. A 
solution of soap discharges part of the colour, an-d 
leaves the remaining more beautiful. 

Volatile alkalies heighten the red colour of the 
maddei", but they make tlie dye fugitive. 
The dye of logvjood. 

Volatile alkaline salts or acids incline this to 
purple; the vegetable and nitrous acids render it 
pale; the vitriolic and marine acids deepen it. 
Lime ivater. 

In dyeing browns or blacks, especially browns, 
lime water is found to be a good corrective, as also 
an alterative, when the goods are not come to the 
shade required; but practice alone can show its 
utility; it answers for either woollens, silks, or cot- 
tons. 

To render colours holding. 

Browns and blues, or shades from them, require 
no pi-eparation; but reds and yellowii, either of silk_ 
cotton, or woollen, require a preparation to make 
them receive the dye, and hold it fast when it has 
received it. Alum and tartar, boiled together, 
when cold, form a mastic, within the pores of the 
substance, that serves to I'etain the dye, and reflect 
the colour in a manner transparently. 

Almost all browns are deemed fast and holding 
colours, without any preparation: the dyeing ma- 
terials containing in themselves a sufficient degree 
of astringent quality to retain their own colours. 
Many reds are also equally holding, but none more 
so than those made with madder on woollens pre- 
pared with alum and tartar. 

A very fast red is also made with Brazil wood, 
oy boiling the woollen in alum and tartar, and suf- 
fering the cloth to remain several dajs in a bag 



kept moist by the preparation liquor. TTie cause 
of the solidity of the colour from Brazil wood 
dyed after this method, arises from the alum and 
tartar masticating itself within the pores of the 
wool in quite a solid state. 

There is not a drug used in the whole art of 
dyeing, but may be made a permanent dye. by 
finding out a salt, or solution of some metal, that, 
when once dissolved by acids, or by boiling water 
Avill neither be affected by the air, nor be dissolved 
by moisture. Such are alum and tartar, the solu- 
tion of tin, &c. But these salts and solutions do 
not answer with all ingredients that are used >i 
dyeing. 

To purchase dyeing materials. 

The names of the principal dyeing materials are 
alum, argol, or tartar, green copperas, verdigris, 
blue vitriol, roche alum, American or quercitron, 
and oak bark, fenugreek, logwood, old and young 
fustic, Brazil wood, braziletto, camwood, barwood, 
and other red Moods, peach wood, sumach, galls, 
weld, madder of 3 or 4 sorts, saffiower, savory 
green wood, annatto, turmeric, archil, cudbear, 
cochineal, lac cake, lac dye, and indigo. The 
whole may ue purchased of druggists and colour- 
men. 
2o dye n-ool and -^vooUen cloths of a blue colour. 

Dissolve one part of indigo in four parts of con- 
centrated sulphuric acid; to the solution, add one 
part of dr}- carbonate of potass, and then dilute it 
with eight times its weight of water. The cloth 
must be boiled for an hour in a solution, contain- 
ing 5 parts of alum, and 3 of tartar, for every 32 
])arts of cloth. It is then to be thrown into a Tvater- 
bath previously prepared, containing a greater or 
smaller proportion of diluted sulphate of indigo, 
according to the shade which the cloth is intended 
to receive. In this bath it must be boiled till it has 
acquired the wished-for colour. 

The only colouring matters employed in dyeing 
blue, are woad and indigo. 

Indigo has a very strong affinity for wool, silk, 
cotton, and linen. Every kind of cloth, therefore, 
may be dyed with it, without liie assistance of any 
mordant whatever. The colour thus induced is 
very jiermanent. But indigo can only be applied 
to clotii in a state of solution, and the only solvent 
known is sulphuric acid. The sulphate of indigo 
is often used to dye wool and silk blue, and is 
known by the name of Saxon blue. 

It is not the only solution of that pigment em- 
ployed in dyeing. By far the most common me- 
thod is, to deprive indigo of its blue colour, and 
reduce it to green, and then to dissolve it in water 
by means of alkalies. Two difi'erent methods are 
employed fortius purpose. The first is, to mix 
with indigo a solution of green oxide of iron, and 
difterent metallic sulphurets. If, therefore, indigo, 
lime, and green sulphate of iron, are mixed toge- 
ther in water, the indigo gradually loses its blue 
colour, becomes green, and is dissolved. The se- 
cond method is, to mix the indigo, in water, with 
certain vegetable substances which readily undergo 
fermentation; the inuigo is dissolved by means of 
qinck lime or alkali, which is added to the solution. 

The first of these methods is usually followed m 
dyeing cotton and linen; t\^e second, in dyeing wooi 
and silk. 

In the dyeing of wool, woad and bran are com- 
monly employed as vegetable ferments, and lime 
asthe solveutof the green base of the indigo. Woad 
itself contains a colouring matter precisely similar 
to indigo; and by following the common process,, 
indigo may be extracted Irom it. In the usual- 
state of woad, when purchased by the dyer, the in- 
digo, which it contains, is probably not far fron» 
the state of g;reen pollen. Its quantity in -woad if 



DYEING. 



gi 



but small, and it is mixed with a great proportion 
of olher vegetable matter. , 

When the cloth is first taken out of the vat, it is 
of a green colour; but it soon becomes blue. It 
oun-ht to be carefully washed, to carry off the un- 
conibined particles. This solution of indigo is lia- 
ble to two inconveniences: first, it is apt some- 
times to run too fast into the putrid fermentation; 
this may be known by the putrid vapours which it 
exliales, and by the disappearing of the green co- 
lour. In this state it would soon destroy the in- 
digo altogether. The inconvenience is remedied 
by adding' more lime, which has the propert)' of 
moderating the puli-escent tendency. Secondly, 
sometimes the fermentation goes on too languidly. 
This defect is remedied by adding more bran, or 
woad, in order to diminish the proportion of thick 
lime. 

To make chemic blue and green. 

Cheraic for light blues and greens, on silk, cot- 
ton, or woollen, and for cleaning and whitening 
cottons, is made by the following process: — 

Take 1 lb. of the best oil of vitriol, which pour 
upon I ounce of the best Spanish flora indigo, well 
pounded and sifted; add to this, after it has been 
well stirred, a small lump of common pearl-ash as 
big as a pea, or from that to the size of 2 peas; this 
will immediately raise. a great fermentation, and 
cause the inJigo to dissolve in minuter and finer 
particles than otherwise. As soon as this fermen- 
tation ceases, put it u.m a bottle tightly corked, 
and it may be used the next day. Obierve, if more 
than the quantity prescribed of pearl ash should be 
used, it will deaden and sully the colour. 

Chemic for green, as above for blue, is made by 
only adding one-fourth more of the oil of vitriol. 

If the chemic is to be used for woollen. East In- 
dia indiigo will answer the purpose even better than 
Spanish indigo, and at one quarter of the price; but 
•the oil of vitriol is good for both. 

To make a solution of tin in aqua regia. 

Mix together 8 ounces of filtered river water, 
ami 8 ounces of double aqua fortis; add gradually 
half an ounce of sal ammoniac dissolved piece by 
piece, and 2 di'achms of salt-petre. Then take I 
ounce of refined block tin: put it into an iron pan, 
and set it over the fire; when melted, hold it 4 or 
5 feet over the vessel, and drop it into water, so as 
to let it fall in pieces. 

Next put a small piece of this granulated tin into 
the above aqua-regia, and when the last piece dis- 
appears, add more gradually till the whole is mix- 
ed; mind and keep it firmly corked. When finished 
ii will produce a most excellent yellow, though 
should it fail in thai, respect, it will not be the 
worse for use; keep it cool, as heat will injure and 
even spoil it. 

To make muriate of tin. 

Fake 8 ounces of muriatic acid, and dissolve in 
It, by slow degrees, half an ounce of granulated 
tin; when this is done pour off the clear liquid into 
a bottle and weaken it, if required, with pure fil- 
tered river water. 

To detenmiie the effect of various -waters on differ- 
ent colours. 

Snow water contains a little muriate of lime, and 
some slight traces of nitrate of lime; rain water has 
the same salts in a larger quantity, and also carbo- 
nic acid; spring water most frequently contains 
carbonate of lime, muriate of lime, muriate of soda, 
or carbonate of soda. River water has the same sub- 
stances, but in less aoundance. Well water contains 
sulphate of lime or nitrate of pot-ash besides the 
tbove-named salts. Should the water contain a salt, 
vr a mineral acid, in the first instance, an acid will 
oe requisite to neutralize it, and in the second, an 



alkali. Thus waters of any quality may be saturj^t- 
ed by their opposites, and rendered neutral. 
To discharge colours. 
The dyers generally put all coloured silks which 
are to be discharged, into a coijper in which half a 
pound or a pound of white soap has been dissolved. 
Tliey are then boiled oft", and when the cop;>ei 
begins to be too full of colour, the silks ai'c taken 
out and rinsed in warm water. In the interim a 
fresli solution of soap is to be added to the copper, 
and then proceed as before till all the colour is dis- 
charged. For tliose colours that are wanted to bt 
eftectually discharged, such as greys, cinnamonS; 
Sec. when soap does not do, tartar must be used 
For slate colours, greenish drabs, olive drabs, kc. 
oil of vitriol in warm water must be used; if othei 
colours, roche alum must be boiled in the copper, 
then cooled down and tiie silks entered and boiled 
oft', recollecting to rii^se them before they ai-e agaiii 
dyed. A small quantity of muriatic acid, diluted 
in warm water, must be used to discharge some 
fast colours; the goods must be aiterwards well 
rinsed in warm and cold water to prevent any injury 
to the stalk. 

7'o discharge cinnamons, greys, &c. when dyea 
too fidl. 

7'ake some tartar, pounded in a mortar, sift it 
into a bucket, then pour over it some boiling wa- 
ter. The silks, Sic. may then be run througli the 
clearest of this liquor, which will discharge the co- 
lour; but if the dye does not take on again evenly, 
more tartar ma)' be added, and the goods run 
through as before. 
To ve~dye, or change the colours of garments, &c. 

The change of colour depends upon tiae ingredi- 
en s with which the garments have been dyed. 
Sometimes when these liave been well cleaned, 
more dyeing stuff must be added, which will aft'oiii 
the colour intended; and sometimes the coloui- aJ- 
readj' on the clotli must be discharged and the ar- 
ticle re-dyed. 

Evei-y colour in nature will dye black, whether 
blue, yellow, red or brown, and black will always 
dye black again. All colours will take the same 
colour again which xhey already possess; and blues 
can be made green or black; green may be made 
brown, and brown green, and every colour on re- 
dyeing will take a darker tint than at first. 

Yellows, browns, and blues, are not easily dis- 
charged; maroons, reds of some kinds, olives, &.c. 
may be discharged. 

For maroons, a small quantity of roche alum 
may be boiled in a copper, and when it is dissolv- 
ed, put in the goods, keep them boiling, and pro- 
bably, in a few minutes, enoAgh of it will be dis- 
charged to take the colour intended. 

01iv«s, greys, &c. are discharged by putting in 
two or three table spoonsful, more or less, of oil 
of vitriol: then put in the garment, &c. and boil, 
and it will become white. If chemic green, either 
alum, pearl-ash, or soap, will discharge it oft' to 
the yellow; this yellow may mostly be boiled oft' 
with soap, if it has received a preparation for tak- 
ing the chemic blue. Muriatic acid used at a hand 
heat will discharge most colours. A black may 
be dyed maroon, claret, green, or a dark brown; 
and it often happens that black is dyed claret, 
green, or dark brown; but green is the principal 
colour into which black is changed. 
To alum silks. 

Silk should be alumed cold, for when it is alum- 
ed hot, it is deprived of a great part of its lustre. 
I'lie alum liquor should always be strong for sixks, 
as thk,y take the dje more readil}- afterwards. 
To dye silk blue. 

Silk is dyed light blue by a ferment of six parts 



84 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



of bran, six of Indigoj six of potass, and one of 
madder. To dye it of a dark blue, it must previ- 
ously receive what is called a ground-colour; a red 
dye-stuff, called archil, is used for this purpose. 
To dye cctton and linen blue. 

Cotton and linen are dyed blue by a solution of 
one part of indigo, one part of green sulphate ot 
iron, and two parts of quick-lime. 
Yellow dyes. 

The principal colouring matters for dyeing yel- 
low, are weld, fustic, and quercitron bark. Yel- 
low colouring raatters have too wieak an affinity 
for cloth, to produce permanent colours witliout 
\.ne use of mordants. Cloth, therefore, before it 
is dyed yellow, is always prepared by soaking it 
in aluraine. Oxide of tin is sometimes used when 
very fine yellows are wanting. Tan is often em- 
ployed as subsidiary to alumine, and in order to 
fix it more copiously on cotton and linen. Tartar 
is also used as an auxiliary, to brigiiten the colour; 
and muriate of soda, sulphate of lime, and even 
sulphate of iron, to render the shade deeper. 
The yellow dye by means of fustic is more perma- 
nent, but not so beautiful as that given by weld, 
or quercitron. As it is permanent, and not much 
injured by acids, it is often used in dyeing com- 
pound colours, where a yellow is required. The 
mordant is aluraine. When the mordant is oxide 
of iron, fustic dyes a good permanent drab colour. 
Weld and quercitron bark yield neaily the same 
kind of colour; but the bark yields colouring mat- 
ter in greater abundance and is cheaper than weld. 
The method of using each of these dye-stuffs is 
nearly the same. 

To dye tuoolleiis yellotu. 

Wool may be dyed yellow by the following pro- 
cess; let it be boiled for an hour, or more, with 
above one-sixth of its weight of alum, dissolved in 
a sufficient quantity of water as a mordant. It is 
then to be plunged, without being rinsed, into a 
bath of warm water, containing as much querci- 
tron bark as equals the weight of tlie alum em- 
ployed as a mordant. The cloth is to be turned 
through the boiling liquid, till it has acquired the 
intended colour. Then, a quantity of clean pow- 
dered chalk, equal to the hundreth part of the 
weight of the cloth, is to be stirred in, and the 
operation of dyeing continued for eight or ten mi- 
.dutes longer. By this method a pretty deep and 
'vely yellow may be given. 

For very bright orange, or golden yellow, it is 
)ecessary to use the oxide ot tin as a mordant. 
For producing bright golden yellows, some alum 
must be added, along with the. tin. To give the 
yellow a delicate gi icn shade, tartar must be 
added in different proportions, according to tlie 
shade. 

Tn dye silks yello-w. 

Silk may be dyed of different shades of yellow, 
either by weld or quercitron bark, but the last is 
the cheapesf of the two. The proportion should 
be from one to two parts of bark, to twelve pai'ts 
of silk, according to the shade. The bark, tied 
up in a bag, should be put into the dyeing vessel, 
whilst the water which It contai-ns is cold; and 
when it has acquired the heat rf about 101) degrees, 
the silk, having been previously alumed, should be 
dipped in, and continued, till it assumes the wish- 
ed-for colour. When the shade is required to be 
deep, p. little chalk, or pearl-ash, should be added 
towards the end of the oparation. 

To dye linens and cottons yellow. 

The mordant should be acetate of alumine, pre- 
pared by dissolving one part of acetate of lead, and 
three parts of alum, in a sufficient quantity of wa- 
ter. This solution should be heate\ to the tem- 
perature of 100 degrees: the cloth should be soak- 



ed in it for two hours, then wrung out and dried. 
The soaking may be repeated, and the cloth again 
dried as before. It is then to be bar"ly wetted 
with lime-water, and afterwards dried. I'he soak- 
ing in the acetate of alumine may be again repeat- 
ed; and if the shade of j'ellow is required to be 
veiy bright and durable, the alternate wetting with 
lime-water aiid soaking in the mordant may be re- 
{leated three or four '^imes. 

The dyeing-bath is prepared by putting 12 or 18 
parte of quercitron bark (according to the depth of 
the shade required), tied up in a bag, into a suf- 
ficient quantity of cold water. Into this bath the 
cloth is to be put, and turned in it for an hour, 
wnile its temperature is gradually liaised to about 
130 degrees. It is then to be brought to a boiling 
heat, and the cloth allowed to remain in it only for 
a few minutes. Vi it is kept long at a boiling heat, 
the yellow acquires a shade of brown. 
To fix a fine mineral yellow upon -wool, silk, cot- 
ton, hemp, &c. 

IViiX one pound of sulphur, two pounds of white 
oxide of arsenic, and five parts of pearl-ash; and 
melt the whole in a crucible, at a beat a little 
short of redness. The result is a yellow iuass, 
which is to be dissolved in hot water; and the li- 
quor filtrated, to separate it from a sediment form- 
ed chiefly of metallic arsenic, in shining plates, 
f nd in a small part, of a cbocolafL'-coioured mat- 
ter, which appears to be a sub-sulphuret of arsenic. 
Dilute the filtrated liquor, then add weak sulphu- 
ric acid, which produces a flocculent preci[)itate, 
of a most brilliant yellow colour. This precipitate, 
, washed upon a cloth filter, dissolves with the ut- 
most ease in liquid ammonia, giving a yellow so- 
lution, which colour is to be removed by an ex- 
cess of the same alkali. 

■ To prepare realgar. 

The most brilliant and permanent yellow that 
can be imagined, is the sulphuret of arsenic, or 
realgar, into which, mjre or less dilut-rd, ?oci .-d- 
ing to the depth of tint required, th2 wool, silk, 
cotton, or linen, is to be dipped. All metallic 
utensils must be carefully avoided. When the 
stuffs come out of this bath the^^^ are colourless, 
but they insensibly take on a yellow hue as the 
ammonia evaporates. They ai'e to be exposed as 
equally as possible to a current of open air; and 
when the colour is v/ell come out, and no longer 
heightens, they are to be washed and dried. 

Wool should be fulled in the ammoniacal solu- 
tion, and should remain in it till it is thoroughly 
soaked; then, very slightly and uniformly pressed, 
or else merely set to drain of itself. Silk, cotton, 
hemp, and flax, are only to be dipped in the dye- 
ing liquid, which they easily take. They must 
then be well pressed. 

The sulphuret of arsenic will give every ima- 
ginable tint to stuffs, from the deep golden yellow 
to tlie lightest straw-colour, which has the inva- 
riable advantage of never fading, of lasting even 
longer than the stuffs themselves, and of resisting 
all re-agents, except alkalies. Hence it is pecu- 
liarly fitted for costly tapestry, velvets, and other 
articles of furniture which are not in danger of be- 
ing washed with alkalies or soap, and to which the 
durability of colour is a most important object. It 
may also be used with advantage in paper-staining. 
Bed dyes. 

The colouring matters employed for dyeing red, 
are archil, madder, carthamus, kermes, cochineal, 
and Brazil-wood. 

'1 'o dye woollens red, crimson, and scarlet. 

Coarse woollen stuft's are dyed red with madder 
orarchi.i: but fine cloth is almost exclusively dyed 
with cochineal, though the colour which it re- 
ceives from kermes is much more durable. Bra- 



DYEING. 



85 



xil wood is scarcely used, except as an auxiliary, 
because the colour, which it imparts to wool, is not 
permanent. . 

Wood is died crimson, by first impi-egnating it 
with alumine, by means of an alum bath, and then 
boiling it in a decoction of cochineal, till it has 
acquired the wished-for colour. The crimson will be 
finer, if the tin-mordant is substituted for alum; 
indeed, it is usual with dyers, to add a little nitro- 
muriate of tin, when they want fine crimsons. The 
addition of arcliil and potass to the cochineal, both 
renders the' crimson darker, and gives it more 
bloom; but the bloom very soon vanishes. For 
paler crimsons, one-half of the cochineal is with- 
drawn, and madder substituted in its place. 

Wool may be dyed scarlet, by first boiling it in 
a solution of murio-sulphate of tin, then dyeing it 
pale yellow with quercitron bark, and afterwards 
crimson with cochineal; for scarlet is a compound 
colour, consisting of crimson mixed with a little 
vellow. 

To carry the colour into the body of cloth. 

Make the moistened cloth pass through between 
rollers placed within at the bottom of the dye-vat; 
BO that the web, passing from one windlass through 
the dye-vat, and being strongly compressed by tlie 
rollers in its passage to another windlass, all the 
remaining water is driven out, and is I'e-placed by 
the colouring liquid, so as to receive colour into 
its very centre. The winding should be continued 
backwards and forwards from one windlass to the 
other, and through the rolling-press, till tlie dye is 
of sufficient intensity. 

To dye mlks red, crimson, &c. 

Silk is usually dyed red with cochineal, or car- 
thamus, and sometimes v/itli Brazil-wood. Kerraes 
does not answer for silk; madder is scarcely ever 
used for that purpose, because it does not yield a 
colour bright enough. Arcliil is eix ployed to give 
silk a oloom; but it is scarcely ever used by itself, 
unless when the colour wanted is lilac. 

Silk may be dyed crimson, by steeping it in a 
solution of al'im, and then dyeing it in the usual way 
in a cochineal bath. 

The colours known by the names oipoppy, cher- 
ry, rose, a.aA flesh colour, are given to silk by means 
of carthamus. The process consists merely in keep- 
ing the silk as long as it extracts any colour, in an 
alkaline solution oV carthamus, into which as much 
lemon-juice, as gives it a fine cher'T'-red colour, 
has been poured. 

Silk cannot be dyed a full scarlet; but a colour 
approaching to scarlet may be given to it, by first 
impregnating the stuff with murio-sulphate cf tin, 
«nd afterwards dyeing it in a bath, composed of 
four parts of cochineal, and four parts of quercitron 
bark. To give the colour more body, both the 
mordant and the dye may be repeated. 

A colour, approaching to scarlet, may be given to 
silk, by first dyeing it in crimson, then dyeing it 
with carthamus; and lastly, yellow, without heat. 
To dye linens and cottons red, scarlet, &c. 

Cotton and linen ai'e dyed red with madder. The 
process was borrowed from tlie east; hence the co- 
lour is often called Adrianople, or Turkey-red. 
The cloth is first Impregnated with oil, then with 
galls, and lastly v.-ith alum. It is then boiled for 
an hour in a decoction of madder, which is com- 
monly mixed with a quantity of blood. After the 
cloth is dyed, it is plunged into a soda ley, in or- 
der to brighten the colour. The red, given by this 
process, is very permanent; and when properly 
conducted, it is exceedingly beautiful. The whole 
difficulty consists in the application of the mor- 
dant, which is by far the most complicated em- 
ployed in the whole art of dyeing. 

Cotton may be dyed scarlet, by means of murio- 



sulphate of tin, cochineal, and quercitron bark, 
used as for silk, but tlie colour is too fading to be 
of any value. 

Black dyes. 

The substances employed to give a black colour 
to cloth, are red oxide of iron and tan. These 
two substances have a strong affinity for each other 
and when combined, assume a deep black colour, 
not liable to be destroyed by tlie action of air or 
light. 

Logwood is usually employed as an auxiliary, 
because it communicates lustre, and adds conside- 
rably to the fulness of the black. It is tlie wood 
of a tree whicli is a native of several of the West- 
India islands, and of that part of Mexico which 
surrounds the bay of Honduras. It yields its co- 
louring matter to water. The decoction is at first 
a fine red, bordering on violet: but if left to itself, 
it gradually assumes a black colour. Acids give it 
a deep red colour; alknlies, a deep violet, inclin- 
ing to brown; sulphate of iron renders it as black 
as ink, and occasions a pi'ccipitate of the same co- 
lour. 

Cloth, before it receives a black colour, is usu- 
ally dyed blue: this renders the colour much fuller 
and finer than it would otherwise be. If th ! cloth 
is coarse, the blue dye may be too expensive; in 
tliat case, a brown colour is given by means of 
walnut-peels. 

To dye -woollens Mack. 

Wool is dyed black by the following process, h 
Is boi'ad for two hours in a decoction of nut-galls, 
and afterwa'-ds kept, for t'vo hours more, in a bath, 
composed of logwood and sulphate of iron; kept, 
during tht; whole time, at a scalding heat, but not 
boiling. Jluring the operation, it must be fre- 
quentlj rxiosed to the air; because tlie green ox- 
ide of iron, of which the sulphate is composed, must 
be conve'ted into red oxide by absorbing oxygen, 
before the cloth can acquire a pi'oper colour. The 
common proportions are five parts of galls, five of 
sulphate of iron, and thirty of logwood, for every 
hundred of cloth. A little acetate of copper 
is commonly added to the sulphate of iron, be- 
cause it is thought to improve the colour. 
To dye silks black. 

Silk is dyed nearly in the same manner. It is 
capable of combining with a great deal of tan; the 
quantity given is varied at the pleasure of the artist, 
by allowing the silk to remain a longer or shorter 
time in tlie decoction. 

To dye cottons and linens black. 

The cloth, previously dyed blue, is steeped lor 
24 hours in a decoction of nut-galls. A bath is 
prepared containing acetate of iron, formed by 
saturating acetous acid with brown oxide of iron: 
into this bath the cloth is put in small quantities at 
a time, wrought with the iiand for a quarter of at» 
hour; then wrung out, and aired again; wrought in 
a fresh quantity of the bath, and afterwards aired. 
These alternate processes are repeated till the co- 
lour wanted is given: a decoction of alder bark is 
usually mixed with the liquor containing the nut- 
galls. 

To dye -wool, &c. bro-wn. 

Brown, or fawn colour, though in fict a com 
pound, is usually ranked among the simple colours, 
because it bs applied to cloth by a single process. 
Various substances are used for brown dy 3. 

Walnut-peels, or the green covering of the wal- 
nut, when first separated, are white internally, but 
soon assume a brown, or eveii a black coloar, on 
exposure to the air. They readily yield their co- 
louring matter to water. They are usually kept in 
large casks, covered with water, for aoove a year 
before they areaseil. To dye wool brown wiihlhem, 
nothing more is necc^ary, than to steep the cloth 



86 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



in a decoction of them till it has acquired the 
wished-for colour. The depth of the shade is pro- 
portional to the strength of the decoction. 

The root of the walnut-tree contains the same 
colouring matter, hut in smaller quantity. The 
bark of tlie birch also, and many other trees, may 
be used tv^r the same purpose. 

To dye compound colours. 

Compound colours are produced by mixing to- 
gether two simple ones; or which is the same thing 
by dyeing doth first of the simple colour, and then 
by another. These colours vary to infinity, ac- 
cording to the proportions of tlie ingredients em- 
ployed. From blue, red, and yellow, red olives 
and greenish greys are made. 

From blue, red, and brown, olives are made 
from the lightest to the darkest shades; and by 
giving a greater sliade of red, the slated and laven- 
der greys are made. 

From blue, red, and black, greys of all shades 
are made, such as sage, pigeon, slate, and lead 
greys. The king's or prince's colour is duller than | 
usual; this mixture produces a variety of hues, or 
colours almost to infinity. 

From yellow, blue, and brown, are made the 
goose dung and olives of all kinds. 

From brown, blue, and black, are produced 
brotvn olives, and their shades. 

From the red, yellow, and brown, are derived 
the orange, gold colour, feuille-mort, or faded leaf, 
dead carnations, cinnanlon, fawn, and tobacco, by 
using two or tlu-ee of the colours as required. 

From yellow, red, and black, broions of every 
shade are made. 

From blue and yellow, greens of all shades. 

From red and blue, purples of all kinds are 
formed. 

To dye different shades of green. 

Green is distinguished by dyers into a variety of 
shades, according to the depth, or the prevalence 
of either of the component parts. Tlius, we have 
sea-green, grass-green, pea-green, &c. 

Wool, silk, and linen, are usually dyed green, 
by giving them first a blue colour, and afterwards 
dyeing them yellow; when the yelloxu is first given, 
several inconveniences follow: the yellow partly 
separates again in the blue vat, and communicates 
a green colour to it; thus rendering it useless for 
every other purpose except dyeing green. Any of 
the usual processes for dyeing blue and yellow, 
may be followed, taking care to proportion the 
depth of the shades to that of the green required. 

Wlien sulphate of indigo is employed, it is usual 
to mix all the ingredients together, and to dye the 
cloth at once; this produces what is known by the 
name of Saxon, or English green. 

To dye violet, purple, and lilac. 

Wool is generally first dyed blue, and after- 
wards scarlet, in the usual manner. By means of 
cochineal mixed with sulphate of indigo, the pro- 
cess may be performed at once. Silk is first dyed 
crimson, by means of cochineal, and tlien dipped 
into the indigo vat. Cotton and linen are first dyed 
blue, and then dipped in a decoction of logwood; 
but a more permanent colour is given by means of 
i)xide of iron. 

To dye olive, orange, and cinnamon. 

When blue is combined with red and yellow on 
cloth, Hie resulting colour is olive. Wool may be 
dyed orange, by first dyeing it scarlet, and then 
yellow. When it is dyed first witli madder,. the 
result is a cinnamon colour. 

Silk is dyed orange by means of carthamus; a 
cinnamon colour by logwood, Brazil-wood, and 
fustic, mixed together. 

Cotton and linen receive a cinnamon colour by 
means of weld and madder; and an olive-colour 



by being passed through a blue, yellow, and then a 
madder bath. 

To dye grey, drab, and dark brown. 

If cloth is previously combined with brown oxide 
of iron, and afterwards dyed yellow with querci- 
tron bark, the result will be a drab of diiferent 
shades, accoMingto the proportion of mordant em- 
ployed. When the propoi'tion is small, the colour 
inclines to olive, or yellow; on the contraiy, the 
drab may be deepened, or saddened, as the dyers 
term it, by mixing a little sumach with the bark. 
To dye a black upon cotton, linen, and mixea 
goods. 

Take tar, iron liquor of the very best quality; 
add to each gallon thereof, three quarters of a 
pound of fine flour, and boil it to the consistency 
of a thin paste. Put the liquor or paste abovemen- 
tioned into a tub belonging to a machine used in 
the process. The goods intended to be dyed are 
wound upon a roller, and passed through the 
liquor or paste, betwixt the two rollers; thereby 
completely staining or dyeing the whole mass or 
body of the cloth. Pass them into a very hot stove 
or dr}'ing-house till dry, then take cow's dung, put 
it into a large copper of water about scalding hot, 
and mix it well tos<ether, through which pass the 
piece of cloth until it be thoroughly softened. Wash 
the goods, so dunged, extremely well in water. 
Take a quantity of madder, or logwood, or su- 
mach, or all of them mixed together, as the strength 
of the cloth and nature of the colour may require, 
and put them into a copper, or tub of hot water 
then enter the goods before mentioned in this li- 
quor, and keep rinsing or moving them therein, 
until they are brought up to the strength of colour 
required. Have the goods again well washed and 
dried. For dyeing black, it will be proper to pasb 
the goods a second time through the above opera- 
tions; adding moi-e or less of the dyeing-woods as 
before. If after the above operations the s.iade of 
colour is too full, or too muih upon the red hue, 
it will be necessary to give them a little sumach, 
and then run them through a liquor made from iron 
and owler, or alder bark. 

Another method. 

Take common iron liquor, and add 3-4ths of a 
pound of fine flour, and by boiling bring it to the 
consistency of a thin paste; or instead of flour, add 
glue or linseed, or gum, or all of them mixed to- 
gether, till it is brought to a pi'oper thickness. 
Then pass the goods through the machine, and 
follow tlie before m^entioned operations. 
To dye olives, bottle greens, purples, brorans, cin- 
namons, or smiffs. 

Take common iron liquor, or common iron li- 
quor with aium dissolved therein, in quantity of 
each according to the shade of colour wanted, made 
into a paste or liquid, by adding flom', gum, glue, 
linseed, or one or more of them as before. Then 
put the liquor or paste above mentioned into a tub 
belonging to the machine, and pass the goods so 
intended to be dyed, through the machine. Take 
them from the machine, and hang them up in a 
very cool room, where they are to remain till tho- 
rouglily dry. Take cow's dung, put it into a large 
copper of hot water, and mix it well together ; 
through which pass the cloth or goods until tho- 
roughly softened, the quantity of dung and time re- 
quired, being proportioned as before. 

The goods after this process being well washed, 
take a quantity of liquor made from madder, log- 
wood, sumach, fustic, Brazil, woad, quercitron 
bark, peach wood, or other woods, to produce the 
colour wanted, o.- more of them; and if necessary 
dilute this liquor with water, according to the shade 
or fulness of colour wanted to be dyed. Then work 
the goods through this liquor : after which pass 



DYEING. 



87 



tnera through cold or warm water, according to the 
colour, the proper application of which is well known 
to dyers, adding a little alum, copperas, or Roman 
viti-iol, or two or more of them, first dissolved in 
water. Then wash t-liem off in warm water, anf.l 
dry them. But if tlie colour is not sufliciently full, 
repeat the same operations till it is brought to the 
shade required. 

To dye crimson, red, orange, or yellotv. 
Take red liquor, such as is generally made from 
alum, and dilute it with water according to the 
strength or shade of colour wanted to dye, bring- 
ing it to the consistency of a paste or liquid, as be- 
fore described. Then pass the cloth through the 
machine; whicli being dried in a cool room, pass 
it tlirough the operations of dunging and washing 
as before. Take a quantity of liquor, made from 
cochineal, madder, peach-wood, Brazil, logwood, 
woad, fustic, sumach, or any two or more of them 
proportioned in strength to the shade or colour 
wanted to dye, and work the goods through this li- 
quor till they are brou.ght to the shade of colour 
required; after which wash them in cold or warm 
water, and dry them. 

To dye cotton, luool, and silk, tmth Prussian blue. 
Immerse the cotton into a large tub of water 
sligiitly acidulated and charged with pnissiale of 
potass. These sorts of stuffs dyed in Prussian blue, 
and then in olive transformed into green, are par- 
ticularly sought after in trade. By processes ana- 
logous to tiiose employed for cotton stuffs, the in- 
ventor has obtained the same shades and colours, 
on samples of silk; and for many years, he has even 
succeeded in fixing Prussian blue on wool, and in 
producing on cloth the same shades as on cotton 
and silk. 

Dyeing -with Prussian blue. 
By the following process, a brilli.ant and perma- 
nent colour, called Raymond blue, from its pro- 
poser Mr Raymond, Professor of Chemistry at 
Lyons, may be produced; a colour more bright than 
and as deep as that obtained from indigo, fur- 
nislring likewise a sky-blue, not attainable fi'om 
that substance. 

The silk, after its usual boiling with soap, is to 
be cleansed in a large quantity ot water; it is then 
to be immersed iiia solution oftheper-sulphate of 
iron (copperas of a dark green), the oxide of which 
combines with the silk — the proper quantity of fer- 
ruginous matter the silk has absorbed is indicated 
by the greater or less intensity of the yellow colour 
it presents. It is then to be rinsed with great care 
to remove all the free acid, and plunged in a batli 
of prussiate of potash acidulated by sulphuric acid. 
The dyeing is effected in a few minutes. When 
this is done it must be rinsed again in clear water, 
and brightened with purified urine largely diluted 
with water, into which is occasionally thrown a lit- 
tle acetic acid. 

Chevrexd's mode of graduating shades of colour 
from Pi^issian blue. 
Impregnate each parcel of silk to be dyed with 
a different proportion of the oxide of iron by im- 
mersing it in a solution, the strength of which has 
been regulated accordingly. For die deeper tones 
of colour employ the acetate, and for the others the 
muri ate or sulphate. After having properly rinsed 
(in separate water) each parcel, it is to be dipp- 
ed into distinct baths of the prussiate of potash, the 
quantity of -which has been made to correspond with 
the quantity of oxide of iron previously united to it. 
With these precautions all the desired shades may 
be obtained. Those which are light and have a 
greenish cast should be well washed in river water, 
which will soon produce the blue in its purity. — If 
this does not happen a very -weak solution of mu- 
riatic acid will produce the effect to a certainty. 



To precipitate acetates of lead and copper, on 
tuool, silk, and cotton. 

Soak the stuff which is required to be dyed, in 3 
sol ul ion of acetate, or rather sub-acetate of 1 2ad, 
wring it when it comes out of the bath, drying it 
in the shade, afterwards wasli it, and again im- 
merse it in water charged with sulphuretted hydro- 
gen gas. By this process are obtained, in a few 
minutes, rich and well-iaid shades, which vary 
from the clear vigone colour to tiie deep brown, 
accordingto the force of the mordant and the num- 
ber of the immersions of tlie stuffs in the two bath- 
ing vessels. From the order of afl^iiities, it is the 
wool which takes colour the best, afterwards the 
silk, then the cotton, and lastly the thread, which 
appears little apt to coml)ine with the mordant. 

The different colours above indicated, resist the 
air well, likewise feeble acids, alkalies, and boil- 
ing soap, which modify their shades in an imper- 
ceptible manner, and these shades are so striking, 
that it will appear difficult to obtain them in auy 
other manner. 

This new kind of dye is very economical. The 
sulphuretted hydrogen gas is obtained from a mix- 
ture of two parts of iron filings, and one of urim- 
stone melted in a pot; this brimstone h, bruised, 
introduced into a matrass, and the gas is removed 
by sulphuric acid extended in water to a mild heat. 
The gas absorbs abundantly in cold water. 
To dye cotton doth black. 

Take a quantity of Molacca nuts, which in Ben- 
gal are sold at 2s. per cwt., and boil them in wa- 
ter, in close earthen vessels, with the leaves of the 
tree. During the boiling, a whitish substance, 
formed from the mucilage and oil of the nuts, will 
rise to the surface; this must be taken off and pre- 
served. The cloth intended to be black mi st be 
printed with this scum, and then dyed, after which 
let it be passed through lime water, wlien the 
printed figures will be changed to a full and per- 
manent black. 

To dye -wool a permanent blue colour. 

Take 4 ounces of the best indigo, reduce it to a 
very fine powder, and add 12 pounds of wool, in 
the grease; put the whole into a copper large 
enough to contain all the wool to be dyed. As 
soon as the requisite colour is obtained, let tiie 
wool be well washed and dried. The liquor re- 
maining may be again used, to produce lighter 
blues. The colour will be as beautiful and per 
raanent as the finest blue, produced by woad, and 
the wool, by this method, will lose less in weight 
than if it had been previously scoured. 
To produce thii Swiss deep and pale red topical 
mordants. 

When th^; cotton cloth has been freed by steep- 
ing and boiling in soap and water, from the paste 
used by the weaver, and any otlier impurities it 
may have acquired, immerse it thoroughly, ov, as 
it is called, tramp or pad it in a solution of any al- 
kali, and oil or grease, forming an imperfect soap, 
or boil it in any of the perfect soaps dissolved in wa- 
ter, or in a solution of soda and gallipoli oil, in the 
proportion of 1 gallon of oil to 20 gallons of soda 
lees, at the strength of four degrees and a half; 
then dry the cloth in the stove, and repeat the pro- 
cess several times, which may be varied at plea- 
sure, according to the lustre and durability of the 
colour wanted, stove-drying the cloth between 
every immersion. To the above solutions add a 
little sheep's dung, for the first three immersions; 
these are called the dung liquors; alter the cloth 
has received the dung liquors, it is steeped for 12 
hours in a quantity of water, 110 degrees of Fah- 
renheit; this is called the green steep. The cloth 
being again stove-dried, is immersed as above in a 
solution of ulkali and oil, or grease, or boiled in 



88 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



perfect soap dissolved, but without the siieep's 
aung; or ohener, according to the brilliancy of 
colours wanted, stove-drying, as before, between 
every immersion; these are called the white li- 
quors. Steep the cloth for 12 liours at 125° Fah- 
renheit, wliioh ftrms what is called the white 
steep. The cloth being now thoroughly washed 
in cold water, and dried, is ready to receive, first, 
the pink mordant, which is composed as follows: — 
take equal quantities, by measurement, of a decoc- 
tion of galls at the strength of four to six, and a 
solut'on of alum at one half degree, the alum being 
previously saturated with whitening, or any other 
alkali, in the proportion of 1 ounce to the pound 
weight of alum; mix them together, and raise the 
temperature to 140 degrees of lahrenheit, or as 
hot as can be handled. By immersion, as formerly 
mentioned, in this mixture, the cloth, when dyed 
and cleared, exhibits a beautiful pink, equal, if not 
superior, to tlial produced by cochineal. 
To dye jilks and satins broxvn in the small -way. 
Fill the copper M'ith river water, when it gently 
boils, put in a quarter of a pound of chipped fustic, 
two ounces of madder, one ounce of sumach, and 
half an ounce of cam-wood; but if not required to 
be so red, the cam-wood may be omitted. These 
should boil, at least, from half an hour to two 
hours, that the ingredients may be well incorpo- 
rated. The cojtper must then be cooled down by 
pouring in cold water: the goods maj^ then be put 
in, and simmered gently from half an hour to an 
hour. If this colour should appear to want dark- 
ening, or saddening, it may be done by taking out 
the goods, and adding a small quantity of old 
black liquor; a small piece of green copperas may 
1)6 use(S ; rinse in two or three waters, and hang up 
to dry. 

To dye silks offatun colour drabs. 
Boil one ounce of fustic, half an ounce of alder 
nark, and two draclims of archil. From one to 
four drachms of the best crop madder must be ad- 
ded to a very small quantity of old black liquor, 
if it be required darker. 

Tu dye a silk sfunvl scarlet. 
First dissolve two ounces of white soap in boil- 
ing water, handle the shawl througii this liquor, 
now and then rubbing such places with the hands 
as may aiipear dirty, till it is as clean as this wa- 
ter will make it. A second, or even a third liquor 
may be used, if required: the shawl must be rinsed 
out in warm water. 

Then take half an ounce of the best Spanish an- 
iiatto, and dissolve it in hot water; pour this solu- 
tion into a pan of warm water, and handle the 
shawl tlirough this for a quarter of an hour; then 
take it out and rinse it in clean water. In the 
meanwhile dissolve a piece of alum of tiie size of 
a horse bean in warm water, and let the shawl re- 
main in this hslf an hour; take it out and rinse it 
in clear water. Then boil a quarter of an ounce 
of the best cochineal for twenty minutes, dip it out 
of the copper into a pan, and let the shawl remain 
in this from twenty minutes to half an hour, which 
will make it a full" blood red. Then take out the 
bbawl, and add to the liquor in the pan a quart 
more of that out of the copper, if there is as much 
i-eraaining, and about half a small wine-glassful of 
the solution of tin: when cold, rinse it slightly out 
in spring water. 

To dye a silh shawl crimson. 
Take about a table spoonful of cud-bear, put it 
into a small pan, po'ir boiling water upon it, stir 
and let it stand a few minutes, then put in the silk, 
and turn it over a short time, and when the colour 
is full enough, take it out: but if it should require 
more violet or crimson, add a spoonlul or two of 
purple archil to some warm water, and dry it within 



doors. To finish it, it must be mangled or ca- 
lendered, and may be x^ressed, if suca a conveni- 
ence is at hand. 

To dye silk lilac. 

For every pound of silk, take one pound and a 
half of archil, mix it well with the liquor; make it 
boil a quarter of an hour, dip the silk quickly, 
then let it cool, and wash it in river water, and a 
fine violet, or lilac, more or less full, will be ob- 
tained. 

To dye thick silks, satins, silk stockings, &c. of a 
flesh colour. 

Wash the stockings clean in soap and water, 
then rinse them in hot water; if they should not 
then appear perfectly clear, cut half an ounce ot 
white soap into thin slices, and put it into a sauce- 
pan half full of boiling water; when this soap is 
dissolved, cool the water in the pan, then put in 
the stockings, and simmer for twenty minutes; 
take them out, and rinse in hot water; in the in- 
terim pour three table spoonsful of purple archil 
into a wash-hand basin half full of liot water; put 
the stockings in tliis dye water, and when of the 
shade called half violet or lilac, take them from 
tlie dye -water, and slightly rinse them in cold 5 
when dry hang them up in a close room in which 
sulphur is burnt; when they are evenly bleached 
to the shade required of flesh colour, take them 
from the sulphuring-room, and finish them by 
rubbing the right side w it n a clean flannel. Some 
persons calender them afterwards. Satins and silks 
are done the same way. 

To dye silk stockings black. 

These are dyed like other silks, excepting that 
they must be steeped a day or two in black liquor, 
before they :tre put into the black silk dye. At 
first they will look like an iron grey; but, to finisli 
and black them, tliey must be put on wooden legs, 
laid on a table, and rubbed with the oily rubber, 
or flannel, upon which is oil of olives, and then the 
more they are rubbed the better. Each pair of 
stockings will require half a table spoonful of oil, 
at least, and halt an hour's rubbing, to finish them 
well. Sweet oil is tlie best in this process, as it 
leaves no disagreeable smell. 

'J'o dye strata and chip bonnets black. 

Chip hats being composed of the shavings of 
wood, are stained black in various ways. First, 
by being boiled in strong logwood liquor three 
or four hours; they must be often taken out 
to cool in the air, and now and then a small 
quantity of green copperas must be added to the 
liquor, and this contiuued for several hours. The 
saucepan or kettle that they are dyed in may re- 
main with the bonnets in it all night; the next 
morning they must be taken out and dried in the 
air, and brushed witli a soft brush. Lastly, a 
sponge is dipped in oil, and squeezed almost to 
dryness; with this the bonnets are rubbed all over, 
both inside and out, and then sent to the blockers 
to be blocked. Others boil them in logwood; and 
instead of green copperas, use steel tilings steeped 
in vinegar; after which tliey are finislied as above. 
To dye straw bonnets brown. 

Take a sufliciept quantity of Brazil wood, su- 
mach, bark, madder, and copperas, and sadden, 
according to the shade required. 
To remove the stain of light colotirs from the liands. 

\Vash the hands in soap and water, in which 
some pearl-ash is dissolved. 

To dye black cloth green. 

Clean the cloth well with bullock's gall and wa- 
ter, and rinse in warm water; then make a copper 
full of river water, boiling hot, and take from one 
pound to one pound and a half of fustic; put it in, 
and boil it twenty minutes, to which add a lump 
of alum of the size of a walnut; when this is dis 



DYEING. 



89 



solved in the copper, put in the coat, and boil it 
twenty minutes; then take it out, and add a small 
wine glass, three parts full, of chemic blue, and 
boil again from half an hour to an hour, and the 
cloth will be a beautiful dark green; then wash out 
and dry. 

Calico printing. 

This art consists in dyeing cloth with certain co- 
lours and figures upon a ground of a different hue; 
the colours, when they will not take hold of the 
clotli readily, being fixed to them by means of 
mordants, as a prepai-ation of alum, made by dis- 
solving 3 lbs. of alum audi lb. of acetate of lead in 
8 lbs. of warm water. There are added at the 
same time, 2 ounces of potash, and 2 ounces of 
chalk. 

Acetate of iron, also, is a mordant in frequent 
use in the printing of calicoes; but tlie simple mix- 
ture of alum and acetate of lead is found to answer 
best as a mordant. 

To apply the mordants. 

Tlie mordants are ajjplied to the cloth, either 
with a pencil, or by means of blocks, on wnich the 
pattern, according tr which the cctton is to be 
printed, is cut. , As tliey are applied only to par- 
ticular parts of the cloth, care must be taken that 
none of them spread to tlie part of the cloth which 
is to he left white, and that they do not interfere 
with each other when several are applied; it is 
necessary, therefore, tliat tlie mor.lauts should be 
of such a degree of consistence, that they will not 
spread beyond those parts of the oloth on which 
they are applied. This is done by tliickening 
them with flour or starch, when they are to be ap- 
plied by the block, and witli gum arabic wlien 
they are to be put on with the pencil. The thick- 
ening should never be greater than is sufficient to 
prevent tiie spreading of the mordants; when car- 
ried too far, the cotton is apt not to be sufficiently 
saturated witli the mordants, and of course llie dye 
takes but imperfectly. 

In order that the parts of the cloth impregnated 
with mordants may be distinguished by their co- 
lour, it is usual to tinge the mordants with some 
colouring matter. The printers commonly use the 
decoction of Brazil wood for this purpose. 

Sometimes, the two mordants are mixed to- 
gether in different proportions; and sometimes one 
or both is mixed with an infusion of sumach, or of 
nut-galls. By these contrivances a great variety 
oi" colours are produced by the same dye-stuff. 
Process of dyeing, &c. 

After the mordants have been applied, the cloth 
must be completely dried. It is proper fer this 
pm'pose to employ heat, which will contribute to- 
wards the separation of the acetous acid from its 
base, and towards its evaporation; by which means 
the mordant will combine in a greater proportion, 
and more intimately with the cloth. 

When the cloth is sufficiently dried, it is to be 
washed with warm water and cow-dung: till the 
flower or gum employed to thicken the mordants, 
and all those parts of the mordants which are un- 
combined with the cloth, are removed. After 
this, the cloth is to be thoroughly rinsed in clean 
water. 

Dye-stuffs. 

Almost the only dye-stufls employed by calico- 
printers are indigo, madder, and quercitron bark, 
or weld; but this last substance is little used, ex- 
cept for delicate greenish yellows. The querci- 
tron bark gives colours equally good; and is much 
cheaper and more convenient, not requiring so 
great a heat to fix it. Indigo, not requiring any 
mordant, is commonly applied at once, either by 
a block or by a pencil. It is prepared by boiling 
together indigo and potash, made caustic by quick 
M 



lime and orpiment; the solution is afterwards 
thickened with gum. It must be carefully seclu- 
ded from the air, otherwise the indigo would soon 
be regenerated, which would render the solution 
useless. Dr Bancroft has proposed to substitute 
coarse brown sugar for orpiment: it is equally ef- 
ficacious in decomposing the indigo, and render- 
ing it soluble; while it likewise serves all the 
purposes of gimi. Some calicoes are only printed 
of one colour, others have two, and others three 
or more, even to the number of eiglit, ten, or 
twelve. The smaller the number of colours, the 
fewer in general, are the processes. 
A^yTiV process to separate the red colouring principle 
of madder. 

For this purpose three tubs are necessary, say, 
A, B, C. The first, or A, sufficient for 5.5 pounds 
of madder, is to be two feet eiglit inches deep, and 
two feet six in diameter. The second, or B, is five 
feet and a half high and tliree feet in diameter. 
This tub is to be furnished with three cocks, the 
first placed at two, the second at three, and 
the third at four feet above its bottom. A serves 
as a fermentina: tub; B, a washing vessel; and C, 
as a deposit. ihese tubs are placed near to each 
other, in the summer, in the open air, under a 
shed; in the winter, in a cellar kept at from 66' to 
70' Fahrenheit. To commence the process, put 
from jO to 55 pounds of ground madder into A, 
and add water, stirring the mixture continually, 
until the madder, when at rest, is covered with an 
inch and a half of water. In 36 or 48 hours (be- 
ing at rest,) fermentation takes place and raises a 
crust of madder to the surface. The mass is now 
to be transfen-ed to the second tub or B, which i» 
then to be filled with water, where it is to repose 
for two hours. The uppermost cock is then open- 
ed, next the under one, and lastly the third. The 
liquor collected from the secoi.d and third cocks 
is carried to the tub C, where the precipitation of 
the madder that escaped from B, is oomph ted. 
You may make repeated washings of the madder 
in B, until the water ceases to be coloured. Care 
should be taken in summer, to prevent the madder 
from fermenting a second time. The madder in 
C being washed and precipitated, is equally good 
with tilt other. 

To print yelloio. 

For yellow, the block is besmeared with acetate 
of aluraine. The clotb, after receiving this mor- 
dant, is dyed with quercitron bark, and is then 
bleached. 

JVankeen yelloxv. — One of the most common co- 
lours on cotton prints, is a kind of Nankeen yellow, 
of various shades down to a deep yellowish brown 
or drab. It is usually in stripes c^r spots. To pro- 
duce it, the printers besmear a block, cut out into 
the figure of the print, with acetate of iron, thick- 
ened with gum or flour; and apply it to the cotton, 
which, after being dried and cleansed in the usual 
manner, is plunged into a potash ley. The quan- 
tity of acetate of iron is always proportioned to the 
depth of the shade. 

Red. — Red is communicated by the same pro- 
cess, only madder is substituted for the bark. 

nine. — The fine light blues which appear so fre- 
quently on printed cottons, are produced by ap- 
pl_>ing to the cloth a block besmeared with a com- 
position, consisting partly of was, which covers 
all those parts of the cloth which remain white. 
The cloth is then dyed in a cold indigo vat; ana 
after it is diy, the wax composition is removed by 
hot water. 

Lilac and brown. — ^Lilac, flea brown, and black- 
ish brown, are given by means of acetite of iron ; 
the quantity of which is always proportioned to the 
deiith of the shade. Fw very deet) colours a littla 

U2 



90 



UNIVERSAI. RECEIPT BOOK. 



sumach is added. The cotton is afterwai'ds 
tiyed in the usiw manner with madder, and then 
bleached. 

Green. — -To twelve quarts of mm-iatic acid, add 
6y degrees one quart of nitrous acid: saturate the 
whole with grain tin, and hoil it in a proper vessel 
till two-thirds Pie evaporated. 

To prepare the indigo for mixing with the solu- 
tion, take nine pounds of indigo, half a pound of 
orange orpiraent, and grind it in about four quarts 
of water, mix it well with the indigo; and grind 
the whole in the usual way. 

To mix the solution of tin with prepared indigo. 

Take two gallons of the indigc prepared as 
above, then stir into it, by degrees, one gallon of 
the solution of tin, neutralized by as much caustic 
alkali as can be added without precipitating the 
tin from the acids. For a lighter shade of green, 
less indigo will be necessary. The goods are to 
oe dipped in the way of dipping China blues; they 
must not, however, be allowed to drain, but moved 
from one vat to another as quickly as possible. 
They are to be cleansed in the usual way, in a sour 
vat of about 150 gallons of water to one gallon of 
sulphuric acid; they hre then to be well washed in 
decoctions of weld, and other yellow colo'ir drugs, 
and are to be branned or bleached till tliey be- 
come white in those parts which are required co- 
lourless. 

To print dove colour and drab. 

Dove colour and drab are given by auetite of 
iron and quercitron bark; the elolh is afterwards 
prepared in the usual manner. 

To print different colours. 

When different colours are to appear in the 
same print, a greater number of operations are 
necessary. Two or more blocks are employed; 
upon each of which, that part of the print only is 
cut, which is to be of some particular colour. 
These are besmeared with different mordants, and 
applied to the cloth, whicli is afterwards dyed as 
usual. Let us suppose, for instance, that these 
blocks are applied to cotton, one witji acetite of 
alumine, another with acetite of iron, a tliird with 
a mixture of those two mordants, and that the cot- 
ton is then dyed with quercitron bark, and bleach- 
ed. The parts impregnated with the mordants 
would have the following colours: — 

Acetite of alumine, yellow. Acetite of iron, 
olive, drab, dove. The mixture, olive green, olive. 

If the part of the yellow is covered over with the 
indigo liquor, applied witli a pencil, it will be 
converte<l into green, iiy the same liquid, blue 
may be given to such parts of the print as re- 
quite it. 

If the cotton is dyed with madder, instead of 
quercitron bark, the print will exhibit the follow- 
ing colours: — 

Acetite of alumine, red. Acetite of iron, brown, 
black. The mixture, purple. 

When a greater number of colovirs are to ap- 
pear; for instance, when those ccmmunicated by 
bark, and those b}' madder are wanted at the same 
time, mordants for parts of tlie pattern are to be 
applied: the cotton then is to be dyed in the mad- 
der bath, and bleached ; then the rest of the mor- 
dants, to fill up the pattern, are added, and the 
cloth is again dyed with quercitron bark, and 
bleached. The second dyeing does not much af- 
fect the madder colours; because the mordants, 
which render them permanent, are already satu- 
rated. The yellow tinge is easily removed by the 
subsequent bleaching. Sometimes a new mor- 
dant is also applied to some of the madder co- 
lours, in consequence of wiiioh, they receive a new 
permanent colour from the hark. After the last 
bleaching, new colours may be added bymeans of 



the indigo liquor. The following table will give 
an idea of the colours which may be given to cot 
ti)n by these processes. 

I. Madder dye. — Acetite of alumine, red. Ace- 
tite of iron, brown, black. Acetite diluted, lilac 
Both mixed, purple. 

II. Black dye. — 'Acetite of alumine, yellow. 
Acetite of iron, dove, drab. Lilac and acetite of 
auimine, olive. Red and acetite of alumine, orange. 

III. Indigo dye. — Indigo, blue. Indigo and yel- 
low, green. 

To prepare a substitute for gum used in calico 
printing. 
Collect half a ton weight of scraps of peits or 
skins, or pieces of rabbit or sheep skins, and boil 
them together for seven or eight hours, in 350 gal- 
lons of water, or until it becomes a strong size. 
Then draw it off, and when cold, weigh it. Warm 
it again, and to every hundred weight, add 4 gal- 
lons of the strongest sweet wort that can he made 
from malt, or 21) pounds weight of sugar. When 
incorpr rated, take it off, and put it into acask for use. 
This substitute for gum may be used by calico 
printers in mixing up nearlv ail kinds of colours. 
By using a sixth part only of gum with it, it will 
also improve the gum, and, be a saving of 200 per 
cent, and without gum, of 400 per cent. It will also 
improve and preserve the paste so much used by 
printers. 

To prepare anattofor dyeing 
Anatto is a colouring fecula of a resinous nature, 
extracted from t!ie seeds of a tree very common in 
the West Indies, and which in height never ex- 
ceeds 15 feet. 

The Indians employ two processes to obtain the 
red fecula of these seeds. They first pound them, 
and mix them with a certain quantity of water, 
v/hich in the course of five or six days favours the 
progress of fermentation. The liquid then becomes 
charged with the colouring part; and the superflu- 
ous moisture is afterwards separated by slow eva- 
poration over the fire, or tiy the heat of the. sun. 

Another method. — This consists in rubbing the 
seeds between the hands in a vessel filled with wa- 
ter. The colouring part is precipitated, and forms 
itself into a mass like a cake of wa.x; but if the red 
fecula, thus detached, is mucii more beautiful than 
in the first process, it is less in quantity. Besides, 
as tlie splendour of it is too bright, the Indians are 
accustomed to weaken it by a iwixJiiwe of red san- 
dal wood. 

Use of anatto. 

The natives of the East India islands used for- 
merly to employ anatto for painting their bodies, 
lite, at present, it is applied, in Europe, to the pur- 
\)0ses of dyeing. It is employed to give the first 
tint to woollen stuffs intended to be dyed red, blue, 
yellow, and green, &c. 

In the art of the varnisher it forms part of tire 
composition of changing varnishes, to give a cold 
colour to the metals to which these varnishes are 
applied. 

To choose anatto. 

It ought to be chosen of a flame colour, brighter 
in the inte^'ior part than on the outside, soft to the 
touch, and of a good consistence. The paste of 
anatto becomes hard in Europe; and it loses somo 
of its odour, which approaches near to that of vio- 
lets. 

To prepare litmus. 

The Canary and Cape de Verd islands produce 
a kind of lichen or moss which yields a violet 
colouring part, when exposed to the contact cf am- 
monia disengaged from urine, in a state of putre- 
faction, by a mixture of lime. When the processes 
are finished it is known by the name of litmus. 

This article is prepared on a large scale at Lon- 



DIEING. 



91 



flon, Paris, and Lyons. In the latter city another 
kind of lichen, which g;rows on the rocks like moss, 
IS employed. 

The ammonia joins the resinous part of the plant, 
tlevelopes its colouring part Mid combines with it. 
In this state the lichen forms a paste of a violet red 
colour, interspersed with whitish spots, which give 
it a marble appearan»e. 

Litmus is employed in dyeing to communicate a 
violet colour to silk and woollen. It is used also 
for colouring the liquor of thermometers. 
To prep^.re bastard saffron. 
The flowers of this plant contain two colouring 
parts: one soluble in water, and which is thrown 
away; the ether soluble in alkaline liquors. The 
latter colouring part becomes tne basis of various 
beautiful shades of cherry colorr. ponceau, rose- 
colour, &c. It is employed for dyeing feathers, 
and constitutes the vegetable red, or Spanish ver- 
milion employed by ladies to heighten tiieir com- 
plexion. 

Carthamus caimot furnish its resinous colouring 
part, provided with all its qualities, until it has 
been deprived of that which is soluble in water. 
For tliis purpose, the dried flowers of the cartha- 
mus are enclosed in a linen bag, and the bag is 
placed in a stream of running water. A man with 
wooden shoes gets upon the bag every eight or ten 
hours, and treads it on the bank until the water ex- 
pressed from it is colourless. 

These moist flowers, after being strongly squeez- 
ed in the bag, are spread out on a piece of canvas 
extended on a frame, placed over a wooden box, 
and covered with five or six per cent, of their 
weiglit of carbonate of soda. Pure water is then 
poured over them; and this process is repeated se- 
veral times, that the alkali may have leisure to be- 
come charged with the colouring part which it 
dissolves. The liquor, when filtered, is of a dirty 
red, and almost brown colour. The colouring part, 
thus held in solution, cannot be employed for co- 
louring bodies until it is free; and to set it at liber- 
ty, the soda must be brought into contact with a 
body whicli has more affinity for it. It is on this 
precipitation, by an intermediate substance, that 
the process for making Spanish vermilion is found- 
ed, as well as all the results arising from the di- 
rect application of this colouring part, in the art of 
dyeing. 

Utility ofslieep^s dung. 
This article is used in dyeing, for the purpose 
of preparing cotton and linen to receive certain 
colours, particularly the red madder and cross- 
wort, which it performs by impregnating the stuffs 
with an animal mucilage, ot which it contains a 
large quantity, and thus assimilating them to wool 
and silk. 

To prepare tvoad. 
This is effected from the leaves of the plant so 
called, by grinding them to a paste, of which balls 
are made, placed in heaps, and occasionally sprink- 
led with water to promote the fermentation: when 
this is finislied the woad is allowed to fall into a 
coarse powder used as a blue dye-stuff". 
To prepare inikgo. 
This dye is derived from the leaves and the 
young shoots of several species of indigo plants, by 
spaking them either in cold water, or still better 
in water kept warm, and at about 160° Fahr. till 
the liquor becomes a deep green; it is then drawn 
oft" and beat or churned till blue flakes appear, 
when lime water is added, the yellow liquor drawn 
off", and the blue sediment dried and formed into 
lumps. 

To prepare carmine. 
Boil one ounce troy of cochineal finely powdered 
m Vi or 14 pints of rain or distilled water, in a tin- 



ned copijer vessel for three minutes, then add 25 
grains of alum, and continue the boiling for two 
minutes longer, and let it cool; draw off the clear 
liquor as soon as it is only blood warm, very care- 
fully into shallow vessels, and put them by, laying 
a sheet of paper over each of them, to keep out the 
dust for a couple of days, by which time the car- 
rai-e will have settled. In case the carmine does 
not separate properly, a few drops of a solution of 
green vitriol will throw it down immedit.'ely. The 
water being drawn off, the carmine is dried in a 
warm stove: the first coarse sediment serves to 
make Florence lake; the water drawn off is liquid 
rouge. 

To obtain a dyeing matter from potato tops. 
Cut oft" the top when it is in flower, an! extract 
the juice, by bruising and pressing it. Linen or 
woollen imbibed in this liquor forty-eight hours, 
will take a brilliant, but solid and permanent yel- 
low colour. If the cloth be afterwards plunged in 
a blue dye, it will acquire a beautiful permanent 
green colour. As to the mode of execution, it 
should pass tlirough the hands of a chemist or skil- 
ful dyer, to derive all the advantages it is capable 
of furnishing. 

2'o print carpets. 
These carpets are made of knitted wool, by 
means of a machine^ they are afterwards pressed 
and receive all the colours and designs wished for. 
These designs, printed on the tissue by means of 
wooden boards, are extremely neat; the colours are 
very brilliant, and resist tiie rubbing extremely 
well, provided they traverse the tissu^ from one 
part to another. 

These new carpets are warm, and have the ad- 
vantage of being cheaper than other carpets; they 
last S.S long, and are not crossed by seams disa- 
greeable to the eye, even on a breadth of from 
twelre to fifteen feet. 

To dye hats. 
The hats should be first strongly galled by boil- 
ing them a long time in a decoction of galls with 
a little logwood, that the dye may penetrate the 
better into their substance; after which a proper 
quantity of vitriol and decoction of logwood, with 
a little verdigris, are added, and the hats continued 
in this mixture for a considerable time. They are 
afterwards put into tresh liquor of logwood, galls, 
vitriol and verdigris; and where the hats are of 
great price, or of a hair which with difficulty takes 
the dye, the same process is repeated a third time. 
For obtaining the most perfect colour, the hair oi 
wool is dyed blue previously to its being formed 
into hats. 

Another method. — Boil 100 pounds of logwood, 
i2 pounds of gum, and 6 pounds of galls, in a pro- 
per quantity of water for some hours; after which, 
about 6 pounds of verdigris and 10 of green vitriol 
are added, and the liquor kept just simmering, or 
of a. heat a little below boiling. Tenor twelve 
dozen of hats are immediately put in, each on its 
block, and kept down by cross bars for about an 
hour and a half; they are then taken out and aired, 
and the same number of others put in their room, 
Tlie two sets of hats are thus dipped and aired al- 
ternately, eight times each; the liquor being re- 
freshed each time with more of the ingredients, hue 
in less quantity than at first. 

To prove the colours of dyea stuffs. 
For crimson, scarlet, flesh-colour, violet, peach 
blossom, all shades of blue, and other colours bor- 
dering on these, dissolve half an ounce of alnnt in 
a pint of water, in an earthen vessel, and into this 
put the eighth of an ounce of the stuff or thread 
that is to be proved; boil the whole for five minutes, 
and wasii it out in clean water. 

For all sorts of yellow, green, madder, red, cin- 



92 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOIv. 



iiamon, and similar colours, bo!l a ouarter of an 
ounce of soap in a pint of water, put in the eighth 
of an ounce of tne stuff to be tried, and boil for 
five minutes. 

For hair brown, Sec. powder an ounce of tartar, 
and boil it in a pint of water, and boil a quarter of 
an ounce of the stuff or thread in the solution for 
five minutes. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS FOR DYE- 
ING, STAINING, &c. 

To turn red hair black. 

Take a pint of tJie liquor of pickled herrings, 
half a pound of lamp-black, and two ounces of the 
rust of iron. Mix and boil them for twenty mi- 
nutes, then strain and rub the liquid well into the 
roots of the hair. 

To change the colour of hair. 

This is done by spreading the'hair to bleacli on 
the grass like linen, after first washing it out in a 
lixivious water. This ley, with the force of the 
sun and air, brings the hair to a perfect whiteness. 
There is also a method of dyeing hair with bis- 
muth, whicli renders such white hair as borders too 
mu(jh U|)on the yellow, of a bright silver colour. 

Hair may be changed from a red, grey, or other 
disagreeable colour, to a brown or deep black, by 
a soiution of silvei-. The liquors, sold under the 
name of hair loaters, are, in fact, no more than 
solutions of silver in aqua-fortis, largely diluted 
with watei , with the addition of ingredients, which 
contribute nothing to their efficacy. The solution 
should be fully saturated with the silver, that there 
may be no more acid in it than is necessary for 
holding the metal dissolved; and besides dilution 
with water, a little spirit of wine may be added for 
the further decomposition of the acid. For dilut- 
ing the solution, distilled water, or pure I'ain-wa- 
ter, must be used; tlie common spring-waters turn- 
mg it milky, and precipitating a part of the dis- 
solved silver. It is to be observed also, that if tiie 
liquor touches the skin, it has the same effect on it 
as 0:1 the matter to be stained, changing the part 
moistened witli it to an indelible black. Hair may 
also be dyed of any colour ii the same manner as 
wool. 

To dye bristles or featJiers grsen. 

Take of verdigris and verditer, each 1 ounce, 
eum water 1 pint; mix them well, and dip the 
bristles or feathers, they having been first soaked 
In hot water, into the said mixture. 

nine. — Take of indigo and risse, each 1 ounce, 
and a piece of alum the size of a hazel nut; put 
them into gum watei-, and dip the materials into ii 
hot, hang them up to drj\ and clap them well that 
they may open, and by ciianging the colours, the 
aforesaid materials may be in this manner dyed of 
any colour; for purple, use lake and indigo; for 
carnation, vermilion and smalt. 

Jied. — Take an ounce of Brazil wood in powder, 
half an ounce of alum, a quarter of an ounce of 
vermilion, and a pint of vinegar, boil them up to a 
moderate thickness, and dip the bristles or feathers, 
they having been first soaked in hot water, into the 
said mixture. 

To dy; or colour horse hair. 

Steep in water wherein a small quantity of tur- 
pentine has been boiled for the space of two hours; 
then having prepared the colours very hot, boil the 
hair therein, and any colour, black excepted, will 
take, but that will only take a dark red or dark blue, 
Sec. 

To dye gloves. 

Take tne colour suitable for tlie occasion; if 
dark take Spanish brownand black earth; if lighter, 



yellow and whiting; and so on with other colours- 
mix theiTQ with a moderate fire, daub the glove* 
over with the colour wet, and let them hang till 
they are dry, then beat out the superfluity of the 
co-lour, and smooth them over wiJi a stretching o? 
sleeking stick, reducing them to their proper sk "pe. 
1 '0 dye -white gloves purple. 

Boil four ounces of logwood aiid two ounces of 
rocha alum in three pints of soft Avater till half 
wasted. Let the liquor stand to cool after strain- 
ing. Let the gloves be nicely mended, then with 
a brush I'ub them ovei', and when dry repeat it. 
Twice is sufficient, unless the colour is to be very 
dark; when dry, rub off the loose dye with a coarse 
cloth; beat up the white of an egg, and with a 
sponge rub it over the leather. The dye will stain 
the hands; hut wetting them with vinegar before 
they are washed will take it offi 

To dye gloves resembling Z,ime^^ck. 

Brown, or tan colours, are readily imparted to 
leather gloves, by the following simple process. 
Steep saffron in boiling soft water for about twelve 
hours: then having slif::htly sewed up the tops of 
the gloves to pveveut the dye staining the insides, 
wet them over with a sponge or soft brush dipped 
into tlie liquid. The quantity of safi"ron as well as 
of water will of course depend on how much dye 
may be wanted, and their relative proportions on 
tlie depth of colour I'equired. A common tea-cup 
will contain, sufficient in quantity for a single pair 
of gloves. 

To tinge bone and wory red. 

Boil shavings of scarlet cloth in water. When 
it begins to boil, tiu'ow in a quarter of a pound of 
ashes made from the dregs of wine, wiiicli will ex- 
tract the colour; then throw iu a little roche alum 
to clear it, and pass the water tnrough a linen cloth. 
Steep the ivor> or bone in uipia-fortis, and put into 
the water. If it is necessary to leave white spots, 
cover the place destined for them with wax. 

Black. — Take a double handful of lime, and 
slack it by sprinkling it with water; stir it up to- 
gether, let it settle ten minutes, and pour the wa- 
ter into a pan. Then take the ivory, &c. and steep 
it in the lime water 24 hours, after which, boil it 
in strong alum water 1 hour, and dry it in the air. 

Another method. — Steep the bone or ivory dur- 
ing five or six days, in water ot g-lls, with ashes 
made with dried dregs of wine and arsenic; then 
give it two or three layers of the same black, with 
which i)lum-tree is blackened, in order to imitate 
ebony. 

Or dissolve silver in aqua-fortis, and put into it 
a little rose-water. Rub the ivory with this, and 
allow it to dry in t';e sun. 

Green. — Tiiis colour is imparted to ivory or hone 
by a solution of copper or verdigris in aqua-fortis, 
or by grinding together two parts of verdigris, and 
one of sal-ammoniac. 

Purple. — Take four ounces of aqua-regia, and 
one of sal-ammoniac. 

Yellow. — Ivory, bone, horn, &c. may be stained 
yellow, by previously boiling them in a solution of 
one pound of alum, in two quarts of water, then 
immersing them for half an hour in a liquor jue- 
pared by boiling lialf a pound of turmeric in a gal- 
lon of water, until it be reduced to thi'ee quai'ts, 
and afterwards plunging the coloured substance 
into ahim water. 

Blue. — All bony matters m.ay he stained blue, 
by first tinging them with green, and then dipping 
tiiem into a hot and strong solution of pearl-ashes. 
To prepare wood for dyeing. 

The wood mostly used to dye black is pear-tree, 
holl/, and beach, all of whicli take a beautiful black 
colour. Do not use wood tliat has been long cut, 
or aged, but let it be as fresh as possible. Aftet 



DYEING. 



93 



the veneers have had one Iiour's boiling, and then 
taken outtocool, the colour is always much stronsjer. 
When dyed, they should be dried in the air, and 
not by the fire, nor in a kiln of pny kind, as artiii- 
cial heat tends to desti'oy the colour. 

In order to dye blue, grec-n, red or othor colours, 
take clear holly. Put the veneers into a box or 
t!-on°-h, with clef.r water, sndl'it them remain Ibur 
or five davs, changing the water once or twice as 
occasion m:iy require: the water will clear the 
wood of slime, &c. Let them dry about twelve 
hours before they are put into the dye; by observ- 
ing this, the colour will strike quicker, and be of 
a brigliter hue. 

To prepare turnsole for staining xuoorl. 

Boil four ounces of turnsole in a pint and a half 
of water, in which lime has been shiked. 
To stain oak a rauhogany colour. 

Boil together Brazil wood and Roman alum, and 
oefore it is applied to the wood, a little potasli is to 
De added to it. A suitable varnish for wood, thus 
tinged, may be made by dissolving amber in oil of 
turpentine, mixed v'ith a small portion of linseed 
oil. 

Eboni,-hlack. — Steep the wood for two or three 
days in luke-warra water, in which a little alum 
has been dissolved ; then put a handful of log- 
wood, cut small, into a pint of water, and boil it 
down to less than half a iiint. It a little indigo is 
added, the colour will be more '..'eautiful. Spread 
a layer of this liquor quite hot on the wood with a 
pencil, whicli will give it a violet colour. When 
it is dry, spread on another layer; dry it again, and 
give it a third: then boil verdigris at discretion in 
its own vinegar, and S[)rea('. a layer of it on the 
wood: when it is dry, rub it with a brush, and then 
with oiled chamois skin. This gives a fine black, 
and imitates perfectly tiie colour of ebony. 

Jlnotlwr method. — After forming the wood into 
the destined figure, rub it with aqua-fortis a little 
diluted. Small thi-eads of wood will rise in the 
drying, which is to be rubbed ofF with pumice- 
stone. Repeat this process again, and then rub the 
wood with the following composition; put into a 
glazed earthen vessel a pint of strong vinegar, two 
ounces of fine iron filings, and half a pound of 
pounded galls, and allow them to infuse for three 
or fo'.r hours on hot cinders. At the end of this 
time augment the fire, and pour into the vessel four 
ounces of copperas (sulphate of iron), and a chopin 
of water having half an ounce of borax and as much 
indigo dissolved in it; and make the whole boil till 
a froth rises. Rub several layers of this upon the 
wood; and, wlien it is dry, polish it with leather 
on which a little tripoU has been put. 

To slain beech-ivood a mahcq-any colour. 

Break t.vo oimces of dragon's blood in pieces, 
and put them into a quait of rectified spirit of wine; 
let tiie bottle stand in a warm place, and shake it 
frequently. When dissolved it is fit for use. 

Another method. — Boil ore pound of logwood in 
four quarts of water, and add a double hatful of 
walnut peeling. Boil it up ag?in, take out the chips, 
add a pint of the best vinegar, and it will be fit for 
use. 

To stain musical instnanents. 

Crimson. — Boil one pound of ground Brazil- 
wood in three quarts of water for an hour; strain it, 
and add half an ounce of cochineal; boil it again 
for half an hour gently, and it will be fit for use. 

Purple. — Boil a pound of chip logwood in three 
quarts of water for an hour; then add foui' ounces 
of pear!-ash, and two ounces of indigo pounded. 
To stain box-tvood brown. 

Hold the work to the fije, that it may receive a 
gentle warmth; then take aqua-fortis, and with a 



feather pass it over the work, till it cnanges to a 
fine brown. Then oil and polish it. 
To dye ruood a eilver grey. 

Let not the veneers be too dry; when put into 
t)ie copper, pour hot iron liquor (acetate of iron) 
over them, and add one poui\d of chip-logwooa 
with two ounces of bruised nut-gaUs. Then boil 
up another pot of'iron liquor to supply the copper, 
'leeping the veneers covered and boiling two hours 
a i!:iy, until thoroughly penetrated. 

Bright ysllotu.—K very small bit of aloes put 
inlo the varnish, will make tVie wood of a good yel- 
low colour. 

Anolhsr method. — Reduce four pounds of the 
roots of barberiy, by sawing, into dust, which put in a 
copper or brass pan, add four ounces of turmeric, 
to which put four gallons of water, then put in as 
many holly veneers as the liquor will cover; boil 
theni together for three hours, often turning them. 
When ."ool, add two ounces of aqua fortis, and the 
dye will stn!:e through much sooner. 

' Bright green. — Proceed as before to produce a 
yellow; but instend of aqua fortis, add as much of 
the vitrio'.ated in^ligo as will produce the desired 
colour. 

Another method.— To three i^ints of the strongest 
vinegar, add four ounces of the best verdigris, 
ground fine, half an ounce of sap-green, and half 
an ounce of indigo. Proceed in straining t" before. 

Bright red.— To two pounds of genuine Brazil- 
dust, add 4 gallons of water, put in as many ve- 
neers as the liquor will well cover, boil thera for 
three hours, and let them cool; then add two oun- 
ces of alum, and two ounces of aqua fortis, and 
keep it luke-warm until it has struck through. 

Purple.— To two pounds of chip log-wood, and 
half a pound of Brazil-dust, add four gallons of 
water. Put in the veneeis, and boil them well; 
then add six ounces of pearl-ash and two ounces 
of alum; let them boil two or three hours everv 
day, till the colour has struck through. 

'Fine blue.—lnto a pound of oil of vitriol in a 
glass bottle, put four ounces of indigo, and pro- 
ceed as before directed. 

To stain paper or parchment. 

FeUo-zv. — 'Paper may be stained a beautiful yel- 
low by the tincture of turmeric formed by infusing 
an ounce or more of the root, powdered, in a pint 
of spirit of wine. This may be made to give any 
tint of yellow, from the lightest straw to the full 
colour, called French yellow, and will he equRl in 
brightness even to the best dyed silks. If yellow 
be wanted of a warmer, or redder cast, anatto, or 
dragon's blood, must be added. The best manner 
of using these, and the fcllowing tinctures, is to 
spread them even on the paper, or parchment, by 
means of a broad brush, in the manner of varnish. 

Crimson. — A very fine crimson stain ma}- be 
given to paper by a tincture of the Indian lake, 
which may be made by ir fusing the lake soroe days 
in spirit of wine, and then pouring oft'the tincture 
from the dregs. It may be stained red by red ink. 
It may also be stained of a scarlet hu<5 by the tirc- 
ture of dragon's blood in spirit of wine, but this 
will not he bright. 

Green. — Paper or pai'chment may he stained 
green, by the solution of verdigris in vinegar, or 
by the crystals of verdigris dissolved in water. 

Orange. — Stain the paper or parchment first of 
a full yellow, by means of the tincture of turmeric; 
then brush it over with a solution of fixed alkaline 
salt, made by dissolving half an ounce of pearl- 
ashes, or salt of tartar, "in a quart of water, and fil- 
tering the solution. 

Purple. — Paper or parchment may be stained 
purple, by archil, or by the tincture of logwood. 



94 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



Tlie juice of ripe privet berries expressed will 
likewise give a purple dye. 

To marble the edges of books or paper. 

Dissolve four ounces of gum arable in two quarts 
of clear water; then provide several colours mixed 
with- water in pots or shells, and with pencils pe- 
culiar to each colour, sprinkle them by way of in- 
termixture upon the ijum-water, which must be 
put into a trough, or some broad vessel; then with 
a stick curl them or draw them out in streaks, to 
as much variety as required. Having done this, 
hold the book or books close together, and only 
dip the edges in, on the top of the water and co- 
lours very lightly; which done, take them off, and 
the plain impression of the colours in mixture will 
be upon the leaves; doing as well the end as the 
front of the books the same manner. 

To marble the covers of books. 

This is performed by forming clouds with aqua 
fortis, or spirit of vitriol, mixed with ink, and af- 
terwards glazing the covers. 

To colour vellum green. 

Take half a pint of the best white wine vinegar, 
an ounce of verdigris, and half an ounce of sap 
green; dissolve them in the vinegar for a few days, 
having been heated by the fire. Shake the bottle 
frequently before it is used. 

Wash the vellum over with weak potash water, 
and whja dry, colour it with the green three or 
four times, till it has a good colour: when dry, 
wash it over with thin paste water, to give the vel- 
lum a gloss. 

To black the edges of paper. 

Mix black lead with ink, and when the paper is 
cut, colour it thinly over with black ink, with a 
piece of fine cloth; rub on the black lead, cover- 
ing every part; take the dog's-tooth, and burnisli 
the edge till it becomes well polished. 

When the edge of the paper, after cutting, ap- 
pears rather rough, scrape it over with a piece of 
glass or an iron scraper, with a flat edge. 
To sprinkle the edges of books, &c. 

The brushes used for book-edges, must be made 
of Russia hogs' bristles, of good thickness, tied 
round with cord, glued at the thick end, and half 
covered with a piece of leather: when dry, tie the 
brush again with waxed cord, within half an inch 
of the soft part of it, and cut it very smooth and 
even. Brushes made after this manner are pre- 
ferable to those with a handle. 

Prepare the colour in a cup; dip in the brusli 
till it is charged, and then press it out till it will 
drop no longer. The book must be screwed tight 
in the cutting press: hold the brush in the left 
hand, and, with a folding-stick in the right, rub it 
over the brush, which will cause the colour to 
sprinkle finely on the edges. The brush mu?* be 
moved up and down over the edge, as you sprinkle, 
60 have it regular on every part. After the sprink- 



ling is done, the brushes should be carefully wash' 
ed in water, particularly after sprinkling blue, 
which will otherwise soon destro}' the brush. 
To dye or stain horn tortoise-shell colour. 

The horn to be dyed must be first pressed into 
proper plates, scales, or other flat form, and the 
following mixture prepared: take. of quick-lime 
two parts, and litharge one part, temper tiiem to- 
gether to the consistence of a soft paste, with soap- 
ley. Put this paste over all the parts of the horn, 
except such as are proper to be left transparent, in 
order to give it a near lesemblance to the tortoise- 
shell. Tlie horn must remain in this manner, co- 
vered with the paste, till it is thoroughly dry; 
when, the paste being brushed off", the horn will 
be found partly opaque and partly transparent, in 
the manner of tortoise-shell, and when put ov\;r a 
foil of die kind of lattern called orsedue, will be 
scarcely distinguishable from it. It i-equires some 
degree of fancy and judgment to dispose of the 
paste in such a manner as to form a variety oi 
transparent parts, of different magnitudes and 
figures, to look like the effect of nature: and it will 
be an improvement to add semi-transparent parts, 
which may be done by mixing whiting with some 
of the paste, to weaken its operation in particular 
places, by which spots of a reddish-brown will be 
produced, which, if properly interspersed, espe- 
cially on the edges of the dark parts, will greatly 
increase the beauty of the work, and its similitude 
to real tortoise-shell. 

Jlnother method. — Take an equal quantity of 
quick-lime and red lead, and mix it up witli strong 
soap lees. Lay it on the horn with a small brush 
like the mottle in tortoise-shell. When dry, re- 
peat the same two or three times. 

To dye horns of diffei^ent colours. 

Black is performed by steeping brass in aqua 
fortis tili it is turned green: with this the horn is 
to be washed once or twice, and then put into a 
warmed decoction of logwood and water. 

Green is begun by boiling it, &c. in alum-water, 
then with verdigris, ammoniac, and white wine I 
vinegar, keeping it hot therein till sufliciently I 
green. 

Red is begun by boiling it in alum water, then 
with verdigris, ammoniac, and finished by decoc- 
tion in a liquor compounded of quick-lime steep- 
ed in rain-water, strained, and to every pint an 
ounce of Brazil wood added. In this decoction the 
horns are to be boiled till sufficiently red. 

Horns receive a deep black stain from solution 
of silver. It ought to be diluted to such a degree 
as not sensibly to corrode the subject, and applied 
two or three times if necessary, at consideiable 
intervals, the matter being exposed as much as 
possible to the sun, to hasten the appearance and 
deepening of the colour. 



BXtEAOHINa AND SCOURXN6. 



To bleach cloths, &c. 
The mode of bleaching which least injures the 
texture of cloth formed of vegetable substances, is 
that effected by merely exposing it in a moistened 
state to the atmosphere, after having been steeped in 
a solution of potash or soda, but the length of time 



and other inconveniences attending this process 
lead to the use of more active chemical operations. 
It is by the combination of oxygen with the co- 
louring matter of the cloth, that it is deprived of 
its hue, and the different processes employed must 
be adapted to prepare it for this combination, and 



BLEACHING AND SCOURING. 



95 



render it as perfect as possible without destroying 
Its texture, an effect which, however, must neces- 
sarily ensue in a greater or less ueg^ree from the 
union of oxvgeii with all bodies. The operation 
of bleaching requires four dist-nct processes. First, 
to remove the spittle with which the threads are 
covered in the operation of s|)inning, and what is 
called the weaver's dressing. This may b^ effected 
by soaking the cloth for some ho^u'S in warru wa- 
ter, and liien boilijig it in an alkaline ley, prepared 
with 20 parts of water, and one part of the potash 
sold for tliis purpose, rendered more active by 
being mixed with one-third of lime. After it has 
been boiled for some hours in this solution, it is to 
be well waslied with water, and then exposed to 
the second process — the action of oxygen, which is> 
best applied by means of the oxyimiriate of Inne, 
sold ready prepared for this purpose. The solu- 
tion oi oxy muriate of lime must be if such strength 
as nearly to destroy the colour of a solution of in- 
digo in water, slightly acidulated with sulplmric 
acid. The cloth is to be alternately steeped u\ this 
liquor, avid a solution (made as lefore directed,) 
four or five times, using fresh liquor at each pro- 
cess. It is then to be well rubbed and waslied 
with soft soap' and water, whicli prepares it for the 
last process. 

The steeping is in a weak solution of sulphuric 
acid, and from 60 to 100 parts of water, the strength 
being thus varied according to the texture of the 
cloth. This dissolves the remaining colouring 
matter which had resisted the action of alkali, and 
the oxymurirtte of lime, as well us a small quantity 
of iron contained in all vegetable matter. The 
cloth is then to be exposed to the air for some days, 
and watered, to carry oft" any remains of the acids, 
and remove the unpleasant odour it acquires from 
the oxymuriate of lime and potash. 

To bleach linen, &c. by oxy muriatic acid. 

To ascertain the strength of this acid for bleach- 
ing, a solution of indigo in the sulphuric acid is 
employed. The colour of this is destroyed by the 
oxygenated muriatic acid; according to tlie quan- 
tity of it that can be discoloured by a given quan- 
tity of the liquor, its strength is known. 

In this country, machinery is employed forrins- 
ing and beating; the apparatus must be arranged 
according to the objects to be bleached; the skeins 
of thread must be suspended in the tub destined 
for them, and the cloth must be rolled upon reels 
in the apparatus. When every thing is thus dis- 
posed, the tubs are filled with oxygenated muriatic 
acid, by introducing a funnel, which descends to 
the bottom of the tub, in order to prevent the dis- 
persion of the gas. The cloth is wound on the 
frame work on which the skeins are suspended, is 
turned several times, until it is judged, by taking 
out a small quantity of the liquor from time to 
time, and tiying it by the test of the solution of 
indigo, thai it is sufficiently exhausted. The 
weakened liquor is then drawn off, and may be 
again employed for a new saturation. 

To bleach by oxymuriate of lime. 

To cause a large quantity of lime to combine 
with the oxymuriatic gas, the lime is mechanically 
suspended in the water, into which the gas is made 
to pass, and agitated, so as to present fresh matter 
to the gas. By this means the oxym-iriate of lime 
isformedin a very convenient manner; itisdissolv- 
ed in water, and used as a bleaching liquor. ; 

This liquor is found to be preferable to the oxy- | 
genated muriatic acid and potass. At the great I 
bleach-field in Ireland, four loys of potass are ap- I 
plied alternately with four weeks' exposure on the 
grass, two immersions in the oxygenated muriate | 
of lime, a ley of potash between the two, and the } 
exposure cf a week on the grass between each ley . 



and the immersions. During summer, two leys 
and fifteen days' exposure are sufficient to prepare 
cloth for the oxygenated muriate; the three alter- 
nate leys, with immersions in the liquor, will be 
sufficient to complete the bleaching: nothing then 
will be necessary, but io wind the cloth tlirough 
tiie sulphuric acid. 

The oxygenated muriatic acitl gas may also be 
combined with lime in a dry stale, or the water 
may be evaporated, when it is employed for the for^ 
mation of oxyniuriates, which may tlien be very 
conveniently transported to any distance witlioiit 
injury to its detrersive power. 

To prepare the sulphwet of lime. 

Take of sulphur or brimstone, in fine powder, 
four pounds; lime, well slaked and sifted, twenty 
pounds; water, sixteen gallon,'?: tliese are to he 
well mixed, and boiled for about half an hour in 
an iron vessel, stirring them briskly from tin;e to 
time. Soon aftej- the agitation of boiling is over, 
the solution of the sulphuret of lime clears, and 
may be drawn oft' free from the insoluble mattei, 
which is considerable, and which rests upon the 
bottom of the boiler. The liquor, in this state, is 
pretty nearly the colour of small beer, but not 
quite so transparent. 

'Jo bleach by sulphuret of lime. 

Sixteen gallons of fresh water are afterwards to 
be poured upon tlie insoluble dregs in the boiler,, 
in order to separate the whole of the sulphuret 
from them. When this clears (lieing previously 
well agitated), it is also to be drawn off" and mixed 
with the fi. St liquor; to these again, 33 gallons more 
of water may be added, whicli will reduce the li- 
(juor to a proper stsndard for steeping the cloth. 
Here we have (an allowance being made for eva- 
poration, and for the quantity retained in the dregs) 
sixty gallons of liquor from four pounds of brim- 
stone. 

When linen is freed from the weaver's dressiiig, 
it is to be steeped in tlie solutio.n of sulpliuret of 
lime (])rep,ired as above) for about twelve or eight- 
een hours, then taken out and very well washed. 
When dry, it is to be steeped in tlie oxynmriale of 
lime for twelve or fourteen hours, and then washed 
and dried. This process is to be repeated six times, 
that is, by six alternate immersions in each liquor, 
which has been found to whiten the linen. 

Steam has been lately employed for bleaching 
with grek",. success in France. The process wa» 
brought from the Levant. Chapel first made it 
known to the public. 

To bleach cloth in this manner, it must be im- 
mersed in a sliglit alkaline caustic liquor, and 
placed in a chamber constructed over a boiler, into 
which is put the alkaline ley which is to be raised 
into steam. After the fire has been lighted, and 
the cloth has I'emained exposed to the action of the 
steam for a sufficient length of time, it is taken out. 
and immersed in tlie oxygenated muriate of lime, 
and afterwards exposed for two or tliree days on 
the grass. This operation, which is very expedi- 
tious, will be sufficient for cotton: but if linen cloth 
should retain a yellow tint, a second alkaline caus- 
tic vapour-bath, and two or three days on the grass, 
will be sufficient to give it the necessary degree of 
Avhiteness. 

To bleafJi by alkalized steam. 

In the process of bleaching by steam, the high 
temperature swells up the fibres of the thread or 
cloth; the pui-e alkali which rises with the elastic 
fluid, seizes with avidity on the colouring matter; 
and seldom does the tissue of the flax or hemp re- 
sist the penetrating effect of this vapour-bath. The 
whole matter, therefore, by which they are colour- 
ed, is attacked and decomposed by this single ope- 
ration; apd even if a part of it has been able to resist. 



9G 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK, 



nothing more is necessary but to repeat the opera- 
tiovi, after a previous immersion and exposure on 
the grass, to ensure its complete effect. The alkali 
even appears to have a much livelier and more caus- 
tic action, when it is combined with caloric, than 
in ordinary leys, where the temperature never rises 
abrve 162 uegrees of Fahrenheit. By making the 
cloth, or thi'ead, pass through the ley of oxygen- 
ated munate of lime, an union is effected between 
the solution and the carbon, arising from the ex- 
tracto-mucous matter of the flax; carbonic acid is 
formed; the Avater even, in which this new com- 
pound is diluted, concurs to promote the combina- 
tion: if the cloth is then exposed on the grass, the 
carbonic acid is dissipated, and the cloth is bleached. 
To bleach cotton. 

The first operation consists in scouring it in a 
slight alkaline solution; or what is better, by ex- 
posure to steam. It is afterwards put into a basket, 
and rinsed in running water. The immersion of 
cotton in an alkaline ley, however it may be r'used, 
always leaves with it an eartliy deposit. It is well 
known that cotton bears the action of acids better 
than hemp or fiax; that time is even necessary be- 
fore the action of them can be prejudicial to it; and 
by taking advantage of this valuable property in 
regard to bleaching, means have been found to free 
it from the earthy deposit, by pressing down the 
cotton in a very weak solution of sulphuric acid, 
and afterwards removing the acid by washing, lest 
too long remaining in it should destroy the cotton. 
'J'o bleack wool. 

The first kind of bleaching to which wool is sub- 
jected, is to free it from grease. This operation 
is called scouring. In mp.nufactories, it is gene- 
rally performed hy an araraoniacal ley, formed of 
five measures of river water and one of stale urine; 
the wool is immersed for about 20 minutes in a 
bath of this mixture, heated to fifty-six degrees; it 
is then taken out, suffered to drain, and then rinsed 
in nmning water: this manipulatio:' softens the 
wool, and gives it the first degree of whiteness: it 
is then repeated a second, and even a third time, 
after which the wool is fit to be employed. In some 
places, scouring is performed with water slightly 
impregnated with soap; and, indeed, for valuable 
articles, this process is preferable, but it is too ex- 
pensive for articles of less value. 

Sulphurous acid gas unites vevy easily with wa- 
ter, and in this combination it may be employed 
for bleaching wool and silk. 

To prepare the siilphurous add. 

The most economical method is, to decompose 
sulphuric acid, by the mixture of any combustible 
matter capable of taking from it any pai-t of its 
Dxygen. In exact experiments of the laboratory, 
when the chemist is desirous of having it in great 
purity, it is obtained by means of metallic sub- 
stances, and particularly by mercurj'; but for the 
purpose of which we are treating, v/here great 
economy is required, we shouM recommend the 
most common substances. Take chopped straw, 
or saw dust, and introduce it into a matrass: pour 
over it sulphuric acid, applying at the same time 
heat, and there will be disengi.ged sulphurous acid 
gas, which may be combined with water in an ap- 
paratus. 

The pieces are rolled upon the reels, and are 
drawn through the sulphurous acid by turning 
them, until it is observed that the whiteaess is suf- 
ficiently bright. They are then taken out, and 
are left to drain on a bench covered with cloth, 
lest they should be stained in consequence of the 
decomposition of the wood by the sulphurous 
acid; tliey are next washed in river water, and 
Spanish white is employed, if it should be judged 
necessary. This operation is performed by pass- [ 



ing the pieces tlu'o'agh a tub of clear water, in 
in which about eight pounds of Spanish-white has 
been dissolved. To obtain a fine whiteness, thf 
stuffs, in general, are twice sulphured. Accord- 
ing to this process, one immersion, and i-ecling 
two or three houi-s, are sufficient. Azuring, oi 
Islueing, is performed by throwing into the Span- 
ish-white liquor a solution of one part of Prussian 
blue i;o 400 parts of water; shaking the cloth in 
the liquid, and reeling it rapidly. The operation 
is terminated by a slight washing with soap, to 
give softness and pliability to the stc.ffs. 
To full cloths, -woollens, &c. 
The method of fulling woollen stuffs, with soap, 
is this: a coloured cloth, of about 45 ells, is to be 
laid in the usual manner in the trough of a fulling 
mill, without first soaking it in water, as is com- 
monly practised in many places. To full this 
trough of cloth, 15 pounds of soap are required, 
one-half of which is to ba melted in two pails of 
river, or spring water, made as hot as the hand 
can well bear it. This solution is to be poured by 
little and little upon the cloth, in pror>ortion a?^ it 
is laid in the tiuugh; after which it is to be taken 
out and stretcr.e;'.. This done, the cloth is imme- 
diately returneu into the same trough without any 
new soap, and there fulled for two hours more. 
Then taken out it is wrung vrell, to express all the 
grease and filth. After the second fulling, the re- 
mainder of the soap is dissolved in as in the for- 
mer, and cast four differmic times on the cloth, re- 
membering to take out the cloth every two hours 
to stretch it, and undo the plaits and wrinkles it 
has acquired in the trough. When sufficiently full- 
ed, and brought to the quality and tliickness re- 
quired, scour it in hot water, keeping it in the 
trough till it is quite clean. As to white cloths, 
as these full more easily and in less time than 
coloured ones, a third part of the soap may be 
spared. 

To prepare an improvtd bleaching liquor. 
This is effected by a dissolution in water of the 
oxygenated muriates of calcareous earth, barytes, 
strontites, or magnesia. The earths should be 
prepared in the dry way, by bringing them in a 
solid form, in powder, or iu paste, in contact with 
the oxygenated muriatic acid gas. So prepared, 
dissohe them in water, and apply them to the sub- 
stances required to be bleached. By this mode, co- 
lours may be removed from linen, cotton, and ve- 
getable and animal substances. 

Another. — Take of salts, 8 parts, sulphuric acid, 
5 do. black oxide of manganese, 3 do. water, 3 do. 
To bleach siUc. 
Take a solution of caustic soda, so weak as to 
make only a fourth of a degree, at most, of the 
areometer for salts, and fill with it the boiler of 
the apparatus for bleaching with steam. Charge 
the frames with skeins of raw silk, and place them 
in the appai'atus until it is full; Ih^n close the door, 
and make the solution boil. Having continued 
the ebullition for twelve hours, slacken the fire, 
and open the door of the apparatus. The heat of 
the steam, Y^hich is alwavs above 250 degrees, will 
have been sufficient to free the silk from the gum, 
and to scour it. Wash the skeins in warm water; 
and having wrung them, place them again on the 
trames in the apparatus, to undergo a second boil- 
ing. Then wash them several times in water, and 
immerse them ic water somewhat soapy, to give 
them a little softness. Notwithstanding the white- 
ness which silk acquires by these, different opera- 
tions, it must be carried to a higher degree ot 
splendour by exposing it to the action of sulphyr- 
ous acid gas, in a close chamber, or by immersing 
it in sulphurous acid, as before recomiaended foi 
wool. 



BLEACHING AND SCOURING. 



97 



To bkach prints and printed books. 

Simple immersion in oxygenated muriatic aciil, 
!etting tlie aiticle remain in it a longer or shorter 
space of time, according to the strength of tlie li- 
C|Uor, will be suflficienC to whiten an engraving: if 
it is required to whiten the paper of a bound book, 
as it is necessary that all the leaves should be 
moistened by tiie acid, care must be taken to open 
the book well, and lo make the boards rest on the 
edge of the vessel, in such a manner that the pa- 
per alone shall be dipped in the litjuid; the lea res 
must be separated from each other, in order that 
they maybe equally moistened on both sides. 
Jfare''s method of bleach.ing sliell-lac. 

Dissolve in an iron kettle one part of pearl ash 
in about eight parts of v/nter, add one part of shell 
or seed lac, and lieat the whole to ebullition. 
When the, lac is dissolved cool the solution and 
impregnate it v/ith chlorine, till the lac is all pre- 
cipitated. 

1\ tvash chintz. 

Take two pounds of rice, boil it in two gallons 
of waier till soft; then pour the whole into a tub; 
let it stand till about the warmth in general used for 
coloured linens; then put the chintz in, and use 
the rice instead of soap; wash -t in tliis, till the 
dirt appears to be out, then boil the same quantity 
as above, but strain tlie rice from the water, and 
mix it in warm clear w;.ter. Wash in this till 
quite clean; afterwards rinse it in the water which 
the rice has been boiled in, and this will answer 
the end of starch, and no dew will aKect it. If a 
gov-'n, it must be taken to pieces, and vi ben dried 
be careful to l:ang it as smooth as possible; — after 
U is diy, rub it with a sle'^k stone, but use no iro.i. 
V'o -maslifine lace or [wen. 

Take a gallon of furze blossoms and burn them 
to ashos, then boil them in six q-uarts of soft water; 
this, when fine, use in washing with the suds, as 
occasion requires, and the linen, &c. will not only 
be exceedingly while, but it is dcnk;. with half the 
soap, and little trouble. 

To clean black and white sarcenets. 

Lay these smooth and even upon a board, spread 
\ little soap over the dirty places; then make a 
lather with Castille soap, and with a common 
brush, dip it in, pass it over the long way, and re- 
peat it in this manner, till one side is sufficiently 
scoured, use the other in the same manner; then 
put it into hot water, and there let it lie, till you 
have prepared some cold m ater, wherein a small 
quantity of gum arable has been dissolved. Now, 
rinse them well, take them out and fold them, 
pressin-^ out the water with the hands on tlie 
board, and keeping thsm under the hands till they 
are dry; at which time, have brimstone ready to dry 
them over, till they are ready for smoothing, which 
must be dene on the right side, with a moderate 
hot iron. 

V'o wash and stain tiffanies. 

Let the be' as of the tift'anies be at first only a 
little soaped, then having a lather of Sf)ap, put 
them into it hot, and wash them very gently for 
tear they should be crumpled: and when they are 
clean, rinse them in warm water, in which a little 
gum arable has been dissolved, keeping them from 
the air as much as possible; then add a lump of 
starch, wet the tifi'auies with a soft linen rag, and 
fold them up in a clean cloth, pressing them till 
they are near dry; after which jut them near the 
fire, and finish the drying over brimstone; then 
shape them properly by gently ironing them,' 
7'o viash and starch lawns. 

Lawns may be done in the same manner as the 

former, only observe to iron them on the wrong 

«ide, and use gum arable water instead of 

Jtareh, and, according to what has been directed 

N 



for sarcenets, any coloured silks maj" be starched, 
abating or augmenting tlie gum water, as may be 
thought fit, according to the stillness intended. 
'J'o clean buff coloured cloth. 

Take tobacco-pipe clay, and mix it with water 
till it is as thick as lime-water used for white- 
washing rooms; spread this over the cloth, and 
when it is dry, rub it off with a brush, and the 
cloth will look extremely well. 

I'o make saponace its ley for ivashing. 

Hoil together in a suflicieiit quantity of watei, a 
gallon of good wood-ashes, and two or three hands- 
tul of fresh burnt lime. Leave the lixivium at 
rest, till the extraneous matters have been di'[>osit- 
ed at the bottom, ur thrown to the surface to be 
skimmed off. Then draw off the pure lixivium, 
add to it oil, lo about a thirtieth or fortieth part of 
its own quantity. The mixture will be a liquor 
white as milk, capable of frotiiing like soap-v/ater, 
and in dilution with water, perfectly fit to commu- 
nicate sufficient whiteness to linen. This liquor 
may be prei>ared from wood-ashes of all sorts, and 
from rancid grease, oil, or butter. It is therefore 
highly worthy the attention of the economist. 
When the ashes are suspected to be unusually de- 
ficient in alkali, a small addition of pulverized 
potash or soda may be made to the lixivium. 
To clean and starch point lace. 

Fix the lace in a prepared tent, draw it straight, 
make a warm lather of Castille soap, and, with a 
fine brush dipped in, rub over the point gently; and 
when it is clean on one side, do the same to the 
other; then throw some clean water on it, in which 
a little alum has been dissolved, to take oft'ihe suds, 
and having some thin starch, go over with the same 
on the wrong side, and iron it on the same side 
when dry, then 07 en it with a bodkin, and set it in 
order. 

To clean point lace, if not very dirty, without 
washing; fix it in a teiit as the former, and go over 
with fine bi-ead, the crust being pared off, and when 
it is done, dust out the 'rumbs, 8cc. 
To clean -white veils. 

Put the veil in a solution of white soap, and iei 
it simmer a. quarter of an hour. Squeeze it in some 
warm water and soap, till quite clean. Rinse it 
from soap, and then in clean cold water, in which 
is a drop of liquid blue. Then pour boiling water 
upon a tea-spoonful of starch, run the veil through 
this, and clear it well, by clapping it. Afterwards 
pin it out, keeping the edges straight and even. 
To clean black veils. 

Pass them through a warm liquor of bullock's 

gall ;!nd water; rinse in cold water; then take a 

snic^Il piece of glue, pour boiling water on it, and 

pass the veil through it; clap it, and frame it to dry. 

7^0 clean ivhite sulin andjioxuered silks. 

Mix siiled stale bread crumbs with powder blue, 
and 111b it thoroughly all over, then shake it well, 
and dust it with clean soft clo'hs. Afterwards, 
wheie there are any gold or silver flowers, take a 
piece of ciimson ingrain velvet, rub the' fiowers 
with it, which will lestore them to their original 
Listre. 

^Inother method. — Pass them through a solttion 
of fine hard soap, at a hand heat, drawing them 
through the hand. Rinse in lukewarm water, dry 
and finish by pinning out. Brr^-sh the flossy or 
bright side with a clean clothes' brusti, the way of 
the nap. Finish tlicm by dipping a sponge into a 
size, made by boiliiig isinglaas in water and rub 
the wrong side. Iiinse cut a second time, and 
brush and dry near a fire, or in a warm room. 

Silks may be treated in the sarac waj', but not 
brushed. If the siiks are for dyeint;, instead of 
passing them through a solution of soap and water, 
they must be boiled oft'; but if the siiks are very 



9B 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK, 



stout, the water must only be of heat sufficient to 
extract the dirt, and when rinsed in warm water, 
they are in a state for tlie dye. 

Another method. — Strew French chalk overthem 
and brush it oft" with a hard brush mice or twice. 
To clean coloured silks of all kinds. 

Put some soft soap into boiling water, and beat 
it till dissolved in a sirong lather. At a hand heat 
put iu the article. If strong;, it may be rubbed as 
in washing; rinse it quicivly in warm water, and 
add oil of vitriol, sufficient to give another water a 
sourish taste, if for bright yellows, crimsons, ma- 
roons, and scarlets; but ibr oranges, fawns, browns, 
or their shades, use no acid. For bright scarlet, 
use a solution of tin. Gently squeeze and then 
roll it in a coarse sheet, and wring it. Hang it iu 
a warm room to dry, and finish it by calendering 
or mangling. 

For pinks, rose colours, and thin shades, &c. in- 
stead of oil of vitriol, or solution of tin, prefer 
lemon juice, or white tartar, or vinegar. 

For blues, purples, and their shades, add a small 
quantity of American pearl-ash; it will restore the 
colours. Wash the articles like a linen garment, 
but, instead of wringing, gently squeeze and sheet 
them, and when dry, finish tliem with fine gum 
water, or dissolved isinglass, to which add some 
pearl-ash, rubbed on the '."roiig side; then pin them 
out. 

Blues of all shades are dyed with archil, and af- 
terwards dipped in a vat; twice cleaning with peurl- 
ash, restores the colour. For olive greens, a small 
quantity of verdigris dissolved in water, or a solu- 
tion of copper, mixed witli the water, will revive 
the colour again. 

To clean black silks. 

To bullock's gall, add boiling water sufficient to 
make it wai-m, and with & clean sponge, rub the 
silk well on both sides, squeeze it well out, and 
proceed again in like manner. Rinse it in spring 
water, and change the Avater till perfectly clean, 
dry it in the air, and pin it out on a table; but first 
dip the sponge in glue-water, and rub it on the 
yrong side; then dry i^ before a fire. 
7\) dip rusty black silks. 

If it requires to be red dyed, boil logwood; and 
in half an hour, put in the silk, and let it simmer 
half an hour. Take it out, and dissolve a little 
blue vitriol and green copperas, cool tlie copper, 
Jet it simmer half an hour, then dry it over a slick 
in the aii-. If not red dyed, pin it out, and i-inse it 
in spring water, in which half a tea-spoonful of oil 
of vitriol has been put. Work it about five minutes, 
rinse it in cold water, and finish it by pinning and 
rubbing it with gum water. 

To clean silk stockings. 

Wash with soap and water; and simmer them in 
the same for ten minutes, rinsing in cold water. 
For a blue cast, put onf> drop of liquid blue, into a 
pan of cold spring water, run the stockings through 
this a minute or two, and dry them. For a pink 
cast, put one or two di-ops of saturated pink dye 
into cold water, and rinse them through this. For 
a flesh-colour, add a little rose pink in a thin soap- 
liquor, rub them with clean flannel, and calender 
or mangle them. 

To extract grease spots from silks and coloured 
muslins, &c. 

Scrape French chalk, put it on the grease-spot, 
and hold it near the fire, or over a warm iron, or 
water-plate, filled with boiling water. The grease 
will melt, and the French chalk absorb it, brush 
or rub it off. Repeat if necessary. 

To take stains out oj silk. 
' Mixtogetherin a phial, 2oz. of essence oflemon, | 
i oz. of oil of turpentine. 

Grease and other spots in silks, are to be rutjbed |i 



gently with a linen rag dipped in the above cor* 
position. 

To take spots of paint from cloth, silks, &c. 

Dip a pen in spirit of turpentine, and transfer L' 
to the paint spot, in sufficient quantity to dischargd 
the oil and gluten. Let it stand some hours, thea 
rub it. 

For large or numerous spots, apply the spirit of 
turpentine with a sponge, if possible before it is 
become dry. 

To scour yarn. 

It should be laid in lukewarm water for three oi 
four days, each day shifting it once, wringing it out, 
and laying it in another water of the same nature; 
tlien carry it to a well or brook, and rinse it til", 
nothing comes from it but pure clean water: that 
done, take a bucking-tub, and cover the bottom 
with very fine aspen ashes; and then having opened 
and spread the slippings, lay them on those ashes, 
and put more ashes above, and lay in more slip- 
pings, covering them with ashes as before; then lay 
one upon another till the yarn is put in; afterwards 
cover up the uppermost yai-n with a bucking^cloth, 
and, ill proportion to the size of the tub, lay in a 
peck or two more of ashes; this done, pour upon 
the uppermost cloth, a great deal of warm water 
till the tub can receive no more, and let it stand so 
all night. Next morning set a kettle of clean wa- 
ter on the fire; and when it is warm, pull out the 
spiggot of the bucking-tub, to let the water run 
out of it into anotlier clean vessel; as the bucking- 
tab wastes, hll it up again with warm water on the 
fire; and as the water on the fire wastes, so like- 
wise fill up that with the ley that comes from the 
bucking-tub, ever observing to make the ley hotter 
and liotter, till it boils: then you must, as before, 
ply it with the boiling ley at least four hours toge- 
ther. For whitening, you must take oft' this buck- 
ing-cloth; then putting the yarn with the ley ashes 
into large tubs, with your hands labour the yarn, 
ashes, and ley, pretty well together, afterwards 
carry it to a well or river, and rinse it clean; tlieii 
hang it upon poles in the air all day, and in the 
evening take the slijipings down, and lay them in 
water all night; the next day hang t,liem up again, 
and throw M'utcr on tliem as they dry, observing to 
turn that side outermost, which whitens slowest. 
After having done this for a week together, put all 
the yarn again into a bucking-tub, without aslies, 
covering it as before with a bucking-ckith; lay 
tliereon good store of fresh ashes, and drive that 
buck, as before, witii very strong boiling ley, foi 
half a day, or more; then take it out, and rinse it 
hanging "it up, as before, in the day time, to dry, 
and laying it in water at night, another week. 
Lastly, wash it over in fair water, and dry it. 
To scour thick cotton coiaitei'panes. 

Cut a pound of mottled soap into thin slices; and 
put it into a pan with a quarter of an ounce of pot- 
ash, and an ounce of pearl-ash. Pour a pail of 
boiling water on it, and let it stand *'ll ihssolved. 
Then pour hot and cold water into a scouring tub, 
with a bowl of the solution. Put in the counter- 
pane, beat it well, turn it often, and give it a se- 
cond licjuor as before, then rinse it in cold water. 
Now put three tea-spoonsful of liquid blue into a 
thin liquor; stir it, and put in the counterpane: 
beat it about five minutes, and dry it in tlie air. 
To scour undyed woollens. 

Cut ^ a pound of the best ye. low soap into thin 
slices, and pour such a quantity of boiling river 
water on it as will dissolve the soap, and make it 
of the consistence of oil. Cover the articles about 
two inches with water such as the hand can bear, 
and add a lump of American pearl-ash, and about 
a third of the soap solution. Beat them till no 
Jieac. or lather rises on the water; tlu-ow ■iw&y tlie 



BLEACHING AND SCOTTRING. 



9f» 



dirty 'water, ami proceed as before with hotter wa- 
ter without pearl-ash. 

To scsur clothes, coats, pelisses^ £Jc. 
If a black, blue, or brown coat, dry 2 ounces of 
fuller's earth, ^nd pour on it sufficient boiling wa- 
ter to dissolve it, and plaster with it the spots of 
grease; take a pennvwoi'th of bullock's gall, mix 
with it half a pijit of stale urine; and a little boil- 
ing water; with a hard brush dipped in this liquor, 
brush spotted places. Then dip the coat in a bucket 
of cold spring water. When nearly dry, lay the 
nap right, and pass a drop of oil of olives over the 
brush to finish it. 

If grey, drab, fawns, or maroons, cut yellow soap 
into thin slices, and pour water upon it to moisten 
it. Rub the greasy and dirty spots of the coat. 
Let it dry a little, and then brush it with warm 
water, repeating, if necessary, as at first, and use 
water alitlle hotter; rinse several times, in wai'm 
water, and finish as l>efore. 

To scour carpels, hearth-rugs, &c. 
Rub a piece of soap on every spot of grease or 
tlirt; then take a hard brush dipped in boiling wa- 
ter, and rub the spots well. If very dirty, a solu- 
tion of soap must be put into a tub, with hot water, 
and the cai-pet well beat in it, rinsing it in several 
cle.tn waters, p'ltting in the last water a table 
spoonfulyof oil of vitriol, to brighten the colours. 
To clean cotton goums. 
Make a solution of soap, put in the articles, and 
wash them in the usual way. If gi'eens, reds, &c. 
run, add lemon juice, vinegiU', or oil of vitriol, to 
tiie rinsing water. 

To clean scarlet cloth. 
Dissolve the best white soap; and if black-look- 
ing spots appear, rub dry soap on tliem; while the 
other soap is dissolving; witli hot water, brush it 
oh'. If very dirty, immerse the article into the 
warm solution, and rub the stained parts. Dispatch 
it quickly, and as soon as the colour begins to give, 
wring it out, and immerse it in a pan or pail of 
warm water; wring it again, and immerse it in cold 
spring water, in whicli aiix a table spoonful of so- 
lution of tin. .Stir it about, and in ten minutes, 
hang it to diy in the shade, and cold press it. 

Another -method. — On a quarter of a ])eck of 
wheaten bran, pour boiling water in a hair sieve. 
In the bran-water at a hand heat, immerse tlio cloth, 
and rub it, looking through it, to see the spots. To 
a second liquor, add nearly a quarter of an ounce 
of white or crude tartar. If darkened, make a clean 
liquor of cold spring water with a drop or two of 
solution of tin, soak it in ten minutes, wring it, and 
bang it up to dry. 

To (Up scarlet cloth. 
After it has been thoroughly cleaned with soap, 
and rinsed in warm water, put into boiling spring 
water, a quarter of a pound of young fustic, or zant, 
a drachm of pounded and sifted cochineal, and an 
equal quantity of cream of tartar and cochmeal; 
boil five or six minutes, and cool by adding a pint 
ar two of cold spring water, and a table spoonful 
of the solution of tin. Stir the mixture, put in^he 
cloth, boil for ten minutes, and Avhen dry, cold 
press it. 

To raise the nap on cloth. 
Soak in cold water for half an hour, then put on 
a board, and rub the thread-bare \)arts with a half- 
worn hatter's card, filled with flocks, or with a 
prickly thistle, until a nap is raised. Hang up to 
dry, and with a hard brush lay the nap the right 
way. 

To revive faded hlack cloth. 
Having cleaned it well, boil two or three ounces 
of logwood for half an hour. Dip it in warm wa- 
ter and squeeze it dry, thsnput it into the copper, 
wid boil half an hour. 'I'aJse it out and add a small 



piece of green copperas, and boil it another half 
hour. Hang it in the air for an hour or two, then 
rinse it in two or three cold waters, dry it and let 
it be regularly brushed with a soft brush, over 
which a drop or two of oil of olives has been rub- 
bed. 

To dry clean cloth. 

Dip a brush in warm gall, and a])ply it to greasy 
places, rinse it oft" in cold water; dry by the fire', 
then lay the coat flat, strew damp sand over it, and 
with a brush beat the sarid into the cloth; then 
brush it out with a hard brush, and th.. sand will 
bring awaj' the dirt. Rub a drop of oil of olive? 
over a soft bi'ush, to brighten the colours. 

To bxach xvool, silks, siraxu bonnets, &c. 

Put a chafing dish with some lighted cbarcoal 
into a close room, or large box; then strew an ounce 
or two of powdered brimstone on the hot coals. 
Hang the articles in the room or box, make the 
door fast, and let them hang some hours. Fine 
coloured woollens .are thus sulphured before dyed, 
and straw bonnets are thus bleached. 

To take iron-moidds out of linen. 

Hold the iron mould on the cover of a tankara 
of boiling water, and rub on the spot a little juice 
of sorrel and salt, and when the cloth has thorough- 
ly imbibed the juice, wash it in ley. 
To make breeches-ball. 

Mix t pound of Bath brick, 2 pounds of pipe- 
clay, 4 ounces of pumice stone powder, and 6 
ounces of ox gall; colour them with rose pink, yel- 
low ochre, umber, Irish slate, 8«c. to any desired 
shade. 

Clothes'' ball. 

Mix two pounds of pipe clay, 4 ounces of ful 
ler's earth, 4 ounces of whiting, and a quarter of 8 
pint of ox galls. 

7'o take grease out of leather breeches. 

The white of an egg applied to the injured pan 
and dried in the sun, will efFectua'ly answer thi 
purpose. 

Another method. — To two table spoonsful of spi 
rits of turpentine, put half an ounce of mealy pota- 
toes, add some of the best Duriiam mustard, witl- 
a little vinegar; let them dry, and when well rub 
bed, the spots will be entirely removed. 
To prepare a chemical liqnid for cleaning boot 
tops, &c. 

Mix in a phial, one drachm of oxymuriate ol 
potass, with two ounces of distilled water; ant 
when the salt is dissolved, add two ounces of ran 
riatic acid. Then shake well together, mix in an 
other phial three ounces of rectified spirit of wins 
with half an ounce of the essential oil of lemon. 
unite the contents of the two phials, and keep the 
liquid, thus prepared, closel}' corked for use. This 
chemical liquid should be applied with a clean 
sponge, and dried in a gentle heat; after which, 
tlie boot-tops may be polished with a proper brush, 
so as to appear like new leather. 

Another method. — Take of white vitriol, powder- 
ed, 1 02. acid of sugar, 1 oz. water, 1 quart. Mix 
together. 

Put a label on it, " Rank Poison." 

Sponge the tops with water first; then mix with 
the liquid, and then with water again. 

To cleanse feathers from animal oil. 

^lix well with a gallon of clear water, a pound 
of quick lime; and, when the lime is precipitated 
in fine powder, pour oft' the clear lime-water for 
use, at the time it is wanted. Put the feathers to 
be cleaned in a tub, and add to them a suflicieni 
quantity of the clear lime-water, so as to cover 
them about tin-ee inches. The feathers, when tho- 
roughly moistened, will sink down, and should 
remain in the lime-water for three or four days; 
after which, the foul liquor should be scparateii 



100 



U:CrVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



f»'om them by laying theiifi on a sieve. Afterwards, 
well wash them iti clean v/ater, and dry tbera on 
nets, about the same fineness as cabbage nets. 
Shake them from time to time on the nets; as they 
dry, they will fall through the mashes, when col- 
lect them for use. The admission of air vill be 
serviceable in the drying, and the -whole process 
may be completed in about three weeks. The 
fetithers, thus prepared, want nothing further than 
beating, to be used eitlier for beds, bolsters, pil- 
lows, ike. 

To clean leather. 
Take of French yellow ochre, 1 lb. fweet oil, a 
dessert spoonful. Mix well together, so that the 
oil may not be seen: then take of pipe clay 1 lb. 
starch a quarter of a lb. Mix with boiling water; 
when cold, lay It on the leather. When diy, I'ub 
and brush it well. 

7'o make scoiinng balh. 
Portable balls, for removing spots from clothes, 
may be thus prepared. Fuller's earth perfectly 
di-ied, (so that it crumbles into a powder) Is to be 
moistened with the clear juice of lemons, and a 
small quantity of pure pearl-ashes is to be added. 
Knead the whole carefully together, till it acquires 
the consiscence of a thick elastic paste: forn^ it into 
convenieat small balls, and diy them in the sun. 
To be used, first moisten the spot on the clothes 
with water, then rub i( with the ball, and let the 
spot dry in the sun; r-fter having washed it with 
pure water, the spot v.ill entirely disappear. 
To clean marble. 
Take verdigris and pumice-stone, well powder- 
ed, with lime newly slaked. Mix with soap lees, 
to the consistence of patty. Put it in a woollen 
rag, and rub tlie stains well one way. Wash off" 
with soap and water. Repeat, if not removed. 
To take stains out of silver plate. 
Steep the plate in soap leys for the space of four 
hours; then cover it' over with whiting, wet with 
vinegar, so that it may stick. thick upon it, and dry 
it by a fire; after which, rnb oft' the whiting, anu 
pass it over with drA' bran, and the spots will not 
only disappear, but the plate will look exceedingly 
bright. 

To make plate look like neiv. 
Take of unslaked lime and alum, a pound each, 
tf aqua-vitse and vinegar, each a pint, and of beer 
grounds, tvi^o quarts; boil the plate in these, and 
Ihey will set a beautiful gloss upon it. 
I'o take viitfndt spots. 
Let the spotted part of the cloth imbibe a little 
water without dipping, and hold the part over a 
lighted common brimstone matLii at a proper dis- 
lance. The sulphurous gas, which is discharged, 
Boon causes the spots to disapijear. 

To clean gold lace and embroideri^. 
For this purpose no alkaline liqnors are to be 
used; f.^r while ther clean the gold thiyy corrode 
the silk, and chang;; or discharge its colour. Soap 
also alters the sljude, and even the sr jcies of cer- 
tain colours, iiut spirit of wine may be used with- 
out any danger of its injuri^ig either colour or qua- 
lity; and, in many cases, proves as effectual for re- 
Uoring the lustre of the gold, as the corrosive de- 
.ergents. i3ut, though spirit of wine is the most 
■nnocent material employed for this purpose, it is 
lot in all cases proper. The golden covering may 
i»e in some parts worn off; or the base metal, with 
which it has been alloyed, may be corroded b / the 
jir, so as to leave the particles of the gold di.s'mit- 
id; while the silver underneath, tarnished to a yel- 
'ovv^ hue, may continue a tolerable colour to the 
ivhole; so it is apparent that the removal of the tar- 
lish would be prejudicial, and m ike the laoe or 
imt^roidery less like s:cld than it r as before. 



To remove spots of grease from cloth. 
Spots of grease may Lie removed by a diluted so- 
lution of potash, but this must be cautiously appli- 
ed, to prevent injury to the cloth. Stains of white 
wax, which sometimes fall upon clothes from 
wax- candles, are removed by spirits of turpentine, 
or sulphuric ether. The marks of white paint may 
also be discharged by the above mentioned agents. 
To take wildeiv out of linen. 
Rub it well with soap: then scrape some fine 
chalk, and rub that also in tiie linen, lay it on the 
grass; as it dries, wet it a little, and it will come 
out after twice doing. 

To take cut spzts of ink. 
As soon as the accident happens, wet the place 
with juice of sorrel or lemon, or with vinegar, and 
the best hard white soap. 

To take out stains of cloth or silk. 
Pound French chalk fi;ie, mix with lavender- wa 
ter to the thickness of niustanl. Put on the stain; 
rub it soft with the finger or p'lm of the hand. Put 
a sheet of blotting and brown paper on the top, and 
smooth it with an iron milk-warm. 

To remove grease spots from paper. 
Let the paper stained with grease, wax, oil, or 
any other lat body, be g^mtly warmed, taking out 
as much as possible of it, by lilottmg paper. Dip 
a small brush in the essential oil of well-rectified 
spirits of turpentine, heated almost to ebullition 
(for when cold it acts very weakly), and draw it 
gently over both sides of the paper, which must be 
carefully kept warm. Let this operation be repeat- 
ed as many times as the quantity of the fat-body, 
imbibed by the paper, or the thickness of the pa- 
per, may render it necessaiy. When the greasy 
substance is removed, to restore the paper to its 
former whiteness, dip another brush in highly rec- 
tified spirit of wine, and draw it, in like manner, 
over the place; and particularly around the edges, 
to remove the border that would still present a 
stain. If the process has been employed on a part 
written on with common ink, or printed with prin 
ter's ink, it will experience no alteration. 

A7iother method. — Take of rochc-al\im burnt, 
and flour of brimstone, an equal quantity of each; 
and reducing them to a fine powder, wet the pa])er 
a little, put a small quantity of the powder upon 
the place, and the spots will disappear. 

Anothei\ — Scrape finely, some pipe-clay, (the 
i quantity will be easily determined on making the 
experiment) on this lay the sneet or leaf, and cover 
the spot, in like manner, with the clay. Cover 
the whole with a sheet of paper, and apply, for a 
few seconds, a heated ironing box, or any substi- 
tute adopted by laundresses. On using Indian rub- 
ber, to remove the dust taken up by the grease, the 
paper will be found restored to its original white- 
ness and opacity. This simple method has often 
proved much more effectual than turpentine, and 
was remarkably so, in an instance, where the folio 
of a ledger had exhibited the marks of candle grease 
and tiie snuff, for more than twelve months. 
To cleanse gloves -without ivettmg. 
Lay the gloves upon a clean board, make a mix- 
ture of dried fulling-earth, and Yjov/dered alum, and 
pass them over on each side with a common stiff 
brush: then sweep it off, and sprinkle them v,elj 
with dry bran and whiting, and dust them well; 
this, it they be not exceedingly greasy, will render 
them quite clean; but if they are much soiled take 
out the grease with crumbs of toasted bread, and 
powder of burnt bone: then pass them over with a 
woollen cloth dipped in fulling earth or alum pow- 
der: and in this manner they can b"e cleaned with- 
out wetting, which frequently shrinks and spoils 
them. 



BLEACHING AND SCOUItlNG. 



101 



Fullers'' [^rifier for -uooVen clnths. 
Drj', pulverize, and sift the followiug ingredi- 
ents: — 

6 lbs. of fuller's earth, 1 lb. of pipe clay, and 4 
oz. of French chalk. 

Make a paste of the above with the following: — 
1 oz. of rectified oil of tiirpentine, 2 oz. of spi- 
rit of wine, and 1^ lbs. of melted oil soap. 

Make up the compound into six-penny or shil- 
ling cakes for sale. These cakes are to lie kept in 
water, or in small wooden boxes. 

To clean all sorts of metal. 
Mix half a pint of refined neat's-foot oil, and half 
a gill of spirits of turpentine. Scrape a little ker- 
nel or rotten stone; wet a woollen rag therewith, dip 
»t into the scraped kern 1, andrubtiie metal well. 
Wipe it off with a soft cloth, polish with dry lea- 
ther, and use more of tiie kernel. In respect to 
steel, if it is very rusty, use a little powder of pu- 
mice with the liquid, on a separate woollen rag 
first. 

To take stains out of mahogany. 
Mix 6 ounces of spirit of salts, and ^ an ounce of 
rock salt of lemons (powdered) together. Drop a 
little on the stain, and rub it with a cork till it dis- 
appear. Wash off with cold wate'*. 

^jiotker method. — Take 2 ounces ofnil of vitriol, 
and 1 ounce of muriatic acid, or spirit of salts. Mix, 
by shaking in a phial, and when to be used lay it 
over the spotted part by means of a feather, or 
■woollen rag. Afterwards wash the part over with 
■water, and polish as usual. 

To take out -writing. 
When recently written, ink may be completely 
removed by the oxymariatic acid, (concentrated 
and in solution). The paper is to be washed over 
repeatedl}' with the acid; but it will be r.ecessary 
afterwards to wash it with lime water, for the pur- 
pose of neutralizing any acid that may be left on 
the paper, and which would considerably weaken 
it. if the ink has been long written, it will have 
undergone such, a change as to prevent the preced- 
ing process acting. It ought therefore to be wash- 
ed with liver of sulpliur (sulphuret of ammonia) 
before the oxymuriatic acid is applied. It may be 
■washed with a hair pencil. 

To restore -whites in ancient pictures. 
Carbonate of lead, exposed for some time to hy- 
dro-sulphuretted vapours, will become black, be- 
ing converted to sulphuret. This colour, when 
used with oil, and covered with a -varnish which 
defends it from the immediate contact of the air, 



may be preserved for several ages, as is proved by 
the paintings of the fifteenth centuiy. But when 
nothing protects it from the sulphurous vapouj's 
floating in the atmosphere, as is the <'.ase in distem- 
per colo^'rs, this substance should be avoided, if a 
permanent colour is intended. 

Among the numerous properties whi h belong to 
the oxygenated water discovered by M. Thenard, 
one is, instantly to chang'! the black of sulphuret 
of lead to white. A bottle of weakly oxygenated 
water, containing not more than 5 or 6 vohimes of 
oxygen, and quite tasteless, being applied to the 
black spots with a few dips of the brush, they have 
disappeared as if by enchantment. The groun<l 
being coloured by a light tint of bistre, was not, in 
the slightest degree, altered, and the ))a!iiting has 
been completely restored, without the addition of 
a single touch, to the original design. 

To restore hangiiigs, carpets, chairs, &c. 
Beat the dust out of them as clean as possible, 
tlien rub them over with a dry brusij, and make a 
good lather of Castille soap, and rub them well 
over with a hard brush, then take clean water and 
with it wash off the froth, make a water witJi alum, 
and wash them over with it, and when dry most of 
tlie colours will be restored in a short time; and 
those that are yet too faint, must be touched up 
with a pencil dipped in suitable colours: it maybe 
run all o\er in the same manner witli water colours 
mixed well with gum water, and it will look at a 
distance like new. 

To clean paper hangings. 
Cut into eight half quarters a stale quartern loaf: 
with one of these pieces, after having blown off all 
the dust fro'm the paper to be cleaned by means of 
a good pair of bellows, begin at the top of thfe 
room, holding the crust in the hand, and wiping 
lightly downward with the crumb, about lialf a 
yard at eacli stroke, till the upper part of the hang- 
ings is completely cleaned all round; then go again 
round with the like sweeping stroke downward, 
always commencing eacli successive course a little 
higher than the upper stroke had extended, till 
the bottom be finished. This operation, if care- 
fully performed, will frequently make very old 
paper look almost equal to new. Great caution 
must be used not by any means to rub the paper 
hard, nor to attempt cleaning it the cross or hori- 
zontal way. The dirty part of -he bread too must 
ue each time cut away, and the pieces renewed as 
soon as at all necessary. 



CEMEMTS. 



To make an improved building cement. 

This method consists in the employment of cer- 
tam burnt or vitrified earths, and metallic and other 
substances, which are pounded or ground to pow- 
der, and mixed with lime. 

The eai'thy substances used, are all those kinds 
of clay or loam that are capable of becoming vitri- 
fied and intensely hard, by exposure to a strong 
fire; chalk, and such earttis as become soft and fall 
to pieces, when exposed to heat, are luiht for the 
purpose; but flint stones and pebbles may be used 
with advantage. 

The proper kimls of earth being thus selected, 



the material is heated in the interior of a brick- 
kiln, or furnace, until it becomes completely vitri-^ 
fied or reduced to a state of hard, black, or glossy 
clay, and this vitrification will sometitries be im- 
proved, by mixing refuse or broken glass, or sand 
and wood-ashes, with sand or vitrified materialr, 
such as those which come from the furnaces ot 
smelting-houses, glass-houses, foundries, Sic. or 
any materials reduced to a state of vitrification by 
intense heat. These materials are then to be 
bruised, pounded, or ground, and sifted through a 
wire sieve, until reduced to such a state of fine- 
ness as may be proper for mixing up as a plaster. 

1 2 



102 



UNIVERSAL RECEll T BOOK. 



Thus prepared, the materials are to be sorted into 
different qualities, and put up for use. 

Manner of using it. — The manner of using this 
material, is by mixing it with well-burnt lime in- 
stead of the sand usually employed in the comjjo- 
sition of stucco or cement, to which water must be 
added, until a proper consistency is obtained. 
This artificial Puzzolene may be mixed with 
quick lime, completely pulverized, and put into 
casks for use; it is, however, necessary to keep it 
from moistui'e, or exposure to the open air. The 
proportion of quick-lime to be added to the above 
materials, depends entirely upon the strength of 
the lime: in general, one measure of good lime 
will be sufficient for from three to five measures of 
the material. 

Another part of the improvement consists in 
the introduction of various coloured bricks, which, 
highly burnt or vitrified, and reduced to powder, 
are to be mixed up with tlie artificial Puzzolene, 
in order to produce spots or streaks, in imitation 
of marble and other variegated stone. 
To make HameHn's cement. 

This cement consists in a mixture of eartlis and 
other substances that are insoluble in water, or 
nearly so, either in their natural state, or such as 
have been manufactured, as earthen-ware, porce- 
lain, and such like substances; but Mr H. prefers 
those earths that, either in their natural or manu- 
factured state are the least soluble in water, and 
have, wlien pulverized or reduced to powder, the 
least colour. To the earth or earths, as before 
named, either in their natural or manufactured 
state, and so pulverized, he adds a quantity of each 
of the oxyds of lead, as litharge, grey oxyd, and 
minium, reduced or ground to a fine powder, and 
to the wliole of the above-named substances, a quan- 
tity of [lulverized glass or flint-stone. These vari- 
ous earths, oxyds, and glass or flint-stone, reduced 
to a pulverized state, in proper and due proportion, 
and being mixed with a proper and due proportion 
of vegetable oil, form and make a composition or 
cement, which, by contact or exposure to the at- 
mosphere, hardens and forms an impenetrable and 
impervious coating or covering, resembling Port- 
land or other stones. 

To any given weight of the earth or earths, 
commonly called pit-sand, river-sand, rock-sand, 
or any other sand of the same or the like nature, 
or pulverized earthen-ware or porcelain, add two 
thirds of such given weight of the earth or earths, 
commonly called Portland-stoue, Bath-stone, or 
any other stone, of the same or the like nature, 
pulverized. To every five hundred and sixty 
])Ounds weight of these earths, so prepared, add 
forty pounds weight of litharge, and, with the last 
mentioned given weights, combine two pounds 
weight of pulverized glass or flint-stone. Then 
join to tliis mixture one pound weight of minium 
and two pounds weight of grey oxyd of lead.' 

This composition being thus mixed, pass the 
same through a wire sieve, or dressing machine, 
of such a fineness or mash as may be requisite for 
the purpose it is intended for, preferring a fine 
sieve, mash, or wire-work, when t'he composition 
is to be used for works that require a fine smooth 
or even surface. It is now a fine and dry powder, 
and may be kept open in bulk or in casks for anj- 
length of time, without deterioration. 

When this composition is intended to be made 
into cement, for any of the purposes described, it 
is spread upon a board or pbitform, or mixed in a 
trougli: and to every six hundred and five pounds 
weiglit of the composition, are added five gallons 
of vegetable oil, as linseed-oil, walnut-oil, orpink- 
sil. The composition is then mixed in a similar 
way to tiiat of mortar, and is afterwards subjected 



to a gentle pressure, by treading upon it: and this 
operation is continued until it acquires the appear- 
ance of moistened sand. Tlie niixture, being thus 
composed, is a cement fit and applicable to the 
enumerated purposes. It is requisite to observe, 
that this cement should be used the same day the 
oil is added, otherwise it will fix or set into a solid 
substance. 

To apply it to buildings. 
When the cement is applied for tlie purpose of 
covering buildings intended to resemble stone, the 
surface of the building is washed with oiL The 
cement is then applied of the thickness of an inch, 
or any greater thickness, according to the nature 
of the work, joint, or stone, it is intended to re- 
semble. It is requisite to observe, that when a 
joint, intended to resemble a plain stone joint, is 
to be made upon the surface of the cement or cona- 
position, the cement must be partly set or harden- 
ed previously to the impression of the joint upon 
its surface, and the joint is made by a rule and 
steel jointer. When the cement is used for the 
covering of substances less absorbent than bricks 

I or tiles, (as wood, lead, iron, or tin,) a much less 
quantity of boiled linseed oil in preparing the sur- 
faces is required. 

To make cement for floors. 
Earthen-floors ar^; commonly made of loam, and 
sometimes, especially to make malt on, of lime 
and brook sand, and gun dust or anvil dust from 
the forge. The manner of making earthen-floors 
for plain country habitations is as follows: take 
two-thirds of lime, and one of coal-ashes well 
sifted, with a small quantity of loam clay, mix the 
whole together, and temper it well with watdr, 
making it up into a heap; let it lie a week or ten 

I days, and then temper it over again. After this, 
heap it up for three or four days, and repeat the 
tempering very high, till it becomes smooth, 
yielding, tough, and gluey. The ground being 
then levelled, lay the floor therewith about 2 1-2 
or three inches thick, making it smooth with a 
trowel: the hotter the season is, the better; and 
when it is thoroughly dried, it will make the best 
floor for houses, especially mall-houses. If any 
one would have their floors look better, let them 
take lime of rag-stones, well tempered with whites 
of eggs, coverii.g the floor about half an inch thick 
with it, before the under flooring is too dry. If 
this be well done, and thoroughly dried, it will 
look, when rubbed with a little oil, as transparent 
as metal or glass. In eleganc houses, floors of this 
nature are made of stuc-o, or of plaster of Paris 
beatenand sifted, and mixed with other ingredients. 
Pew's composition for covering buildings. 
Take the hardest and purest limestone (white 
marble is to be preferred) free from sand clay, or 
other matter; calcine it in a reverberatory furnace, 
pulverize and pass it through a sieve. One part, 
by weight, is to be mixed with two parts of clay 
well baked and similarly pulverized, conducting 
the wlioie operation with great care. This forms 
the first powder. The second is to be made of one 
part of calcined and pulverized gypsum, to which 
is added two parts of clay, baked and pulverized. 
These two powders 'are to be combined, and inti- 
mately incorporated, so as to form a perfect mix- 
ture. When It is to be used, mix it with about a 
fourth part of its weight of water, added gradually, 
stirring the mass wjil the whole time, until it 
forms a thick paste, in which state it is to be 
spread like mortar upon the desired surface. It 
becomes in time as hard as stone, allows no mois- 
ture to penetrate, and is not cracked by heat. 
When wellprepaivd it will last any length of time. 
When in its plastio or soft state, it may be colom^ 
ed of any desired lint. 



CEMENTS. 



103 



Fo make cement for cannls. 

Take one part of iron filings, reduced to sifted 
powder, three parts of silica, four parts of alumine 
combined with oxide of iron — the same C(aantit}- of 
pulverized brick, and two parts of hot lime; the 
whole measured by weight and not by bulk. 

Put the mixture into a large wooden tub, in or- 
der that nothing foreign may be introduced into it. 
If sufficient water is poured out to extinguish the 
lime and i!;ive a degree of liquidness to the cement, 
and if all the component paits are briskly stirred, 
a great v^egree of heat will be emitted from the 
lime, and an intimate union formed by the heat. 
JVote on preparing hydraulic cements. 

It has been satisfactorily ascertained that " the 
access of air during the calcination of the argilla- 
ceous cements, is of great consequence to the te- 
nacity' of the mortar and the quickness with which 
it hardens." The clay for the best hydraulic ce- 
ment, should contain a little lime, be calcined un- 
der exposure to a current of air, and after being 
well pulverized, be mixed with a paste of lime in 
the proportion of one of the latter to two or two 
and a half of the former. 

To make I'arker's cement. 

This cement is maile of very argillaceous lime- 
Blones, which are burnt in conical kilns, with a 
continued fire of pit-coal, in the same manner as 
other limestones; but it the heat be so great as to 
cause a commencement of fusion in the cement, it 
will be totally spoiled. It is reduced to an impal- 
pable powder by grinding as soon as it is burnt, 
and is sent away in barrels well closed. I 

The above is much used in London for facing j 
houses, and for the foundation of large edifices. It j 
requires much practice in the workmen who use | 
it; for if not tempered to the proper consistence, 1 
and immediately applied, it solidifies unequally, j 
cracks, and adheres badly. It is recommended to ; 
be mixed with fine angular sand well washed, in | 
the proportion of two parts to three of cement, for j 
foundations and cornices exposed to rain; from 3, i 
4, and 5 parts to 3 of cement for common mortars: 
from three parts to two of cement for coating walls 
exposed to cold, and five parts to two of cement j 
for walls exposed to dryness or heat. i 

Cement for rock-ivork and reservoirs. 

Where a great quantity of cement is wanted for [ 
eoarser uses, the coal-abh mortar (or Welsh tarras) | 
ss the clieapest and best, and will hold extremely ^ 
well, not only M'here it is constantly kept wet or | 
dry, but even where it is sometimes dry and at , 
ethers wet; but where it is liable to be exposed to j 
wet and frost, this cement should, at its being laid 
on, be suft'ered to diy thoroughly before any mois- 
ture has access to it; and, in that case, it will like- | 
vvise be a great improvement to temper it with the j 
blood of any beast. 

The mortar must be formed of one part lime 
and two parts of well-sifted coal-ashes, and they 
must be thoroughly mixed by being beaten to- 
gether; for on the perfect commixture of the in- 
gredients the goodness of the composition depends. 
To make mortar. 

Mortar is composed of quick-lime and sand, re- 
duced to a paste with water. The lime ought to 
be pure, completely free from carbonic acid, and j 
in the state of a very fine powder; the sand should ; 
be free from clay, partly in the state of fine sand, j 
and partly in that of gravel: the water should be | 
pure; and if previously saturated with lime, so i 
much tlie better. The best proportions are three | 
parts of fine, and four parts of coarse sand, one j 
part of quick-lime, recently slacked, and as little i 
water as possible. I 

The addition of burnt bones improve mortar by | 
giving it tenacity, and render it less apt to crack I 



in drj'ing; but they ought never to exceed one- 
fourth of the lime employed. 

When a little manganese is added to mortal-, it 
acquires tlie important property of hardening un- 
der water; so that it may be employed in con- 
structing those edifices which are constantly ex- 
posed to the action of water. Limestone is often 
combined witli manganese: in that case it becomes 
brown by calcination. 

Tunisian cement. 

This is composed of three parts of lime, one of 
sand, rnd two of wood-ashes: these ingredients are 
mixed up with oil and water alternately, till they 
compose a paste of the desired consistency. 
Dutch terras. 

This is composed of basalt ground to a fine pow- 
der, and blue argillaceous lime, mixed up with wa- 
ter, and well beaten together. 

Toumay cement 

Is a mixture of co?l ashes, with blue argillo-fer- 
rugaious lime and sand, well beaten up with wa- 
ter, left to dry, repeatedly levigated, moistened, 
and beaten. 

JRoman cement. 

A sort of plaster so called, which well withstands 
our soft climate, is made by mixing a bushel ot 
lime slaked, with three pounds and a half of green 
copperas, 15 gallons of water, and half a bushel of 
fine gravel sand. The copperas should be dis- 
solved in hot water; it must be stirred with a stick, 
and kept stirring continually while in use. Care 
should be taken to mix at once as much as may be 
requisite for one entire front, as it is very difficult 
to match the colour again; and it ought to be mix- 
ed the same day it is used. 

Genuine Romati cement. 

This consists of the puhis Puteolanvs, or piiz- 
zolene, a ferruginous clay from Puteoli calcined 
by the fires of Vesuvius, lime, and sand, mixed up 
with soft water. The only preparation which th« 
puzzolens undergoes is tliat of pounding and sift- 
ing; but the ingredients are occasionally mixed up 
with bullock's blood, and fat of animals, to give 
the composition more tenacity. 

JMaltha, or Greek mastich. 

This is a more simple composition than the ce- 
ment of the Romans, when used for st ucco on the 
outsides of fabrics, consisting only of lime and 
sand, but rendered into a paste witli milk, or size. 
Indian cement. 

This is only a variation of the mastich, and is 
composed of equal quantities of flint, lime, and 
pit sand, slaked with water, well beaten, and suf- 
fered to remain for three or four days, then moist- 
ened and mixed up with oil, mucilage, whites of 
eggs, and bitter milk, and applied, as rapidly as 
possible, after being mixed. 

To make impenetrable mortar. 

Mix thoroughly one-fourth of the fresh unslak- 
ed lime wit'.i three-fourths of sand; and let five la- 
bourers make mortar of these ingredients, by pour- 
ing on water, with trowels, to supply one mason, 
who must, when the materials are sufficiently mix- 
ed, apply it instantly as cement or plaster, and it 
will becom? as hard as stone. The lime used 
should be stone-lime; previous to its use, it should 
be preserved from the access of air or wet, and the 
plaster screened for some time from the sun and 
wind. 

To make Wych's itucco. 

Take four or five bushels of such plaster as is 
commonly burnt for floors about Nottingham for 
a similar quantity of any tan-as, plaster, or calcm- 
ed gypsum); beat it to fine powder, then sift and 
put it into a trough, and rr\ix with it one bushel of 
pure coal ashes, well calcined. Pour on the wa- 
ter, till the whole becomes good mortar. Lay this 



104 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



jn wooJen frames of twelve feet in length on the 
wal's, well smoothed with common mortar and 
dry, the thickness of two inches at each side, and 
three inchfs in the middle. When the frame is 
moved to proceed with the work, leave an interval 
of two inches for tliis coping to extend itself, so as 
to meet the last frame work. 

I'o make Wi!liains''s ntucco. 

Take sharp, rough, large-grained sand, sifted, 
washed, dried, anil freed from all impurities, 84 
pounds; well burnt lime, slaked and finely si.ted, 
12 pounds; cur<l, or cheese, produced from milk, 
4 pounds; (the first, fresh made, and strongly 
pressed, to divest it of its wliey; the second, whilst 
perfectly sound, rasped into powder witli a grater, 
or brought in; j a very light substance with scra- 
pers, or fine-toothed plane-ii'ons, in a turner's 
lathe); and lastly, water in its natural state, 10 
pounds. If the sand is not thoroughly dried, or 
the lime has got damp from the air, the quantity 
of water must be less than tlie above proportion; 
and, on the contrary, when the lime is used im- 
mediately, it may require more; so that the pro- 
per stiffness of tlie mortar, under those circum- 
stances, will regulate the making of the compo- 
sition. 

Jron cement. 

This is formed of the borings of cast iron guns 
or turnings of cast iron which should be clean and 
free from rust until used. By slight pounding or 
triturating they are broken but not powdered, and 
then coarsely sifted. At the time of using, they 
are to be mixed with powdered sal ammoniac and 
sulphur, and slightly moistened with water; when 
the composition must be rammed or caulked into 
the joints with a blunt caidking chisel and ham- 
mer, and the Joint screwed up by its bolts as 
tightly as possible. 

No more of ^his cement must be made than can 
he used at one time, because it soon spoils; but if 
good, it will become as hard as the iron itself in a 
few dajs: 2 ounces of sal ammoniac, and 1 ounce 
of sulphur is sufticient for 5 pounds of iron borings. 
Water cement. 

A cement may be made with common lime, that 
will harden under water. What is called jf)oo;' 
lime has this peculiar property; but as this species 
of limestone rarely occurs, it is often an expensive 
ai'licle. The following is a good substitute, and 
may be used for water cisterns, aqueducts, &c. 
Mix four parts ot grey clay, six of the black oxide 
of manganese, and ninety of good limestone re- 
duced to fine powder; then calcine the whole to 
expel the carbonic acid. When tliis mixture has 
been well calcined and cooled, it is to be worked 
into tl;e consistence of a soft paste with sixty parts 
of washed sand. If a lump ot this cement be 
thrown into water, it will harden immediately. 
Such mortar, however, may be procured at a still 
less expense, by mixing with common qu-ck lime i 
a certain quantity of what are called the •white iron 
ores, especially such as are poor in iron. These 
ores are chiefiy composed of manganese and car- 
bonate of lime, or chalk. Common lime and sand 
oidy, whatever may be tlie proportion of the mix- 
ture, will certainly become soil under water. 
■ Wat'er cement or stucco. 

Take 56 pounds of pure coarse sand, 42 pounds 
of pure fine sand; mix them together, and moisten 
them tiiorougbiy with lime water; to the wetted 
sand, add 14 pounds of pure fresh burnt lime, and 
while beating them up together, add, in successive 
portions, 14 pounds of bone ash: the quicker and 
more perfectly these materials are beaten together, 
and the sooner they are used the betttr wili be the 
cement; for some kinds of work it will be better 
to use line sand ali>ne, and for others, coarse sand; 



remembering the finer the sand is, the greater 
quantity of lime is to be employed. 

To make afire and water proof cement. 
To half a pint of vinegar, add the same quantity 
of milk; separate the curd, and mix the whey with 
the whites of five eggs; beat it well together, and 
sift into it a sufficient quantity of quick lime, to 
convert it to the consistency of a thick paste. Bro- 
ken vessels, mended with this cement, never after- 
wards separate, for it resists the action of both fire 
and water. 
Turkish cemait for joining metak, glass, &c. 
Dissolve mastith in as much spirit of wine as 
will suffice to render it liquid; in another yessel 
dissolve as much isinglass (which has been pre- 
viously soaked in water till it is swollen and soft) 
in brandy as will make two ounces by measure oi 
strong glue, and add two small bits of gum galba- 
num, or ammoniacum, which must be rubbed or 
ground till they are dissolved; then mix the whole 
with a sufficient heat: keep it in a phial stopt^ and 
when it is to be used set it in hot water. 
Yates's water proof cement. 
Take of the best glue four ounces, of isinglass 
two ounces, and dissolve them in mild ale over a 
slow fire, in a common glue kettle, to the consis- 
tence of strong glue, when one ounce and a half of 
well boiled linseed oil mist be gradually added, 
and the whole be v/ell mixed by stirring. When 
cold and made into cakes, it resembles Indian rub- 
ber. When wanted for use dissolve a piece of it 
in a proportionate quantity of ale. This cement 
is applicable to all joints of wood, to join earthen- 
ware, china, glass. It is an excellent cement for 
leather, for harness, bands for machinery, &cc. 
The joints of these are to be prepared as iffor sew- 
ing, the cement to be apjilied hot, laying a weight 
upon each joint as it is made, in whicli slate ii ia 
to be left six hours, when the joints will be found 
nearly as firm as if they were of an entire piece. 
By adding a little tow lo the above, you have ar> 
excellent cement for leaks in casks, &c. kc. 
Common cement for joining alabaster, marble, por- 
phyry, and other stones. 
Take of bees' wax, 2 pounds, and of resin, 1 
pound. Melt them, and add 1 pound and a iialf 
of the same kind of matter, powdered, as the body 
to be cemented is composed of, strewing it into 
the melted mixture, and stirring them well toge- 
ther, and afterwards kneading the mass in water, 
that the powder may be tlioroughly incorporated 
with the wax and resin. The proportion of the 
powdered matter may be varied, where required, 
in order to bring the cemeni nearer to the colour 
of the body on which it is employed. 

This cement must be heated when applied, as 
also the parts of the subject to be cemeiil d toge- 
ther, anil care must be taken, likewise, that they 
may be thoroughly dry. 

To make lutes. 
These are used for securing the juncture of ves- 
sels, in distillations and sublimations. For the 
distillation of water, linen dipped in a thin paste 
of flour and water is sufficient. A lute of greater 
security is composed of quick-lime, made into a 
paste with the whites of eggs. For the security of 
very corrosive vapours, clay finely powdered and 
sifted, made into a paste with boiled linseed oil, 
must be upplied to the juncture; which must be 
afterwards covered with slips of linen, dipped in - 
the paste of quick-lime, and the whites of eggs. 
The lute must be perfectly dried before the vessels 
are used, or else the heat may cause it to dry too 
quick, and thereby cause the lute to crack. 1!' this 
be the case, it is repaired by applying fresh lute iu 
the cracks, and suffering it to dry gradually. Vessels 
which are to be exposed to the naked fire, are 



CEMENTS. 



106 



frequently coate.l to resist the effects of the heat, 
tne best coatinsf for which purpose consists in dis- 
solving 2 ounces of borax in a pint of boiliiiij water, 
and adding to the sohitiou as much slaked lime as 
is necessary to form a thin paste. The vessel must 
be covered nil over with it by means of a painter's 
brusli, and then suffered to dry. It must then be 
covered with a thin paste of linseed oil and slaked 
lime, except tiic neck. In two or three days it 
will diy of itself, and the retort will then bear the 
greatest fire without cracking. TliC ci-ackf of clie- 
luicul vessels m;:y be secured by tiie seiond lute. 
Cement for iron cuUnarv utensils. 

To 6 parts of yellow potter's clay, add 1 part of 
steel filings, and a suflicient quantity of oil. Make 
the paste of the consistence of glazier's putty. 
to make turner'' s cement. 

The following is a very excellent cement for the 
use of turners and artizans in general: 16 parts of 
wniting are to be finely powdered and heated to 
redness, to drive oft" ah the water. When cold, it 
is to be mixed with 16 parts of black resin, and 1 
part of bees'- wax, the latter having been previously 
melted together, and the whole stiried till of an 
uniform consistence. 

Cement fur Joining broken glasses, &c. 

Take two ounces of good glue, and steep it for a 
uig!it in distilled vinegar; boil them together ihe 
next day, and having broken a clove of garlic with 
half an ounce of ox-gall, into a soft pulp, strain the 
juice througli a lintn cloth, using pressure, and 
add to it the glue and vinegar. Then take of san- 
darac pow(iered, and turpentine, each one drachm, 
and of sai'cocol and mastic powdered, each half a 
riracbm; put them ii.to a bottle with an ounce of 
highly reclined spirit of wine. Stop the bottle, 
and let llie mi.xture stand for tlu'ee hours iu a gen- 
tle heat, frequently shaking it. Mix ihii >,inclure 
also with the glue while hot, and stir them well to- 
gether with a stick, till part of the mixture be eva- 
porated, and then take the composition from the 
tire, an<l it will be fit for use. When this cement 
is to be applied it must be dipped in vinegar, and 
(hen melted in a proper vessel, with a gentle heat; 
and if stones ai-e to be cemented, mix with it a 
little powdered clialk, or if glass is to be conjoin- 
ed, powdered glass should be substituted. 
A strong cement for electrical purposes. 

Melt one pound of rtisin in a pot or pan, over a 
slow tire; add thereto as much plaister of Paris, in 
fine powder, as will make it hard enough; then add 
a spoonful of linseed oil, stirring it all the while, 
and try if it be hard and tough enough for the pur- 
pose; if it is not sufficientlv hard, add more plaster 
of Paris; and if not tough enough, a little more 
linseed oil. This is as good a cement as possible 
for fixing the necks of globes or cylinders, or any 
thing else that requires to be strongly fixed; for it 
IS not easily melted again when cold. 

A cement for glass-gimders. 

Take pitch and boil it; add thereto, and keep 
stirring it all the while, fine sifted wood ashes, 
until it is of a proper temper: a little tallow maj 
be added, as found necessary. For small works, to 
fou.- ounces of resin add one-fourth of an ounce of 
bees'-wax melted together; aud four ounces of 
"whitening, made previously red hot. The whiten- 
ing should be put in while hot, that it may not 
have time to imbibe moisture from the atmosphere. 

Anot/ier. — Shell-lac is a very strong cement for 
holding metals, glass, or precious stones, while | 
cutting, turning, or grinding them. The metal, 
&c. should be warmed, to melt it. For fastening 
ruby cylinders in watches, and similar delicate 
ptu-poses, shell-lac is excellent. 

'J solder or cement broken glass. 

Broken glass may be soldered or cemented in 



such a manner as to be as strong as ever, by inter- 
posing between the parts glass ground ii' like \> 
pigment, but of easier fusion than llie ])ieces to i-e 
joined, and then exposing them to such a heat as 
will fuse the cementing ingi-edient, and make tl.e 
pieces agglutinate without being theniselves fused, 
A glass for the purpose ofcementing broken pieces 
of flint glass, may be made by fusing some of the 
same kind of glass previously reduced to p')wder, 
along with a little red lead and borax, or with the 
borax only. 

Cement for DcrbysMre spur and other stones. 

A cement for this purpose may be made with 
about seven or eight parts of resin and one of bees'- 
wax, melted together with a small quantity of plas- 
ter of Paris. If it is wislied to make the cement 
fill up the jdace of any small chips that may have 
been lost, the quantity of plaster must be incr?ased 
a little. ■ When the ingredients are well mixed, 
and the whole is nearly culd, the mass should be 
well kneaded together. 'I'he pieces of spar that 
are to be joined, must be heated until they uiij 
meit the cement, and then pressed together, some 
01 the cement being previously intei-posed. Melted 
sulphur apj)lied to fragments of stones previously 
heated (by placing them before a fire) to at least 
the melting point of sulphur, and then joined with 
the sulphur between, makes a pretty firm aud du- 
rable joining. Little deficiencies in the L-tone, as 
chips out of corners, &c. nuij- be also filled up with 
melted sulphur, in which sorai of the powder of 
the stone has been melted. 

A cement that -j>ill stand aguinsl boiling tvaier ana 
the pressure of steam. 

Boiled linseed oil, lithj.rge, and red and white 
lead, mixed together to a jjroper consistence, and 
ap])lied on each side of apiece of tlannel previous- 
ly i.iaped to fit the joint, and then inteqjosed be- 
tween the pieces before they arebrouglit home (as 
the workmen term it) to their places by the screws 
or other fastenings employed, m.ikes a close and 
durable joint. The quantities of the ingredients 
may be varied without inconver.ience, only taking 
care not to make the mass too thin with oil. It is 
difficult in many cases instantly to make a good 
fitting of large pieces of iron-work, which renders 
it necessary sometimes to join and separate the 
pieces repeated!}'', before a proper adjustment is 
obtained. When this is expected, the while lead 
ought to predominate in the mixture, as it dries 
much slower than the red. 

This cement answers well also for joining bro- 
ken stones, however large. Cisterns built of square 
stones put together with this cement, will uevei 
leak, or want any repairs. In this case the stones 
need not be entirely bedded iu it: an inch, or even 
less, of the edges that are to lie next the water, 
need only be so treated; the rest of tiie joint may 
be filled v,ith good lime. 

Cement for steam-engines. 

Take tw'o ounces of sal ammoniac, one ounce of 
flowers of sulphur, and sixteen ounces of cast-iron 
filings or borings, mix all well together by rubbing 
them in a inortar, and keep the powder dry. 

When wanted for use, take one part of the above 
powder and twenty parts of clean iron borings or 
filings, and mix them intimately by grinding them 
in a mortar. Wet the compound with water, and 
when brought to a convenient consistence, apply it 
to the joints with a wooden or blunt iron spatula. 
Another cement for similar purposes. 

Take two parts of flowers of sulphur aud one 
part of sal ammoniac, and mix them together with 
a little water into a stiff paste. 

Take also borings or turnings of cast-iron as 
they are found in manufactories, viz. mixed with 
sand, and sift iliem finely to get rid of the grosser 



106 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



particles. "Wlien the cement is wanted for use 
dissolve a iiortiou of tlic above paste in urine, or 
sligiillv Acidulated water, and to the solution add 
a quanliiy ol the sifted borings, and apply as above, 
and in a short time it will become as hard as stone. 
Blood cement for copp^r^milhu. 

A cement often used by coppersmiths to lay over 
the rivets and eds^es of the sheets of copper in large 
boilers, to serve'as ai\ aiidiliona! security to ths 
joinings, and to secure cocks, &c. Iron) leaking, 
is made liy mixing pouiuied quiek-limc with ox's 
blood. It must be applied fresli made, as it soon 
gets hard. If the pi-operties of this cenient were 
dulv investigated, it would probably be found use- 
ful for many purposes to which it has never yet 
been applied. It is e.\:tremely cheap, and very du- 
rable. 

Fntomolog'.sfs cement. 

To a solution of gur.. ammoniac in proof spirit, 
*dd the lest isinglass, and unite them with a gen- 
tle heat. The great value of this cement consists 
in the readiness' wiiii which it melts, and the little 
tendency it has to be aftected by moisture. It is 



generally employed by entomologists in reioiniag 
the dislocated parts of insects, for which it is -vevy 
convenient. 

Jlicrnscopc cement. 

Put into a bottle two parts of isinglass and one 
part of the best gum arable, cover them with proof 
spirit, cork the bottle loosely, and place it in a ves- 
sel of watei-, and boil it till a thorough solution is 
effected, when it must be strained for use. This 
is a highly valuable cement, for many purposes, 
and is iised for mounting opaque objects for the 
microscope. 

•Tapanese cement, or rice glue. 

This elegant cement is made by mixing rice- 
flour intimately with cold water, and then gently 
boiling it: it is beautifully while, and dries almost 
transparent. Papers pasted together by means of 
this cement will sooner sejjarate ii» their own sub- 
stance than at the joining, which makes it I'se- 
ful in the preparation of curious paper articles, as 
tea-trays, ladies' dressing boxes, and other articles 
that require layers of paper to be cemented toge- 
ther. 



To fit up a small brervhousc. 
Pt-<ivide a copper holding full two-thirds of the 
quantity proposed to be brewed, with a guage itick 
to determine the number of gallons in the copper. 
A mash tub, or tun, adapted to contain two-tliirds 
of the quantity proposed to be brewed, and one or 
two tuns of equal size to ferment tlie wort. Three 
or four shallow coolers; one or two wooden bowls; 
a thermometer; half a doz;n casks of different 
sizes; a large funnel; two or three clean pails, and 
a hand punip; the whole costing from ten to twen- 
ty pounds. 

This proceeds on the supposition of two mashes 
for ale; l)Ut if only one mash is adapted for ale, 
with a view of making tlie table beer better, then 
the co))per and mash tun should liold one-third 
more than the quantity ta be brewed. 

The expenses of brewiug depenil on the price of 
malt and hops, and on the proposed strength of the 
article. One qnarier of good malt, an<l eight pounds 
of good hops, ougl-.t to make two barrels of good 
ale and one of table beer. The other expenses con- 
sist of coals and labour. 

Of pul)lic breweries, an<l their extensive utensils 
anil machinery, we affect to give no description, 
because books are not likely to be re-sorted to by 
the class of persons engaged in those extensive ma- 
nufactories for information relative to their own 
particular business. 

To choise ivaler for brewing. 
S»ft water, or hard w uler softened Ijy exposure 
to the air, is generally preferred, because it makes 
a stronger extract, and is more inclined to fei'ment; 
DUt hard water is better for keeping beer, and is 
less liable to turn sour. Some persons soften hard 
water by throwing a spoonful of soda into a barrel, 
and others do it' with a har.dful of common salt 
mixed with an ounce of salt of tartar. 
7 b make malt. 
Put about 6 quarters of good barley, newly thresh- 
ed, Uc into a stone trough full of water, and let it 



steep till the \valer be of a bright reddish colour, 
which will be in about three days, more or less, ac- 
cording to the moisture or diyness, Smallness or 
bigness of the grain, the season of the year, or the 
temperature of the weather. In summer malt never 
makes well; in winter it requires longer steeping 
than in spring or autumn. It may be known wheFi 
steeped enough, by other mai-ks besides the colour 
of the water; as by the excessive swelling of the 
grain, if it be oversteeped, and by too much soft- 
ness, being, when it is in a right temper, like the 
barley prepared to make broth. When sufficiently 
steeped, take it out of the trough, and lay it in heaps 
to let the water di'ain from it, then, after two or 
three hours, turn it over wilh a scoop, and lay it in 
a new heap, 20 or 24 inches deep. This is called 
the coming heap, in the right n.anagement of which 
lies the principal skill. In iliis heap it may lie 40 
hours more or less, aicording to the forementioned 
qualities of the grain, kc. before it comes to the 
right temper of malt. While it lies, it nmst be 
carefully looked to after the first !5 or 16 hours; 
for about that tinie the grains begin to put forth 
roots; which, when they have equally and fully 
done, the malt must, within an hour after, be turn- 
ed over with a scoop; otherwise the grains will be- 
gin to put foi-th the blade and spire also, which 
nmst by all means be prevented. If all the malt 
do not" come equally, but that which lies in the 
middle, being warmest, come the soonest, the whole 
must be turi\'ed, so that what was outmost may be 
inmost; and thus it is managed till it be all alike. 
As soon as the malt is sufficiently come, turn it 
over, and spread it to a depth not exceeding 5 or 6 
inches; and by the time it is all spread out, begin 
awd turn it over again 3 or 4 times. Afterwards 
turn it over in like manner once in 4 or 5 
hours, making the heap deeper by degrees; and 
continue to do so for the space of 48 hours at }",ast. 
This cools, dries, and deadens the grain, ao thai 
it becomes mellow, melts easily in brewing. ixvA 



BREVVENG. 



107 



separates entirely from the husk. Then throw up 
the malt into a heap as high as possible, where let 
it lie till it grow as hot as the hand can bear it, 
"which usually happens in about the space of 30 
hours. This perfects the sweetness and mellowness 
■of the malt. After beinsr sufficiently lieated, throw 
it abroad to cool, and turn it over again about 6 or 
■8 hours after; and then lay it on a kiln with a hair 
cloth or wire spread under it. After one fire which 
must last 24 hours, give it another more slow, and 
afterwards, if need be, a third; for if the malt be 
not thoroughly dried, it cannot be well ground, nei- 
ther will it dissolve wjl in the brewing; but the ale 
it makes will be red, bitter, and unfit for keeping. 
To grind malt. 

To obtain the infusion of malt, it is necessary to 
break it, for which purpose it is passed through 
stones placed at such distance, as that they may 
arush each grain without reducing it to powder; 
♦or if ground too small, it makes the worts thick, 
•while if not broken at all, the extract is not ob- 
tained. In general, pale malts are ground larger 
than amber, or brown malts. 

Malt should be used within 2 or 3 days after it 
is ground, but in the London hrew-houses, it is 
generally ground one day and u«ed the next. A 
quarter of malt ground should yield 9 bushels, and 
sometimes 10. Crushing mills, or iron rollers, 
4iave lately been used in preference to stones which 
makes considerable grit with the malt. On a small 
scale, malt may be broken by wooden rollers, by 
the hands. 

Steel mills like coffee mills have also been used 
for crushing malt with great success. 

To determine the qnalities of malt. 

First, examine well if it has a round body, 
breaks soft, is full of flour all its length, smefls 
well, and has a thin skin; next chew some of it, 
and if- sweet and mellow, then it is good. If it is 
hard and steely, and retains something of a barley 
nature, it has not been rightly made, and will 
weigh heavier than that which has been properly 
malted. 

Secondly, take a glass nearly full of water; put 
in some malt, and if .t swims, it is good, but if 
«ny sinks to the bottom then it is not true malt. 

Pale malt is the slowest and least dried, produc- 
ing more wort than high dried malt, and of better 
quality. — Amber coloured malt, or that between 
pale and brown, produces a flavour much admired 
in mail)- malt liquors. Brown malt loses much of 
its nutritious qualities, but confers a i)eculiar fla- 
vour desired by many palates. Roasteil malt, after 
the manner of coffee, is used by tiie best London 
brewers, to give colour and flavour to porter, 
which in the first instance has been made from 
pale malt. The most deHcately i oasted malt for 
this purpose is made by Mr Hunt, the proprietor 
of the well known breakfast powder. He ex- 
eludes the atmospheric air, and all effluviae from 
tiie fire, by an apparatus of his own invention, and 
'lence the perfection of his breakfast powder, and 
consequently of his roasted malt. 
To choose hops. 

Rub them between the fingers or the palm of 
the hand, and if good, a rich glutinous substance 
■^'ill be felt, with a fragrant smell, and a fine yel- 
'ow dust will appear, Tiie best colour is a fine 
^live green, but if too green, and the seeds are 
small and shrivelled, they have been nicked too 
soon and will be deficient in flavour. It of a dusty, 
brown colour, they were picked too late, and 
should not be chosen. When a year old, they are 
considered as losing one-fourth in strength. Tlie 
best and dearest is the Farniiam hup; Kast Rents 
are the next, but those of Sussex and Worcester- 
shire arc not so strong 



To determine the proportion betweeji the liquor 
boiled and the ipumtity produced. 

From a smgle quarter, twj barrels of liquor 
will produce but one barrel of wort. Three bar- 
rels will produce one barrel three quarters. Faur 
barrels will produce two barrels and a half. Five 
barrels will produce three barrels and a quarter. 
Six barrels will produce four barrels. - Eight bar- 
rels will produce five barrels and a half, and ten 
barrels will produce seven barrels, and so in pro- 
portion for other quantities. 
To determine the heats of the liquor or water for 

the frst and second mashes on different kinds 

of malt. 

First mash. — For very pale malt turn on the li- 
quor at 176°. For pale and amber mixed, 172°, 
all amber, 170°, high-coloured amber, 168'. An 
equal quantity of pale:, amber, and brown, 160°. 
If the quantity of brown is very dark, or any part 
of the grains charred by the fire upon tlie kiln, 
155°. 

Second mash. — For very pale malt turn on the 
liquor at 182°. For pale and amber mixed, 178°, 
all amber, 176°, high coloured amber, 172°. An 
equal quantity of pale, amber, and brown, 166°. 
If the quantity of brown is very dark, or any pari 
of tlie grains charred by the fire, 164°. 

The heat should in some measure be regulated 
by the temperature of tiie atmosphere, and should 
be two or three degrees higher in cold tlian in 
warm weather. 

The proper degree of heat will give the strong- 
est wort and in the greatest quantity, for though 
the heat were greater and the strength of the wort 
thereby increased, yet a greater quantity of liquor 
would be retained in the malt; and again, if it 
were lower, it would produce more wort, but the 
strength of the extract would be deficient; tlie beer 
without spirit, and likely to turn sour. 

To mash without a thermometer. 

As diminished evaporation takes place on the 
surface of water just before it boils, many practical 
private brewers turn on, as soon as the diminished 
evaporation enables them to see their faces on the 
smooth surface of the water, when it is probablj' 
at about the heat actually used by public brewers, 
who adopt therm'-meters. 

Others use boiling liquor throughout, but lower 
the temperature, by gradual api)lications to the 
malt: thus, they turn a few pailsful of the boiling 
liquor into the mash tub, wliich being thus some- 
what cooled, a quantity of tlie mall is turned in 
and saturated with the water; the mass being then 
considerably lower than the boiling heat, they 
turn without reserve boiling water upon it, which 
being somewhat cooled by the mass, more malt is 
turned in, and so alternately till the whole is 
mixed, which they continue ti raabh for an hour. 
To deta^iiine the strength of the ivorts. 

To effect this a saccViaroiiieter is necessary, and 
may be purchased at any mathematical instrument 
maker's. It determines the relative gravity of 
wort to the water used, and tlie quantity of farina- 
ceous matter contained in the wort. It is used ia 
all public breweries after drawing oft" the worl 
from each mash, and regulates the heat and quan- 
tity of liquor turned on at each succeeding mash, 
that the ultimate strengliiraay be equal though tlie 
quantity is less. I'his signifies little to the pi'ivate, 
but it is of great consequence to the public brewer. 
Those who brew frequently and desire to intro- 
duce it will obtain printed tables and instructions 
with the instrument. 

To proportion the hops. 

l"he usual quantity is a pound to the bushel of 
malt, or eight pounds to the quarter; but for keep* 
ing-beer, it shoiild be extended to ten, or twelve. 



108 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



and if for one or two years, to foMrtcen pounds the 
quarter. Small beer requires frorj three to six 

E' ounds the quarter, and rather more when old 
ops ai-e used. 

Some persons instead of foiling the hops with 
the wort, macerate theio, and put the strong ex- 
tract into the tun with the first wort, and make two 
or three extracts in like manner for the second and 
third worts. 

To boil ivorts. 

The first wort should be sharply hoiled for one 
hour, and the second for two hours. But if intend- 
ed for beer of long-keeping, tie time should be 
extended half an Itour, The hops shauid he strain- 
ed from eacb preceding wort, aud returned into the 
copper with ihe succeeding on". Between tlie 
boilings the fire should be dprnped with wet cin- 
ders, and the copper door set open. 

For small beer only half au hour is necessary 
for the first wort, 1 hour for the second, and 2 
hours for the third. The diraimition from boiling 
is from one-eighth to one-slxteetith. 
To cool the ivorts. 

Worts should belaid so sha'i^ow as to cool with- 
in SIX or seven hours to the tcmperaiurc of sixty 
degrees. In warm weather, the deptii should not 
exceed two or three inches; but in coJd weather it 
may be five inches. As soon as they have fallen 
to 60 degrees, they should instantly be tunned and 
yeasted. 

To choose heats for tunning. 

In cold v/cather, the heats in the coolers should 
be five or six degrees higher than in mild and 
-warm weather. For ale, in cold weather, it should 
be tunned as soon as it has fallen to sixty degrees 
in the coolers; for porter, to sixty-four degrees; 
smd for table beer to sevonty-four; and in warm 
weather, strong beer should be four or five degrees 
less, and taolebeer seven or eight degrees. Care 
should be also taken that the worts do not get cold 
liefore the yeast is mixed to produce fermentation. 
The bestriile for mixing the yeast is a pound and a 
half to every barrel of strong beer wort, and a 
pound to evei-y barrel of table beer woit. 
To nux ihe yeast laith the -worts. 

Ale brewed for keeping in winter shovdd be no 
more than blood warm when the yeast is put to it. 
If it is intended for immediate drinking, it may be 
yeasted a little warmer. The best method of 
mixing the yeast is to take two or thi'ee quarts of 
the hot water wort in a wooden bowl or pan, to 
which when cool enough, put yeast enough to work 
the brewing: generally one or two quarts to the 
hogshead, according to its quality. In this bowl 
or pan the fermentation will conunence while the 
rest of the worts are cooling, when the whole may 
be mixed together. 

To apportion ye>..st and apply it to the ivorts. 
The yeast of strong beer is preferable to that 
from small be^r, and it should be fresh .-iid good. 
The quantity should be diminished with the tem- 
perature at which the worts are tunned, and less 
in summer than in winter. For strong beer, a 
quart of yeast per quarter will be sufiicient it 58 
degrees, 'but less wlien the worts are higlier, and 
when the weather is hot. If estimated by tlie 
more accurate criterion of weight, 1| pounds 
should be used for a baiTel of strong beer, and l^ 
pounds for a barrel of small beer. If the fermen- 
tation does not commence, add a little more yeast, 
and rouse the worts for some time. But if ttsey 
"■et cold, and the fermentation is slow, fill a bottle 
with hot water and put it i-nto tlie tun. 

In cold weather small beer should be tunned at 
70 degrees, keeping beer at 56 degrees, and strong 
beer at 5i iegrees. In mild weather at 50 de- 



grees for eacli sort. The fermentation will in 
crease the heat 10 degrees. 

To manage' the fermentation. 

A proportion of the yeast should be added t9 
the first wort as soon as it is let down from the 
coolers, and the remainder as soon as the second 
wort is let down. 

Ihe commencement of fermentation is indicated 
by a line of small bubbles round the sides of the 
tun, which in a short time extends over tlie sur- 
face. A crusty bead follows, and then a fine rocky 
one, folloM'ed by a light frothy iiead. In the last 
stage, the head assumes a yeasty appearance, and 
the colour is yellow or brown, the smell of the tun 
becoming strongly vinous. As soon as this head 
begins to fall, tlie tun should be skimmed, and the 
skimming continued every two hours till no more 
yeast appears; this closes the operation, and it 
should then be put into casks, or, in technical lan- 
guage, cleansed. A minute attention to every 
stage of this process is necessary to secure fine fla- 
voured, and brilliant beverage. Should the fer- 
mentation be unusually slow, it should be accele- 
rated by stirring or rousing the whole. After the 
first skimming, a small quantity of salt and flour, 
well mixed, snould be stirred in the tun. The fer- 
mentation will proceed in the casks, to encourage 
which, the bung-hoie should be placed a hitle 
aside, and the casks kept full, by being filled up 
from time to time with old beer. 'When thister- 
mentation has ceased, tlie casks may be bunged up. 
To accelei ate the fermenialion. 

Spread some flour with the hand over the sur- 
face, and it will form a crust, and keep the worts 
warm; — or thmw in au ounce or two ot powdered 
ginger;— or, fill a bottle with boiling water, and 
sink it in the worts;— or, heat a small quantity ot 
the worts and throw into the itsl;— rr, beat up the 
wliites of two eggs with some brandy, and. throw 
it into the tun or cask;— or, tie up some bian in a 
coarse thin cloth and put it into the vat; and above 
all things do not disturb the wort, as ieimentation 
will not commence during any agitation of the 
wort. 

To check a too raj id fermentation. 

Mix some cold raw wort in the tun, or divide 
the whole between two tuns, where, by being in 
smaller body, the energy of the fermentation of 
the whole v.'ill be divided. Also, open the doors 
and windows of the brew-house; — but, if it still 
frets, sprinkle some cold water over it; — or, it it 
frets in the cask, put in a mixture of a quarter of a 
pound of sugar, with a handful of salt, to the 
hogshead. 

To breiv porter on the Londo7i system. 

Thames or New River water is indift'erently 
used, or hard water, raised intopscks, and exposed 
for a few days to the air. 

Take a mixture of brown, amber and pale malts, 
nearly in equal quantities, and turn them into the 
mash-tub in this order. Turn on the first liquor 
at 165 degrees; mash one hour, and then coat the 
whole with dry malt. In one hour set the tap. 

Mix 10 lbs. of brown hops to the quarter of malt, 
half old, half new; boil the first wort briskly with 
the hops, for three quarters of an hour, and atter 
putting into the ccpper 1^ lbs. of sugar, at.d 1^ lbs. 
of Leghorn juice (extract of liquorice), to the bar- 
rel, turn the whole into the coolers, rousing the 
wort all the lime. 

Turn on the second liquor at 174 degrees, and 
in an hour set tap again. I'his second wort having 
run oft", turn on again at 145 degrees; mash for au 
hour, and stand for the same; in the mean-time 
boiling the second wort with the same hops for an 
hour. Turn th«;se into the coolers as Uibre, and 



BREWING. 



109 



let down into the tub at 64 degrees, mixing the 
yeast as it comes dovrn. Cleanse the second day 
at 80 decrees, previously throwitiij in a mixture of 
flour and salt, and rousing thoroughly. 

For private use, every (juarter of malt ought to 
yield two barrels and a half, but ^rewers would 
run three barrels to a quarter. 

AnMhcr method — Tlie foUo'ving ai-ticle is to be 
eousidered as ap-<!icable when not less than 50 
qu.irters of malt are used. 

' The liquor for the first mash should be heated 
in the copper to 150 degrees, ia ilic proportio.u of 
t'AO barrels to each quarter of malt, which is to be 
an equal mixture of pale am!)er and brown malts. 
These are raasheu about three quarters of au hour^ 
the liquor is thef"- allowed to stand on the goods 
an hour. The top of the nir.sh tun is next opened 
to let off the liquor as quickly as possible; and the 
top is to be left open till the next li<iuor is brought 
into the tun, that tlie goods may drain. During 
this, the second liquor has been heating, and may 
at two hours and three (piarters, or three h>urs 
from the beginning, have acquired tiie lieat of tfiO 
degrees, the quantity being one barrel to a quai-ter 
of malt. Mash this half, for thi-ee quarters of a:i 
hour; let it stand one hour, and then let it it be run 
off in the course of hajf an hour raore; at about five 
hours and a lialf from the begiaiiing, the third 
mash should be made at ISO deg'-ees; tlie quantity 
being one barrel to the quarter. .Mash this half 
an hour, let it stand one hour, and tap as before. 

A fourth liquor is seldom uiasbed, ijut if it is, it 
may be cold or blood warm, as it :s of no use but 
to make the sour beer for finings, and it is of little 
consequence how it is done. Some brewers use it 
for the first liquor of the next brewing, out this is 
riot perhaps a good plan, as it often bec:-'mes foxed, 
and then it taints the whole brewing. These worts 
are to be boiled with from 12 to 14 -pounds of hops to 
the quarter of malt, if ths liquor is intended far 
keeping 8 or 12 months, but in the ordinary run 
of porter, not intended for keeping, 5 lbs. may be 
sufficient. The first wort should be boiled one 
liour, the second two hours, atid the tiiird four 
hours. 

The worts are now to l>e cooled down as 'jcpe- 
ditiou^ly as the weather will permit, to about 60 
degrees, if the medium heat of the atmosphere is 
about 60 degrees; if it is more or less, allowance 
must be made as before directed. All tlie tliree 
worts are to be brought into the square together, 
and about five pints of 3'east to tlie quarter ^f malt 
put in; the proportion of colouring is arbitrary, as 
it depends upon the colour of the mait. 
To brevi three barrels of porter. 

Take 1 sack of pale malt, \ a sack of amber do. 
and^a sack of brown do. 

Turn on two barrels for first mash at 165 de- 
grees; — second mash, one barrel and a half at 172 
degrees; — third mash, two barrels, at 142 degrees. 
Boil It) lbs. of new and old hops, and 2 oz. of por- 
ter extract, in the first wort. Cool, ferment, and 
cleanse according to the previous instructions. 
To bre-iv porter on JVlr Morrice^s plan. 

Commence at five o'llook in the morning; ther- 
mometer in the air 34 degrees. Take of West 
country pale malt, 3 ([uarters, Herts pale malt, 6 
quarters, Herts brown malt, 8 quarters, Herts am- 
Der malt, 8 quarters, hops, 1 cwt. 2 quarters, Leg- 
horn juice, 30 lbs. porter extract, 4 lbs. 

Charge the first great copper -.vith 52 barrels, and 
raise to 155 degrees. Mash for one hour, and set 
the tap at 7 o'clock, at 137 degrees. 

Charge copper with 36 barrels, and raise to 160 
degrees. Mash, and set tap at 14S degrees. Boil 
first wort. 

Charge copper for third mash with 59 barrels, 



and raise to 150 degrees. Slash a quarter of an 
hour, and set tap -tt 1.32 degrees; boil second worf 
an hour and a hilf. Tun at 64 degrees. Cleanse 
in two days 88 ban-els. 

JBroisn stout. 

The procedure is the same Jis in the preceding 
article, except that o'.ie t'lird, or one hall the malt 
should be brown. 

Jyjnd'/n ale. 

Almost every eoiv.uy in liLngland has its variety 
of ale, biit the diflerence conyists eliicfly (the same 
quantity of malt an^ hops being used) in the pre- 
paration of the malt. "Sv^ater niay, in some cases, 
varv in quality, the boiling may be longer or 
shorter, or the liquor may be turned on at a differ- 
ent heat; but these varieties being cdisidercd, one 
general process serves for the whole. Tor good 
ale, the maU and hops should be of the best quali- 
ty. For immediate use, the malt siiould be all 
pale; but if brewed for keeping, or in warn wea- 
ther, one fourth should be amber malt. Six i)Ounds 
of Kentish hops should be used to the c^uaiter, or 
10 lbs. for keeping ale. 

To bre~iV two barrels from a quarter of malt. 

In the brewing of one quarter, turn on two bar- 
rels at 175 degrees; mash one hour: and let it stand 
for the same time. 

For second mash, turn on one barrel at 160 de- 
grees. Mash one hour and stand one hour; boil 
the' first wort briskly for one hour; and boil the se- 
cond two hours, or till the v/hola is two bairels. 
Cool down to 60 degrees and tun. Cleanse on the 
4tl'. day at 72 degrees, previously mixing two ounces 
of ginger, ^ au ounce of salt, and a handful of flour. 

Keep the working tun closely covered, and just 
before the bead begins to faU., shim the tup, and 
rouse in the rest. When the blebs are largo and 
on the fret, rouse in \ an ounce of salt (;f taitar, a 
handful of malted bean-fiour, aiul some fresh yeast, 
after which it will ferment more kindly, aid the 
cieynsiug may soon follow, with the cew head on. 
Take care to fill up the cask wliile woriiing, and 
before bunging put a handful of scalded hops into 
each. Sometimes the fermentation is ' onducted 
by skimming, as soon as the head bears a yeasty 
appearance: then by skimming and routing as often 
as other heads arise, till no other heac' appears. 

Gr, cleansing may take place without skimming 
or rousing, as soon as the head jegins to fall, tak- 
ing care, by means of a pipe rising within tlie tun, 
that the yeast docs n.jt pass into the barrels. The 
quantity of hops boiled in the wort should vary ac- 
cording to the intention. Sis pounds will suffice 
for ale for present use. 

In the above instance a barrel and a quarter of 
liquor at 150 degrees may afterwards be tunned foi 
a barrel of table beer. 

2 CI bre-u) ale in small families. 

A bushel and three quarters of ground malt, and 
a pound of hops, are sufficient to make 18 gallons 
of^good family ale. That the saccharine matter of 
the malt may be extracted by infusion, without the 
farina, the temperature of the water stio'dd not ex- 
ceed 155 or 160 'leg. Fahrenheit's thermometer. 
The quantitj' ot water shoutd be poured on the 
malt as speedily as possible, and the vk-hole being 
well mixed together by active stirring, the vessel 
should be closely covered oxer for au hour; if the 
weather be cold, for an hour and a half. If hard 
water be employed, it should be boiled, and the 
temperatm'e allowed, by exposure to the atmo- 
sphere, to fall to 155 or 160 degrees Fahrenheit; 
but if rain water is used, it may be added to the 
malt as soon as it arrives to 155 degrees. .Diuring 
the time this process is going on, the hops should 
be infused in a close vessel. In as much boiling 
water as will cover them, for two ho\irs. The lU 



110 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



quor may then be sqtieezed out, and kept closely 
covered. 

The hops should tlien be boiled for about ten 
minutes, m double the quantity of water obtained 
from the infused hop, andtlie strained liquor, when 
cold, may be added with the infusion, to the wort, 
when it has fallen to the temperature of 70 deg. 
The object of infusing tlie hop in a close vessel 
previously to boiling, is to preserve the essential 
oii of the hop, which renders it more sound, and, 
at the same time, more wholesome. A pint cf good 
thick yeast should be well stirred into the mixture 
of wort and hops, and covered over in a place of 
the temperature of 55 deg. Fahrenheit; and when 
the fermentation is completed, the liquor may be 
drawn off into a clean cask previously rinsed with 
boiling water. Wlien the slow fermentation which 
will ensue has ceased, tlie cask should be loosely 
bunged for two days, when, if the liquor be left 
quiet, the bung i.iay be properly fastened. The 
pale malt is the best, because, when highly dried, 
it does not afford so much saccharine matter. If 
the malt be new, it should be exposed to the air, 
in a dry room, for two days previously to its being 
used; but if it be old, it may be used in 12 or 20 
)»ours after it is groun<l. The great difference 
.« the flavour of ale, made by ditferent brewers, 
appears to arise from their employing different 
s^.ecies of the hop. 

Another method of brewing ale. 

For 36 gallons, take of malt (usually pale), 2^ 
tjusnels, sugar, 3 lbs. just boiled to a colour, bops, 
1 lbs. ii oz. coriander seeds, I oz. capsicum, ^ a 
drachm. 

Work it 2 or 3 days, beating it well up once or 
twice a day; when it begins to fall, cleanse it by 
adding a haiulful of salt, and some wheat-flour. 
Table beer only, from pale malt. 

The first mash siiould be at ITO deg. viz. two 
oarrels per (luarter; let it stand on the grains ihree- 
fjuarters of an hour in hot weather, oi' one hour if 
■iold. Second mash, 145 deg., at 1^ barrels per 
quarter, stands half an hour. Third, 1G5 deg., two 
iarrels per quartf-r, stands half an hour. Fourth, 
130 deg., three barrels, stands two liours. The 
first wort to be boiled with 6 lbs. of hops per quar- 
ter, for an hour and a half, the second wort to be 
boiled with the same hops two hours, and the re- 
mainder three hours. The whole to be now heat- 
ed as low as 55 deg., if the weather permits, and 
put to work with about 5 pints "f yeast per quar- 
ter; it the weather is too warm to get them down 
to 55 deg., a less proportion will be sufficient. The 
eight barrels of liquor first used, will be reduced 
to six of beer to each quarter; one barrel being left 
in the grains, and another evaporated in boiling, 
cooling, and working. 

Table beer from stigar. 

To 4 pounds of coarse brown sugar, add 10 gal- 
lons of water, then put in three ounces of hops, and 
let the whole boil for three quarters of an hour, and 
work it as usual. It should be kept a week or ten 
days before it is tapped, when it will improve daily 
afterwards, within a moderate time of consump- 
tion. 

Table beer from treacle. 

Another method, and for a smaller quantity, is, 
to put a pound of trtacle to eight quarts of boiling 
water: add two bay-lehves, and a quarter of an 
ounce of ginger in powder. Boil the whole for 
fifteen minutes, then let it become cool, and work 
it with yeast. 

Another method. — For ten barrels. Take of 
malt, 8 bushels, hops, 8 pi.iunds, sugar, 8 pounds 
made into colour, Spani^i iiquorice, 8 oz. ti-eacle, 
10 lbs. Proceed as abovi.. 



Me and small beer on Mr CobheVa plan. 
Utensils. 

These are first, a copi)er, costing 51. that will 
contain at least 40 gallot\s. 

Second, a raashing-tub, costing 30s. to contain 
60 gallons; for the malt is to be m this along wil'.i 
the water. It must be a little broader at top than 
at bottom, and not quite so deep as it is wide 
across the bottom. In the middle of the bottom there 
is a hole about two inches over, to draw the wort off. 
Into this h'lAe goes a stick a foot or two longer 
thavi the tub is high. This stick is to be about two 
inches through, and tapered for about eight inches 
upwards, at the end that goes in+o the hole, which 
at last it fills up as closely as a cork. Before any 
thing else is put into the tub, lay a little bundle of 
fine birch about half the bulk of a birch broom, 
and weH tied at both ends. This being laid over 
the hole (to keep back the grains as the wort goes 
out) put the tapered end of the stick down through 
it into the tiole, and thus cork the whole up. Then 
have something of weight sufficient to keep the 
birch steady at the bottom of the tub, with a hole 
through it to slip down the stick; the best thing 
for this purpose will be a leaden collar for the stick, 
with the hole large enough, and it should weigh 3 
or 4 pounds. 

Third, an underback, or shallow tub, costing 25^. 
to go under the mash-tub for the wort to run into 
when drawn from the grains. 

Fourth, a tun-tub, that will contain 30 gallons, 
to put the ale into to work, the mash-tub serving 
as a tun-tub for the small beer. Besides these a 
couple of coolers, or shallow tubs, about a toot 
deep; or, if there are four it may be as well, in or- 
der to effect the cooling more quickly? the whole 
costing 9,5s. 

Process of breiuing the ale. 

Begin by filling the copper with water, and next 
by making the water foil. Then put into the 
mashing-tub water sufficient to stir and separate 
the malt. The degree of heat that the water is to 
be at, before the malt is put in, is one hundred and 
seventy degrees by the thermometer: but, without 
one, take thisrule: when you can, looking down into 
the tub, see your face clearly in the water, the wa- 
ter is hot enough. Now put in the malt and stir it 
well in the water. In this state it should continue 
for about a quarter of an hour. In the meanwhile 
fill up the copper, and make it boil; and then put 
in boiling water sufficient to give eighteen gallons 
of ale. 

When the pi'oper quantity of water is in, stir the 
malt again well, and cover the mashing-tub over 
with sacks, and there let the mash stand for two 
hours: then fh-aw off the wort. The raashing-tub 
is placed on a couple of stools, so as to be able to 
put the underback under it, to receive the wort, as 
It comes out of the hole. When ihe underback is 
put in its place, let out the wort by pulling up the 
stick that corks the hole. But, observe, this stick 
(which goes six or eight inches through the hole) 
must be raised by degrees, and the wort must be 
let out slowly in'order to keep back the sediment. 
So that it is necessary to have something to keep 
the stick up at the point where it is to be raised, 
and fixed at for the time. To do this the simplest 
thing is a stick across the mashing-tun. 

As the ale- wort is drawn off into the small un- 
derback, lade it out of that into the tun-tub; put 
the wort into the copper, and add a pound and a 
half of good hops, well rubbed and separated as 
they are put in. Now make the copper boil, and 
keep it, with the lid off, at a good brisk boil for a 
full hour, or an hour and a half. When the boil- 
ing is done, put the liquor into the coolers; but 



Brewing. 



Ill 



strain out the hops in a smal.' clothes-basket, or 
v/icker-!jasket. Now set the coolers in the most 
convenient place, in doors or out of doors, as most 
convenient. 

The next stage is the tun-tub, where the liquor 
is set to work. A great point is, the degree ofheat 
tliat the li(iuor is to be at, when it is set to work. 

I'lie proper heat is seventy degrees ; so that a 
thermometer makes the matter sure. In the coun- 
try they determine the degree of iieat by merely 
putting a finger into the liijuor. 

When cooled to the proper heat, put it into the 
tui\-tub, and i)ut in about half a pint of good yeast. 
But the yeast should first be put into half a gallon 
of the li(|uor, and mixed well; stirring in with the 
yeast a liandful of wheat or rye-flour. This mix- 
ture is then to he poured out clean into the tun- 
tub, and the mass of the liquor agitated well, till 
tlie yeast be well mixed witli the whole. When 
the liquor is thus prope.ly put into th" tu.i-tub and 
set a workmg, cover over the top, by laying a sack 
or two across it. . 

The tun-tub should stand in a place neillier too 
warm nor too cold. Any cool place in summer, 
and any warm place in winter, and if the weather 
be very cold, some cloths or sacks should be put 
round tiie tun-tub while the beer is working. In 
about six or eight hoiu-s a frothy head will rise 
upon the liciuor; and it will keep rising, more or 
less slowly', for 48 hours. The best way is to take 
oft' the froth, at the end of about 24 hours, with a 
common skimmer, and in 12 hours take it off again, 
■and so on, till the liquor has done -working, and 
sends up no more yeast. Then it is beer; and, 
when it is quite cold, (for ale ov strong beer,) put 
it into the cask by means oi-A funnel. It must be 
sold before this is done, or it will he foxed; that 
IS, have a rank and disagreeable taste. 

The cask shoidd lean a little on one side when 
iilling it, because the beer will tvork again, and 
•^end more yeast out of tiie bung hole. Something 
will go off in this luorking, which may continue for j 
two or three days, so that when the beer is putting | 
in the cask, a gallon or two should be left, to keep | 
filling up with as the working produces emptiness. 
.\t last, when the working is completely over, 
block the cask up to its level. Put in a handful of 
fresh hops; fill the cask quite full and bung it 
tight, with a bit of coarse linen round the bung. 

When the cask is empty, great care must be taken 
to cork it tightly up, so that no air gets in; for, if 
»o, the cask is moulded and spoiled fur ever. 
7 7ie small beer. 

Tliirty-six gallons of boiling water are to go into 
tlie mashing-tuh; the grains are to be well stirred 
vp, as befoi-e; the mashing-tub is to be covered 
/)ver, and the mash is to stand in that state for aii. 
hour; then draw it off into the tun-tub. 

By this time the copper will be empty again, ))y 
putting the ale liquor to cool. New put tne small 
beer wort into the copper witli ihe hojjs used before, 
and -with half a pound of fresh hops added to them; 
and tliis liquor boil briskly for an hour. 

Take the grains and the sediment clean out of 
the mashing-tub, put the birch twigs in again, and 
put down the stick as before. Put the basket over, 
and take the liquor from the copper (putting the 
fire out first) and pour it into tlie mashing-tub 
through the basket. I'ake the basket away, throw 
the hops to tiie dunghill, and leave the small beer 
liquor to cool in the masldng-tub. 

Here it is to remain to be set to working; only, 
more yeast will be wanted in proportion ; and there 
should be for 36 gallons of small beer, three lialf 
pints of good yeast. 

Proceed now, as with the ale, only, in the case 
of the small beer, it should be put into cask, not 



quite cold; but & little warm ; or else it will not 
work in the barrel, which it ought to do. It will 
not work so strongly nor so long as ale; and may 
be pUv into the barrel much sof>ner; in general the 
next day after it is brewed. 

All the utensils shouM be well cleaned and put 
away as soon as they are done with. " 1 am now," 
says Mr Cobbet, "in a farm house, where the 
same sei of utL'iisils have been used i^ov forty years; 
and the- owner tells me, that they may last im- forty 
years longer. " 

To brexv ale and porter from sugar and malt. 
To every quarter of malt take 100 pounds of 
brown sugar, and in the result, it will be found 
that tiie sugar is equal to the malt. The quarter 
of malt is to be bi-ewed with the same proi)orlions, 
as though it were two quarters; and sugar is to be 
put into the tun, and the first wort let down upon 
it, rousing the whole well together. 

The other worts are tlien to be let down, and the 
fermentation and other processes carried on as in 
the brewing of malt. 

To brew four bushels of malt, with only one copper, 
mash-tub, and cooler. 
If the mash-tub holds two barrels, it is better 
than a smaller one, that there may be room enough 
tor mashing; in such a one fix a brass cock of three 
quarters of an inch bore, let it be a plugatid bas- 
ket. Use soft water (^for brown or amber malt), 
covered with three or tour handsful of malt or bran, 
if the water is thoroughly clear; if not, juit as much 
salt as will lie on a crown-piece, into a copper that 
holds a* least one barrel, containing 36 gallons; 
and as it heats and the scum rises, take it oii'before 
it boils in. Then, M'lien it begins to boil, lade two 
pailsful first into tlie mash-tub, and put two pails- 
ful of cold water into the copper in their room, and 
just boil all again; then convey all tlie hot water 
into the mash-tnb, and when the face can be seen 
in it, mix the malt a little at a time. Wash, and 
let all stand two hours under a cover of cloths; at 
the end of wh.ch run a drizzling stream., and faster 
by degrees, on a few hops, to secure it. While 
the first wort is standing and running oft", another 
cojiper must boil to clean vessels, and what is used 
this way is to be supplied by adding more cold 
water, and boiling it again, two pailsful of which 
are to be thrown on the grains, as the first wort 
runs off. These four pailsful of hot water are al- 
lowed for the malt to absorb, being a bucket to 
e«ch bushel, and thus the brewer has nearly a full 
barrel of first wort come off, which is to be boiled 
with half a pound of hops till it breaks, first into 
very small particles, and then into larger, till the 
fiakes are as large as wheat chaff. As soon as the 
first wort has run off from the mash-tub, the secontl 
copper of boiling water is to be put over the grains 
and mashed. This is to stand one hour before it is 
begun to be dischargetl; and while this is standing 
and running oft", the tirst wort is to be boiled and 
jiut into coolers, and a third copper of only heated 
water is to be thrown over the grains, as soon as 
the second wort is spent off, which also is to be 
mashed. 

While thi.s is standing for one hour, and then 
run off, boil the second wort with half a pound of 
fresh hops, till it breaks intc small particles, and 
immediately after boil the third copper, with 4 
ounces of fresh hops during one hour, for this last 
woi't is too meagre to show its time by breaking. 

Uy this method, in a barrel copper, may be boil- 
ed thirty-one gallons of neat first wort, which is to 
be cooled, worked, and then put into two kilder- 
kins, one of entire ale, but the second a little 
weaker on account of having had five gallons of the 
second wort put into it to fill it up. Besides this, 
the brewer will have a liogshead of good small beer^ 



112 



UNIVEUSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



rrtUJe with the second and thh-d coppers of after- 
wotts. 

To brew Welch ale. 

Take 3 (luaners of the best pale malt, 25 Ihs. of 
liops, 7 lbs. of sugar, and | lb. grains uf jjaradise. 

Turn ou the first li'^uor at 178 degrees. Mash 
for an hour and a half, anci stand two iiours. Turn 
ou second liquor at 190 degrees, and stand two 
hours. l?oil an Iiour and a half, and put in the 
sugar just before turning into the coolers. Pitch 
the tun at G2 degrees and put in the liquorice root. 
Cleanse at 80 degrees, using salt and flour. 

After the second mash, turn on foi- table beer at 
150 degrees. Mash three quarters of an hour, and 
stand tuo hours. 

'i'o breiv BurLon ale. 

Ot this strong ale, only a barrel and a half is 
d"Hwn from a quarter, at 180 degrees for the first 
iDftsh, and 190 degrees fortt.'e second, followed by 
a gyl^ of table beer. It is tunned at 58 degrees, 
and cleansed at 72 degrees. The Jjurton bi-ewers 
use tiio finest pale nia!t, and grind it a day or two 
i)efure being used. Tliey employ Kentish hops, 
from six to eight pounds per quarter. 
I'o brew Ringwood ale. 

This brewing prodm.es two barrels and a half 
from the quarter. The best pale malt and pocket 
hop^ are used at the rate of six pounds to the quar- 
ter. Turn on first Uiash at 18U degrees, and second 
iiash at 190 degrees. Pitch the tun at CO degrees, 
i.nd cleanse at 80 degrees. ?ilash successively one 
hour, and three quarters of an hour, standing an 
hour and a half, and two hours. Add in tlie tun 
two pounds of yeast for every barrel, and coat with 
salt and flour after the first skimming. 

After the second mash, turn on for table beer, at 
150 degrees. 

To bmv JVottingham ale in the small ivatj. 

The first copperful of boiling water is to be put 
into the mash-tub, liieie to lie a ([uarter of an hour, 
till the steum is far spent; or as soon as the hoc 
water is put in, throw into It a pail or two of cold 
water, which will bring it at once to a proper tem- 
perature; then let t!u-ec bushels of maitr-ui leisure- 
ly into it, and stir or mash all the while, but no 
more tiian just to keep the mall from clolliug or 
balling; when that is dor>e, put one bushel of dry 
malt at the lop, and let it stand covered two hours, 
or till the next copperful of water is boiled, then 
lade over the mail three hand-bowlsful at a time. 
These run ofl' at the <■ ock or lap by a very small 
stream before more is put on, wliich again must be 
returned into the masu-tub tiil it comes off exceed- 
ingly fine. Tlds slow way lakes sixteen hours in 
brewing four bushels of malt. Between the lad- 
ings, put cold water into the copper to boil, while 
the other is running off; uy this means, the copper 
.s kept up nearly full, and the cock is kept rua- 
nirg to the end uf the brewing. Only Iwenty-cne 
gallons must be saved of the first wort, which is 
reserved in a tub, wherein four ounces of hops aie 
put, and then it is to be set by. 

For the second wort there are twenty gallons of 
water in the copper boiling which must be hided 
>vei' in the same manner as the former, but no cold 
ft'ater need be mixed. When hulf of this is run 
out into a tub, it must be directly put into the cop- 
per with half of the first wort, strained through the 
brewing sieve as it lies on a small loose wooden 
frame over the eoppei-, in order to keep those hops 
that were first put in to preserve it, which is to 
make the first copper twenty-one gallons. Then, 
upon its beginning to boil, put in a pound of hops 
in one or two canvass bag3, somewhat larger than 
will jusl coPtaia the hops, that an allowance may 
be given for their swell; this boil very briskly for 
half an hoar, w lieu talce tlie hop? out and continue 



boilinp; the wort by itself till it breaks into particles 
a little ragged; it is thon done, and must be dis- 
persed into the cooling tubs very shallow. Put 
the remainder of the first ancl second wort togethei-, 
and boil it in the same manner, and with the same 
qv:-..ntity of fresh hops, as the fiist. 

By this method of brewing, ale may be made as 
strong or as small as is thought fit, and so may the 
small beer that comes aftci-. 

I'o bre^u Dorchester ale. 

Boil the water, and let it stand till the face can 
be seen in it; then put the malt in by degrees, and 
stir it; let it stand two hoi.rs; then turn on tlie 
proper complement. Boil the woi't and hops 
thirty minutes; cool it as soon as possible, stirring 
it so that the l)Ottoms may be mingled; then set it 
in the gyle-tun, until it gathers a head, wiiieh must 
be skimmed off; then put in tlie yeast, and work it 
till the head falls; then cleanse it, keeping the cask 
filled up so long as it will work. 

The malts used are l-3d pale, and 2-,Sds amber, 
with six or seven poun'ls of ho[)S to the quarter. 
By the thermometer, the heat of the first liquor is 
170 degrees, and of the second 1 80 degrees, and the 
produce is two barrels per quarter. 
I'o brerv Essex ale. 

Procure two mashing-lubs, one that w ill mash 
4 bushels, and the other 2, and a coi>{)er that holds 
Jialf a hogshead. The water, when boiled, is put 
into the largest tul;, and a pail of cold water imme- 
diately on tliat: llien put the malt in by a hand- 
bowlful at a time, stirring it all the while, and so 
on in a greater quantity by degrees; (for the danger 
of balling is mostly at first) till at last half a bushel 
of dry malt is left for a top-cover: thus let it stand 
three hours. In the mem while, anotlier copper 
of water is directly heated, and put as before into 
the other mash-lub, for mashing two bushels of 
malt, which stands that time. Then, after ihe wort 
of the four bushels is run off, let that also of the 
two bushel.T s[)end, and lade it over the fom- bush- 
els, the cock running all llie while, and it will 
make in all a copper and a liaif of wort, v.'hich is 
boiled at twice; that is, when the first copper is 
boiled an hour, or till it breaks into large flakes, 
then take half out, a'ld put the remaining raw wort 
to it, and boil it about half an h.our till it is broke. 
Now, while the two worts are running off, a cop- 
per of water almost scalding hot is matie ready, and 
put over the goods or grains of both tubs; after 
an Inur's standing the cock is turned, and this se- 
cond wort is boiled away, and put over the grains 
of both tubs to stand an hour; when off, it is put 
into the copper and boiled again, and tiien serves 
hot insteail of the first water, for mashing four 
bushels of fresh malt; after it has again lain tlnee 
hours, and is spent off, it is boiled; but vhile \v 
the rnash tub, a copper of v^aler is lieated to p.. 
over the goods or grains which stands an hour, auf. 
is then boiled for small-jjeer. And thus ma)- be 
brewed 10 bushels of malt with 2 pounds and a h-!f 
of hops for the whole. 

Tu brezu Barnstable ale. 

Boil the wat -i-, then throw two pails of cold into 
the mash-tun, and afterwards the boiling water; 
then immediately put in the malt, half a bushel at 
a time. After stirring it till all is soaked, cap il 
with malt oi' bran, and cover it close to stand three 
hours, then see if the mash is sunk in the middle, 
v\ hich it will sometimes do, and when it docs, it 
shows the strength, and must be filled level with 
boiling water to stand half an hour after, when it 
is to be run off in a goose quill stream, which is to 
be returned upon the grains again, by a bowl or 
pailful at a time, as far back as possible from the 
cock; for tlien the liquor strains through the body 
of the grains, and at last comes very tine. Othei - 



BREWING. 



113 



wise the th'ck parts are forced down to the cock. 
This is called doubling; continue to do so for half 
an hour, then stop, and let it stand half an hour 
longer in winter, but not in summer. Then rub 
four pounds of hops very fine into the sieve for the 
wort to run off; do not draw it off too near before 
lading over more boiling water out of the copper. 
This is to be continued till the whole quantity of 
ale wort is obtained, which, with all the hops, is 
to be boiled till the liquor breaks or curdles. Now 
empty all into large earthen Long pans or coolers. 
This work,when cold, with the same hops altogether 
thus: put a little yeast (as little as possible), and 
that not a day old, to a quantity, and mix that with 
all the rest to work twelve or fourteen hours, and 
then strain it directly into the barrel, where keep 
filling it until it is done working. 

To bre-w Edinburgh ale. 

Adopt the best pale malt. 

1st. Mash two barrels per quarter, at 183 deg. 
(170); mash three quarters of an hour, let it stand 
one hour, and allow half an hour to run oft the 
wort. 

2d. Mash one barrel per quarter, at 190 deg. 
(183); mash three quarters of an hour, let it stand 
three quarters of an hour, and tap as before. 

3d. Mash one barrel per quarter, at 160 deg.; 
mash half an hour, let it stand half an hour, and 
tap as before. 

The first and second wort may be mixed toge- 
ther, boiling them about an hour or an hour and a 
quarter, with a quantity of hops {--roportioned to 
the time the beer is intended to be kept. 

The two first may be mixed at the heat of 60 or 
65 deg. in the gyle-t'in, and the second should be 
fermented separately tor small beer. 
To breu) Windsor ale. 

Take 5 quarters of the best pale malt, half a cwt. 
of hops, 8 lbs. of honey, 1 lb. of coriander seed, 
half lb. of grains of paradise, half lb. of orange 
peel, and two and a half lbs. of ground liquorice 
root. 

The hops should be of the best kind, and soaked 
»11 night in cold liquor. Turn on at 180 deg. 
mash thoroughly an hour and a quarter, and stand 
an hour. Boil one hour. 

Turn on second liquor at 195 deg. and stand 
three quarters of an hour. Boil three hours. 

Turn on third liquor at 165 deg. mash three 
quarters of an hour, and stand the same. Pitch 
the tun at 60 deg. and cleanse at 80 on the third 
day. Skim as soon as a close yeasty head appears, 
until no yeast arises. Half a pound of hops per 
quarter should be roused in, and the whole left to 
settle. Also rouse in six ounces of salt, half a 
pound of flour, six ounces of ground ginger, and 
six ounces of ground cai-away seed. 

The drugs above mentioned are forhidden, 
under the penalty of two hundred pounds, and the 
forfeiture of all utensils; hut of course private fa- 
milies are at liberty to use whatever they please. 
Nothing hut malt and hops are permitted to public 
brewers, except the colouring extract; and drug- 
gists who sell to brewers are subject to a penalty 
of five hundred pounds. 

Windsor a!e yields about 2^ h^rels to the quar- 
ter. 

"o brew with JVeedhaia^s portable machine, by 
■which the malt is boiled viithout mashing. 

The saving, by brewing one bushel of malt, is 
above half. 

The machine being placed ready for use, put the 
malt into the cylitider, (taking care none goes into 
die centre nor betvveen the cylinder and outside 
boiler), add fourteen gallons of cold water to each 
bushel of malt, then light the fire, and raise the 
Jiijuor to 180 degrees of heat, as soon as possible, 



which must be ascertamed by oipt^.'i.g the thermo- 
meter one minute into the liquor. Stir the malt 
well up with a mashing stick, or mashing iron, for 
ten minutes, to divide every particle of malt from 
each other, keeping the heat irora 170 to 180 de- 
grees for two hours (to prevent the liquor from 
being over heated, damp the fire with wet ashes, 
and leave the door open); then draw off tiie wort 
very gently (that it may run fine) into one of the 
coolers, and put all the hops (rubbing them to 
break the lumps) on the top of the wort, to keep it 
hot till the lime for returning it into the machine. 
Having drawn off the ale wort, put into the mp- 
chine ten gallons of cold water to each bushel of 
malt. Brisken the fire, and make the liquor 18U 
degrees of heat, as soon as possible, which must be 
ascertained by dipping the thermometer one mi- 
nute into the liquor. Having ascertained tliat the 
liquor is at 180 degrees of heat, stir the malt well 
up, as before, for ten minutes, keeping the heat 
from 170 to 180 degrees for one hour and a half; 
then draw off this table beer wort into the other 
cooler, .ind cover it over to keep it hot, until time 
for returning it into the machine for boiling. Hav- 
ing drawn off the table beer wort, clean the ma- 
chine from the grains, and return the first wort in- 
to the machine, with all the hops, taking care the 
hops are all within the cylinder, and that none of 
them get into the centre or between the cylinder 
and outer boiler. Make it boil as quick as you 
can, and let it boil one hour; after which damp the 
fire, and draw it off into a cooler or coolers, which 
should be placed in the air, where it will cool 
quick; then return the second wort into the ma- 
chine, to the hops, make it boil as quick as you 
can, and let it boil one hour; put out the fire; draw 
off the wort, and put it into a cooler placed in the 
air to cool quick. When the worts in the cooler 
are cooled down to 70 degrees of heat by the ther- 
mometer, put the proportion of a gill of fresh thick 
yeast to every nine gallons of wort into the cool- 
ers, first thinning the yeast with a little of the 
wort before you put it in, that it may the better 
mix; and when. tl»e ale wort is cooled down to 60 
degrees of heat, draw it off from the coolers, with 
the yeast and sediment, and put it into the ma- 
chine boiler (the machine boiler having been pre- 
viously cleared from the hops and cylinder), 
which forms a convenient vessel, placed on its 
stand, for the ale to ferment in, which mus*. be 
kept fermenting in it with the cover on, until the 
head has the appearance of a thick brown yeast on 
the surface, an inch or two deep, which will take 
three or four days. — [N. B. If the temperature of 
the weather is below 55 degrees of heat by the 
the thermometer, it will be better to place the fer- 
menting vessel in a situation not exposed to the 
cold]; — when the head has this appearance, draw 
off the beer from the yeast and bottoms into a 
clean cask, which must be filled full, and whea 
done working, put in a handful of dry hops, hung 
it down tight, and stow it in a cool cellar. This 
ale will be fit to tap in three or four weeks. 

The second wort for table beer should be put 
from the coolers, with yeast and sediment, into au 
upright cask, with the cover off, or top head out, 
at not exceeding 60 degrees of heat; and as soon as 
you perceive a brown yeast on the surface, draw it 
off free from'the yeast and bottoms into a clean cask, 
which must be kept filled full, and when done 
working, put in a handful of dry hops, bung it 
down tignt, and stow it in a cool cellar. This 
table beer will be fit to tap la a week, or as soon aa 
fine. 

To make table ale. 

Mix the first and second worts together, and fcr> 
ment it, and treat it the same as the ale. 



n4 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



7 •) brertv porter, or brown beer, -with table beer 
after, from the saine malt and hops. 

Use pale and brown raalt in equal quantities, 
ground coarse, and strong brown coloured hops of 
a^-glutinous quality. If the beer is for present 
di'augiit, three quarters of a pound of hops to each 
bushel of malt will be sufficient, but if intended 
for store beer, use one pound to each bushel of 
malt. 

The process of brewing is the same as described 
for brewing ale, with table beer after, except the 
heat of each mash must not be so high by 10 de- 
grees, on account of the brown malt; the first wort 
fermented by itself will be stout porter, and fit to 
tap in three or four weeks; the second wort will be 
the table beer, and fit to tap in a week, or as soon 
as fine; but if you mix the first and second worts 
together, the same as for table ale, it will be good 
common porter. 

To brew table beer only. 

Let the malt be of one sort, of a full yellow co- 
lour (not brown malt), ground coarse, and strong 
brown coloured hops, of a glutinous quality. If 
for present draught, half a pound of hops to each 
bushel of raalt will be sufficient ; but if for keeping 
two or tliree months, use one pound of hops per 
bushel. 

The process of brewing is the same as described 
for brewing porter and table beer, with the addi- 
tion of another wort; that is, filling the machine a 
third time with water before you take out the 
grains, and treating the third mash the same as the 
second. 

The first drawing off, or wort, with part of the 
second wort, to be boiled (first) one hour with all 
the hops, and the remainder of the second wort 
with the third, to be boiled next one hour to the 
SAvae hops; these two boilings, when cooled down 
to 60 degrees of heat, (having put your yeast to it 
in the coolers at 70 degrees), must be put tcwether 
to ferment in the maci\ine boiler, and as soon as it 
has the appearance of a brown yeast on the surface, 
draw it off into the casks, which must be kept fill- 
ed full; and when done working, put into each 
cask a handful of dry hops, bung it down tight, and 
put it into a cooler cellar. Tap in a week, or as 
soon as fine. 

This machine may be had from 8/. to 551., and 
sets of coolers from '2,1. to 3J./. 

Cheap and agreeable table beer. 

Take 15 gallons of water and boil one half, put- 
ting the other into a barrel; add the boiling water 
to the cold, with one gallon of molasses and a little 
yeast. Keep the bung hole open till the fermenta- 
tion is abated. 

To make S2igar beer. 

Very excellent beer is made of sugar, and also 
of treacle. First boil a peck of bran in 10 gallons 
of water; strain the bran off, and mix with the 
branny water three pounds of sugar, first stirring 
it well; when cool enough, add a tea-cupful of the 
best yeast, and a table-spoonful of tiour to a bowl 
nearly full of the saccharine matter, which, when 
it has fermented for about an hour, is to be mixed 
with the remainder, and hopped with about half a 
pound of hops, and the following day, it may be 
put into the cask, to ferment further, which usual- 
ly takes up three days, when it is to be bunged, 
and it wiH be fit for drinking in a week. Treacle 
beer is raa'Uc in the same w.^y, three pounds of it 
being astrd instead of three pounds of sugar. 

N- b. This beerwill not keep any length of time. 
Spruce beer. 

Boil eight gallons of water, and when in a state 
of coiuplete ebullition poiir it into a beer barrel 
which contains eight gallons more of cold water; 
then add sixteen pounds of mol-asses, with a few 



tablespoonsful of the essence of sprnce, stirrmg 
the whole well together; add half a pint of yeast 
and keep it in a temperate situation, with the bung 
hole open for two days till the fermentation be abat- 
ed, when the bung may be put in and the beer bot- 
tled oif. It is fit to drink in a day or two. If you 
can get no essence of spruce make a strong decoc- 
tion of the small twigs and leaves of the spruce firs< 
Bran beer. 

Good fresh table beer may be made with sound 
wheat bran, at the rate of 2d. per gallon, beer 
measure, estimating the price of bran at 4». per 
cwt., and the saccharine density of the wort ex- 
tracted, at 15 lbs. per barrel; but the use of the 
instrument called saccharometer, in domestic prac- 
tice, is not necessary, the process in brewing with 
wheat bran being sufficiently known to every good 
housewife, especially to those of labourers in hus- 
bandly, as well as that for this purpose nothing of 
apparatus is needful, but such as ought to be in 
common use with every cottager in the country. 
A few pounds per barrel of treacle, or the coarsest 
Muscovado sugar, would be a cheap improvement 
as to strength, which indeed might be increased 
to any degree required. 

Yorkshire oat ale. 

Grind a quart of oat malt, made with tne white 
sort, and dried with coke, and mash with forty- 
four gallons of cold soft water, let it stand twelve 
hours; then allow it to spend m a fine small stream, 
and pat two pounds of fine pale hops, well rubbed 
between the hands, into it; let it infuse, cold, for 
three hours, tlien strain and tun it; put yeast to it, 
and it will work briskly for about two days; then 
stop it up, and in ten days 't will be fit to bottle. 
It drinks very smootli, brisk, and pleasant, and looks 
like white wine, but will not keep. 
Cheap beer. 

Pour ten gallons of boiling water upon 1 peck of 
malt in a tub, stir it about well with a stick, let it 
stand about half an hour, and then draw off" tlie 
wort; pour 10 gallons more of boiling water upon 
the malt, letting it remain another half hour, stir- 
ring It occasionally, then (U-aw it off and put it to 
the former wort: when this is done, mix 4 ounces 
of hops witn it, and boil it well; then strain the 
hops from it, and when ilie wort becomes milk- 
warm, put some yeast to it to raake it ferment: 
when the fermentation is nearly over, put the li- 
quor into a cask, and as soon as the fermentation 
has perfectly subsided, bung it close down — the 
beer is tlien fit for use. 

2^0 make beer und ale froir pea shells. 

No production of this country abounds so much 
witli vegetable saccharine matter as the shells of 
green peas. A strong decoction of them so much, 
resembles, in odour and taste, an infusion of malt 
(termed v'ort) as to deceive a brewer. This de- 
coction, rendered slightly bitter with the wood sage, 
and afterwards fermented with yeast, affords a very 
excellent beverage. The metliod employed is as 
follows: 

Fill a boiler with the green shells of peas, pour 
on water till it rises half an inch above the sliells, 
and simmer for three hours. Strain olT the liquor, 
and add a strong decoction of the wood sage, or 
the hop, so as to render it pleasantly bitter; then 
ferment in the usual manner. The wood sage is 
the best substitute for liops, and being free from 
any anodyne property, is entitled to a preference. 
hy boiling a fresh quantity of shells in the decoc- 
tion before it becomes cold, it may be so thorough- 
ly impregnated with saccharine, matter, as to afford 
a liquor, when fermented, as strong as ale. 
Required time for keeping beer. 

This depends on the temperature, at which the 
malt has been made, as under. 



BJIEWING. 



Ufi 



Malt made at 119 degrees will produce beer 
which may be drawn in a fortnight — at 1 2-i deg. 
in a month — at 129 deg. in 3 do. — at 134 deg. in 4 
do. — at 138 deg. in 6 do. — at 143 deg. in 8 do. — at 
148 deg. in 10 do. — at 152 deg. in 15 do. — at 157 
deg. in 20 do.— at 162 deg. in 24 do. 
To give any veqxdrptl brightness or colour to beer. 

This depends on the temperature at which the 
malt has been made, and on its colour as under: 

Malt made at 119 degrees produces a white, — at 
124 deg. a cream colour, — at 129 deg. a light yel- 
low, — at 134 deg. an amber colour. 

These, when properly brewed, become sponta- 
neously fine, even as far as 138 degrees. When 
brewed for amber, by repeated fermentations, they 
become pellucid. — At 138 degrees, a high amber. 
— At 143 deg. a pale btown. 

B3' precipitation, these grow bright in a short 
time. — At 148 deg. a brown. — At 152 deg. a high 
brown. 

With precipitation these require 8 or 10 months 
to be bright. — At 157 deg. a brown, inclining to 
yack. — At 162 deg. a brown speckled with black. 

With precipitation tliese may be fined, but will 
never become bright. — At 167 deg. a blackish 
brown speckled with black, — At 171, a colour of 
burnt coffee. — At 176, a black. 

These with difficulty can be brewed without set- 
ting tlie goods, and will by no means become bright 
not even witli the strongest acid menstruum. 
To brew amber beer. 

Amber is now out of fashion, but formerly was 
drank in great quantities in London, mixed with 
bitters, and called purl. The proportions of malt 
were 3 quartei-s amljer, and 1 quarter pale, with 6 
pounds of hops to the quarter. The first liquor is 
usually tunned at 170 degrees, and the second at 
\%'i degrees. The worts are boiled together for 2 
hours. It is tunned at 64 degrees, and after 24 
hours roused evety 2 hours, till the heat is increas- 
ed to 74. It i^i tlien skimmed every hour for 6 
hours and clear sed, and generally used as soon as 
it has done wo> king in the barrels. 
Another method of breruing amber beer, or ttoo- 
penny. 

For 36 gallons: malt, 1 bushel and a half, hops, 
1 lb. liquorice root, 1 lb. 8 oz. treacle, 5 lbs. Spa- 
nish liquorice, 2 oz. capsicum, 2 drachms; fre- 
quently drank the week after it is brewed; used in 
cold weather as a stimulant. 

To make molasses beer. 

For small beer, put nine pounds of molasses into 
a barrel-copper of cold water, first mixing it well, 
and boiling it briskly, with a quarter of a pound of 
hops or more, one hour, so that it may come oft" 27 
gallons. 

Tojine beer. 

To fine beer, should it be requisite, take an ounce 
of isinglass, cut small, and boil it in three quarts 
of beer, till completely dissolved; let it stand till 
quite cold, then put it into a cask, and stir it well 
with a stick or whisk; the beer so fined should be 
tapped soon, because the isinglass is apt to make it 
flat as well as fine. 

Another method. — Take a handful of salt, and the 
same quantity of chalk scraped fine and well dried; 
then take some isinglass, and dissolve it in some 
stale beer till it is about the consistence of syrup: 
strain it, and aild about a quart to the salt and chalk, 
with two quarts of molasses. Mix them all well 
together, with a gallon of the beer, which must be 
drawn ofi"; thea put it into the cask, and take a 
stick, or whisk, and stir it well till it ferments. 
When it has subsided, stop it up close, and in two 
days it may be tapped. This is sufficient for a butt. 

Another. — Take a pint of water, and half an 
ounce of unslaked lime, mix them well together. 



letting the mixture stand for th»'ee hours, that th<? 
lime may settle at the bottom. Then pour oft' the 
clear liquor, and mix with it half f>n ounce of isin- 
glass, cut small and boilr-<i in a little water, pour 
it into the barrel, and in five or six hours the beei 
will become fine. 

Another. — In general, it will become sufficiently 
fine by keeping; but fineness may be promoted by 
putting a handful of scalded hops into the cask. If 
the beer continues thick, it may then be fined by 
putting a pint of the following preparation into the 
barrel. 

Put as much isinglass into a vessel as will occu- 
py one-third; then fill it up with old beer. When 
dissolved, rub it through a sieve, and reduce it to 
the consistency of treacle with more beer. A pint 
ot this put into the cask and gent'y stirred with a 
short stick, will fine the barrel in a few hours. 
To fine cloudy beer. 

Rack off the cask, and boil one pound of new hops 
in water, with coarse sugar, and when cold put in 
at the bung-hole. 

Or, new hops soaked in beer, and squeezed, may 
be put into the cask. 

Or, take 10 lbs. of baked pebblestone powder, 
with the whites of six eggs, and some powdered 
bay-salt, and mix tliem with 2 gallons of the beer. 
Pour in the whole into the casks, and in three or 
four days it will settle, and the beer be fine and 
agreeable. 

To recover thick, sour malt liqiior. 

Make strong hop tea with boiling water and salt 
of tartar, and pour it into the cask. 

Or, rack the cask into two casks of equal size, 
and fill them up with new beer. 

To vamp malt liquors. 

Old beer may be renewed by racking one cask 
into two, and filling them from a new brewing, and 
in three weeks it will be a fine article. 
To restore musty beer. 

Run it through some hops that have been boiled, 
in strong wort, and afterwards work it with double 
the quantity of new malt liquor: or if the fault is in 
the cask, draw it off into a sweet cask, and having 
boiled ^ lb. of brown sugar in a quart of water, add 
a spoonful or two of yeast before it is quite cold, 
and when the mixture ferments, pour it into the 
cask. 

To enliven and restore dead beer. 

Boil some water and sugar, or water and treacle, 
together, and when cold, add some new yeast; this 
will restore dead beer, or ripen bottled beer in 
24 hours; and it will also make worts work in the 
tun, if they are sluggish. 

Or, a small tea-spoonful of carbonate of soda 
may be mixed with a quart of it, as it is drawn for 
drinking. 

Or, boil for every gallon of the liquor, 3 oz. of 
sugar in water; when cold, aiid a little yeast, and 
put the fermenting mixture into the flat beer, 
whether it be a full cask or the bottom of the cask. 

Or, beer may often be restored, which has be- 
come flat or stale, by railing and shaking the casks 
for a considerable time, which will create such a 
new fermentation as to render it necessary to open 
a vent-peg to prevent the cask from bursting. 
A speedy -way of fining and preserving a cask oj 
ale, or beer. 

Take a handful of the hops boiled in the firs! 
wort, and dried, ^ a pound of loaf sugar, dissolved 
in '.he beer, I pound of chalk, and ^ a pound of 
calcined oyster-shells. Put the whole in at the 
bung-hole, stirring them well and then re-bunging. 
This preparation will also suit for racked beer; in 
putting in the hops it may be advisable to place 
them in a net with a small stone in the bottom so 
as to sink them, otherwise they will swim at the \o\^ 



16 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



Improvement in brexuing. 
ft appears by the Monthly Mag-azine of July 1, 
1823, that the process of fermentation, so import- 
ant to tlie brewers and di'^tillers, and otners of this 
country, is destined to undergo a very important 
change, in consequence of a discovery made in 
France, whereby the practicability and advantage 
of fermenting worts in close vessels has been fully 
established. Instead of using broad and open vats, 
exposed fully to the atmospheric air, which was 
formerly thought essential to the first and princi- 
pal process of fermenting worts, a euantity of al- 
cohol, mixed with the aroma or flavouring princi- 
ple of the wort, from 4i-to 5 per cent, of the whole 
spirit whicli the wort is capable of yielding, after 
rising in va])our along with the carbonic grs, is 
condensed and returned again into the wort, from 
a kind of alembic, fixed on the close top of the fer- 
menting tun, and connected tlierewith only by 
means of pipes. 

Messrs Gray and Dacre, in their brewery at 
West-Ham, in Essex, have adopted this new mode 
of fermenting their wort, and the success attending 
it is most complete. One essential advantage at- 
tending the use of a close vessel for fermenting, is 
the being able to preserve a more equable temper- 
ature in the wort, whereby neither the heat of 
summer nor the cold of winter are able to inter- 
rupt or frustrate the process of complete fermen- 
tation. The exclusion of the oxygen of the at- 
mospheric air, by the same means, from cider, 
perry, or British wines, whilst under the process 
of fermentation, seems to promise a still gi-eater 
improvement of the process than has attended the 
use of this invention in the fermenting of wines on 
the continent. 

To recover beer -whenjlat. 
Take four or five gallons out of a hogshead, boil 
it with four or five pounds of honey, skim it well 
when cold, and put it into the cask again — then 
stop it up close, and it will make the liquor drink 
strong and pleasant. 

Another method. — ^Take two ounces of new hops, 
and a pound of chalk broken into several piecjs 
— put them into the cask, and bung it up close. In 
three days it will be fit to drink. This it the pro- 
per quantity for a kilderkin. 

Another method. — Take a fine net, and put in it 
about a pound of hop;j, with a stone or something 
heavy to sink it to the bottom of the cask. This is 
sufficient for fi butt — but if the cask be less, use the 
hops in proportion. Tap it in sis months: or, if 
wanted sooner, put in some hops that have been 
boiled a short lime in the first wort, either with or 
without a net. 

To prevent, beer becoming stale and fiat. 
First meihod.-^'Vo a quart of PYencb brandy put 
Is much wheat or bean flour as will make it into a 
dough, and put it in, in long pieces, at the bung- 
hole, letting it fall gently to the bottom. This 
will prevent the beer growing stale, keep it in a 
mallow state, and increase its strength. 

Second method. — To a pound of treacle or ho- 
ney, add a pound of the powder of dried oyster 
shells, or of soft mellow chalk — mix these into a 
stiff paste, and put it into the butt. This will pre^ 
serve the beer in a soft and mellow state for a long 
li me. 

Third method. — Dry a peck of egg shells in &r' 
oven — break and mix them with two pounds of 
soft mellow chalk, and then add some water where- 
in four pounds of coarse sugar have been ;boiled, 
and put it into the cask. This will be enough for 
a butt. 

Fourth method.— \n a cask, containing eigliteen 
gallon.s of beer, put a pint of ground malt suspend- ' 
ed in a bag, and close the bung perfectly; the hjL>er 1 



will be improved during the whole time of draw* 
ing it for use. 

Make use of any of these receipts most approved- 
of, observing that the paste or dough must be put 
into the cask when the beer has done W'orlcing, or 
soon after, and bunged down. At the end of nine 
or twelve months tap it, and you will have a fine, 
generous, wholesome, and agreeable iiqucr. 

When the great quantity of sediment that lies at 
the bottom of the cask is neglected to be cleaned, 
this compound of malt, hops, and yeast so afl^ectat 
the beer, that it partakes of all their corrosive qua- 
lities, which render it prejudicial to health, gene- 
rating various chronical and acute diseases. On' 
this account, during the whole process of brewing, 
do not allow the least sediment to mix with the 
wort in removing it from rne i.ub or cooler to the 
other; especially be careful, when tunning it into 
the cask, not to disturb the bottom of the working 
tub, which would prevent its ever being clear and' 
fine. Again, by keeping it too long in the work-- 
ing tub, persons who make a profit of the yeast fre- 
quently promote an undue fermentation, and keep' 
it constantly in that state for five or six days-, which 
causes all the spirit that should keep the beer soft 
and mellow to evaporate, and it will certainly get 
stale and hard, unless it has something wholesome' 
to feed on. 

It is the practice of some persons to beat in the" 
j'east, while the beer is v/orking, for several days- 
together, to make it strong and licady, and to pro- 
mote its sale. This is a wicked and pernicious- 
custom. Yeast is of a very acrimonious and iiar-- 
cotie quality, and when beat in for several days to-- 
gether, the beer thoroughly imbibes its hurtful- 
qualities, [t is not discoverable by the taste, but is 
very intoxicating, and injures the whole nervous- 
system, producing debility and all its conse- 
quences. 'F'herefore, let the wort have a- free, na- 
tural, and light fermentation, and one day in the 
working tub will belong enough luring cold wea- 
ther; but turn it tlie second day at the furthest, 
throw out the whole brewing, ano afterw^ards in- 
troduce no improper ingredients. 

To prevent and cure fixing in inalt liquors. 
Foxing, sometimes called bucking, is a diseasa 
of malt fermentation which taints the beer. Iv 
arises from dirty utensils; puttingthe separate worts- 
together in vessels not too deep; using bad malt; by 
turning on the liquors at too great beats, and brew- 
ing in too hot weather. It renders the beer ropy 
and viscid, like treacle, and it soon turns sour. 
When there is danger of foxing, a handful of hops 
shouldbe thrown into the raw worts while they are 
drawing off, and before they are boiled, as foxint. 
geneially takes place when, from a scantiness of 
utensils, the worts are obliged to be kept some 
time before they are boiled. When there is a- 
want of shallow coolers, it is a good precaution to- 
put some fresh hops into the worts, and workthem-' 
with the yeast. If the brewing foxes in the tun 
while working, hops slrould then he put into it, 
and they will tend to restore it, and extra care- 
ought to be taken to prevent the lees being trans- 
ferred to the barrels. 

Some persons sift quiek-lirae into the tun when 
the brewing appears to be foxed.— If care is not 
taken to cleanse and scald the vessels after foxing,-, 
sabsequent brewings may become tainted. 
Other methods of curing fixing. 
Cut a handful of hyssop small; mix it with a 
handful of salt, and put it into the cask. Stir and 
stop close. 

Or, infuse a handful of hops, and a littlfe salt of 
tartar in boiling water; when cold, strain the liquoi' 
off, and pour it into the cask, which stop close 
Or, mix an ounce of alauxiy with 2^ oz, uf ma9< 



BREWING, 



117 



tard-seed, and 1 oz. of ginger; stir them in the 
jack, and stop close. 

Or, in a fortnight, rack off the foxed beer, and 
hang 2 lbs. of bruised Malaga raisins in a bag 
within the cask, and put in a mixture of treacle, 
tean-flour, mustard-seed, and powdci-ed alum. 
To restore a bm^el of ropy beer. 
Mix a handful of bean-flour with a handful of 
salt, and stir it in at the bung-bole: or take some 
well infused hops, and mix them in with some 
settlings of strong wort, and stir the mixture in at 
the bung-hole. Or, powder half an ounce of alum 
very fine, and mix with a handful of bean-flour. 
To restore a barrel of stale, or sour beer. 
Put a quarter of a pound of good ho;<s, and two 
pounds of soiuid chalk into the bwng-hole; stop it 
«lose, and in a few days it will draw perfectlj' fresh. 
Or, a small tea-spoonful of carbonate of soda may 
be mixed with every quart as it is drank. 
To make a butt of porter, stout. 
Insert 4 gallons of molasses and some finings; 
stir it well. In a week draw off the cask by a cock 
inserted half way down. 

7'o restore frosted beer. 
Such beer is usually sweet and foul, and will 
never recover of itself; but to remedy this, make 
a pailful of fresh wort, into which put a handful of 
rubbed hops, and boil them half an hour, so that 
it may be ver)^ bitter, and when almost cold, draw 
a pailful from the cask, and rs-fill it with the bit- 
ter wort. Fermentation will re-comraence, but 
when this is over bung it up for a month. If it is 
not then restored, rack it into another cask, and 
put into it J a peck of parched wheat, and 1 lb. of 
good hops, dried and rubbed, and tied up in a net. 
JBung it down, leaving the vent-hole open for a day 
or two, and in a month it will be fine liquor. 
To g-ive ne~M ale the flavour of old. 
Take out the bung, and put into the cask a hand- 
ful of pickled cucumbers; or a sliced Seville orange, 
and either mode wlh add an apparent six months 
to the age of the ale. 

To protect malt liqtiors against the effects of elec- 
tricity. 
As positive electricity is nothing more than oxy- 
genous gas, which, when accumulated in conduc- 
tors by electrical action, affects all fluids (as con- 
ductors), and enclosed fermented liquors among 
the n St, and as electrical action always takes place 
among the best conductors, so fermented liquors, 
whether in casks or bottles, may be protected from 
electrical action (vulgarly called thunder) by plac- 
ing on the casks, or over the bottles, pieces or 
rods of iron; and such have been found, by experi- 
ence, to serve as a sufficient protection against this 
pernicious influence. 

7'o give beer a rich flavour. 
Put six sea-biscuits into a bag of hops, and put 
them into the cask. 

To preserve oreu-ing uiensih: 

In cleaning them before being put away, avoid 

the use of soap, or nny greasy material, and use 

only a brush and scalding water, being particularly 

careful not to leave any yeast or fur on the sides. 

To prevent their being tainted, take wood ashes 
and boil them to a strong ley, which spread over 
the bottoms of the vessels scalding, and then with 
the brooio scrub the sides and other pans. 

Or, take bay-salt, and spread it over the coolers, 
and strew some on their wet sides, turning in 
scalding water and scrubbing witli a broom. 

Or, throw some stone-lime into water in the ves- 
sel, and scrub over the boitom and sides, washing 
afterwards with c'.ean water. 

To sweeten stinking or musty casks. 
Make a strong ley of ash, beech, or other hard 



' wood-ashes, and pour it, boiling hot, into tlie bung- 
hole, repeating it as often as there is occasion. 

Or, fill the cask with boiling: water, and ther: 
put into it some pieces of unslaked stone-lime, 
keeping up tiie ebulhiion for half an hour. Then 
bung it do\yn, and let it remain until almost cold, 
when turn it out. 

Or, mix bay-salt with boiling water, and pour it 
into the cask, which bung down, and leave it to 
soak. 

Or, if the copper be provided with a dome, and 
a steara pipe fi-om its top, pass the steam into the 
casks- 

Or, unhead the cask, scrub it out, head it again: 
put some powdered charcoal into the bung-hole, 
and two quarts of a mixture of oil of vitriol and 
cold water. Then bung it tight, and roll and turn 
the cask for some time. Afterwards wash it Avell, 
and drain it dry. 

Or, take out the head, and brush the inside witli 
oil of vitriol, afterwards wash it, then burn a slip 
of brown paper steeped in brimstone within the 
bung-hole, and stop it close for two hours, when 
it should be well washed with hot water. 

Another method. — IVIix half a pint of the sulphu- 
ric acid (not the diluted) in an open vessel, with 
a quart of water, and whilst warm, put it into the 
cask, and roll it about in such a manner that the 
whole internal surface may be exposed to its ac- 
tion. The following day, add about one pound of 
chalk, and bung it up for three or four days, when 
it may be washed o\it with boiling water. By this 
process, a very musty cask may be rendered sweet. 

For sweetening musty bottles, it will be only 
necessary to rinse the inside with the diluted sul- 
phuric acid in the above-mentioned proportions. 
The addition of chalk, if it were immediately cork- 
ed, would burst the bottle, and if the cask be old, 
it would be advisable to let a little of the gas escape 
before bunging it. 

Another. — Collect fresh cow dung and dilute it 
with water, in which four pounds of salt and one 
of common alum are dissolved. Let these be boiled 
together, and poured hot into the barrel, which 
must then be bunged and well shaken. This ope- 
ration should be performed several times, taking 
care to rinse the cask out every time, with clean 
watei . 

Another. — If a cask, after the beer is drank out, 
be well stopped, to keep out the air, and the lees 
be suffered to I'emain in it till used again, scald it 
well, taking care that the hoops be well driven on, 
before filling; but should the air get into an empty 
cask, it will contract an ill scent, notwithstanding 
the scalding; in which case a handful of bruised 
pepper, boiled in the water, will remove it,thoi'gh 
the surest way is to take out the head of the cask, 
that it may be shaved; then burn it a little, and 
scald it for use; if this cannot be conveniently done, 
get some lime-stone, put about tliree pounds into 
a barrel (and in same proportion for larger or 
smaller vessels), put to it about six gallons of cold 
watei, bung it up, shake it about for some time, 
and afterwards scald it well. Or, in lieu of lime, 
match it well and scald it. Then the smell will be 
entirely removed. If the casks be new, dig holes 
in the earth, and lay them in, to about half their 
depth, with their bung-holes downwards, for a 
week. After which scald them well, and they will 
be ready for use. 

Another. — The process of charring fails only in 
the fii'e not being able to penetrate into the chasms 
or chinks of the cask, into which the coopers (to 
mem! bad work) often insert strips of pai)er, or 
othei substance, to make it water-tight, which in 
time become rotten and offensive; in order to re- 



T18 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOR. 



medy this, put into a cask containing a quantity of 
water (say aboat 2 gallons in a hogshead) 1-lOth of 
its weight of sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol), and let 
this be shaken for some time; this is to be poured 
Dut, tlie cask well washed, and then rinsed v/ith a 
few gallons of lime-water. It is needless to say, 
that it ought likewise to be washed out. 

Sulphur mixed with a little nitre, burnt in a 
closed vessel, and then the subsequent process of 
lime-water, &c. would do, and perhaps as well. 

The theory is, that sulphuric acid has the pro- 
perty, when used alone, of charring wood, and 
when diluted, has sufficient strenglli to destroy 
must, &c. with the additional advantage of entering 
into every crevice, 'l^he lime in solution seizes 
any particle of acid which the first washing might 
leave, and converts it into an insoluble inoffensive 
neutral salt, such as, if left in the cask, would not 
in tlie least injure the most delicate liquor. 
JLo7idon coopers'' mode of sweete^iing casks. 

It is their sj'stem to take out the head, place 
the cask over a brisk fire, and char the inside com- 
pletely. The head is then put in again, and the 
cask, before used, is filled two or three times with 
hot liquor, bunged down and well shaken, before it 
is used again. 

Method of seasoning new casks. 

Put the staves just cut and shaped, before they 
are worked into vessels, loose in a copper of cold 
water, and let them heat gradually so that they 
nmst be well boiled, and in boiling take out a hand- 
bowl of water at a time, putting in fresh till ah the 
i-edness is out of the liquor, and it becomes clear 
from a scum of filth that will arise from the sap so 
boiled out; also take care to turn the staves upside 
down, that all their parts may equally have the be- 
nefit of the hot water. Observe also that in a dry, 
sultry summer, the sap is more strongly retained 
in the wood, than in a cool and moist one, and 
therefore must have the more boiling. Then, when 
the vessel is made, scald it twice with water and 
salt boiled together, and it may be readily filled 
with strong beer without fearing any twang from 
the wood. 

To keep empty vessels sweet. 

An eminent London brewer is so curious in this 
respect, that he makes use of a wooden bung, which, 
»s soon as he has put into the vessel with some 
Jrown paper, he directly covers over with some 
tvood ashes mixed with water, and puts it all about 
the same, with as much care as if tlie cask had been 
I'ull of strong beer, though it is done only to keep 
ihe grounds sweet while they are so. And thus a 
;essel may be preserved in sound order for nearly 
'ta.lt' a year. 

Fermentation by various means. 

As yeast is nothing more than fixed air combin- 
.'d with mucilage tlirown to the top during fer- 
■nentation, and LHe use of yeast consists merely in 
Jifiusing by its nieans fixed air through the mix- 
ture to be fermented; so whatever pontains fixed 
air which can be communicated through the mass, 
will cause good fermentation, whether it be in 
brewing or bread making. Thus chemisis have 
impregnated infusions with gas by an a[)paratus, 
and produced good beer, and a bottle, containing 
calcareous matter and oil of vitriol, immersed in 
the fluid, has caused effectual fermentation, and 
produced ail its results. 

First substitute for yeast. — Mix two quarts of 
water with wheat fiour, to the consistence of thick 
gruel, boil it gently for naif an hour, and when al. , 
most cold, stir into it half a pound of sugar and 
four spoonsful of good yeast. Put the whole into 
a large jug, or earthen vessel with a narrow top, 
and place it before the fire, so that it may by a mo- 
derate heat ferment. 1'he fermentation will throw- 



up a thin liquor, which pour off and throw away^ 
keep the I'emainder for use (in a cool place) in a 
bottle, or jug tied over. The same quantity of 
this, as of common yeast, will suffice to bake or 
brew with. Four spoonsful of this yeast will make 
a fresh quantity as before, and the stock maybe al- 
ways kept up by fermenting the new with tlie re- 
mainder of the former quantity. 

Second substitute. — Take six quarts of soft wa- 
ter and two handsful of wheaten meal or barley; 
stir the latter in the water before the mixture is 
placed over the fire, where it must boil till two- 
thirds are evaporated. When this decoction be- 
comes cool incorporate with it, by means of a 
whisk, two drachms of salt of tartar, and 1 drachm 
of cream of tartar, previously mixed. The whole 
should be kept in a warm place. Thus a very 
strong yeast for brewing, distilling, and baking, 
may be obtained. For the last mentioned purpose, 
however, it ought to be diluted with pure water, 
and passed through a sieve, before it is kneaded 
with the dough, in order to deprive it of its alka- 
line taste. 

In countries where yeast is scarce, it is a com- 
mon practice to twist hazel twigs so as to be full of 
chinks, and then to steep them in ale-yeast during 
fermentation. The twigs are then hung up to dry, 
and at the next brewing they are put into the wort 
instead of yeast. In Italy the ciiips are frequently 
put into turbid wine, for tlie purpose of clearing it. 
this is effected in about twenty- four hours. 

Third substitute — Take one pound of fine flcur, 
make it the thickness of gruel with boiling water, 
add to it half a pound of raw sugar. Mix them 
well together Put three spoonsful of well purifi- 
ed yeast iiitoalaige vessel, upon which put the 
above ingredients: tl»ey will soon ferment violent- 
ly. Collect the yeast oft' the top and put it into a 
brown small-neck pot, and cover it up from the air, 
keep it in a dry and warmish place; when used in 
part, replace with flour made into a thin paste, and 
sugar in the former proportions: the above will be 
fit for use in five months, and no yeast is necessary 
except the first time. 

Fourth substitute. — Boil flour and water to the 
consistence of treacle, and when the mixture is cold 
saturate it with fixed air. Pour the mixtui'e, thus 
saturated, into one or more large bottles or narrow 
mouthed jars; cover it over loosely with paper, 
and upon that lay a slate or board with a weight to 
keep it steady. Place the vessel in a situation 
where the thermometer will stand from 70 deg. to 
80 deg. and stir uj) the mixture two or three times 
in the c- ;urse of 24 hours. In about two days, such 
a degree of fermentation will have taken place, as 
to give the mixture the appearance of yeast. With 
the yeast in this state, and before it has acquii-ed a 
thoi<oughly vinous smell, mix the quantity of ftour 
intended tor bread, in the proportion of six pounds 
of fiour to a quart of the yeast, and a sufficient por- 
tion of warm water. Knead them well together in 
a proper vessel, and covering it with a cloth, let 
the dough stand for twelve hours, or till it appears 
to be sufficiently fermented in the foriemention- 
ed degree of warmth. It is then to be formed 
into loaves and baked. The yeast would be more 
perfect if a decoction of malt were used instead of 
simple water. 

Fifth substitute. — A decoction of malt alone, 
without any addition, will produce a yeast proper 
enough for the purpose of brewing. This disco- 
very was made by Joseph Senyor, and he received 
for it a reward of 20/. from the Society for Promot- 
ing Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. The 
process is as follows: Procure three eai'lhen or 
wooden vessels of different sizes and apertures, 
one capable of holding two quaits, the otlier thi'e« 



BREWING, 



119 



or four, and the third five or six: boil a quarter of 
a peck of malt for about eight or ten minutes in 3 
pints of water; and when a q 'art is poured off from 
the grains, let it stand, in the first or smaller ves- 
sel, inacool place till not quite cold, but retaining 
that degree of heat which the brewers usually find 
to he proper when they begin to work their liquor. 
Then remove the vessel into some warm situation 
near a fire, where the thermometer stands between 
70 and 80 (leg. Fahrenheit, and there let it remain 
till the fermentation begins, which will be plainly 
perceived within 30 hours; add then two quarts 
more of a like decoction of malt, when cool as the 
first was, and mix the whole in the second or larger 
vessel, and stir it well in, which must be repeated 
in the usual way, as it rises in a coniDv jn vat: then 
add a still greater quantity of the same decoction, 
to be worked in the largest vessel, which will pro- 
duce yeast enough for a brewing of 40 gallons. 

SixtK substitute. — Boil one pound of good flour, 
a quarter of a pound of brown sugar, and a little 
salt, in two gallons of water for one hour; when 
milk-warm, bottle it and cork it close: it will be 
fit for use in twenty-four hours. One pint of this 
will make 18 lbs. of bread. 

Seventh substitute. — To a pound of mashe<l po- 
tatoes (mealy ones are best) add two ounces of 
brown sugar, and two spoonsful of common yeast; 
the potatoes first to be pulped through a cullender, 
and mixed with warm water to a proper consist- 
ence. Thus a pound of potatoes will make a quart 
of good yeast. Keep it moderately warm while 
fermenting. 

Eighth substitute. — Tnfuse malt, and boil it as 
for beer; in the mean time, soak isinglass, sepa- 
rated to fibres, in small beer. Proportion the 
quantity of each, 1 ounce of isinglass to two quarts 
of beer. This would suffice for a hogshead of 
boiling wort, and the proportion may be diminish- 
ed or increased accordingly. After soaking five 
minutes, set the beer and isinglass on the fire, 
stirring till it nearly boils. Then turn it into a 
dish that will allow beating it up with a syllabub 
wh'sk, to the consistence of yeast, and when al- 
most cold, put it to the wort. 

JVinth substitute. — ^Make a wort of the consist- 
ence of water gruel, with either rye or malt, ground 
very fine; put 5 gallons of it into a vessel capable 
of holding a few gallons more; dissolve 1 pound 
of leaven in a small portion of the wort, and .idd it 
to the remainder with 2^ pounds of fine ground 
malt; mix the wliole by agitation for some minutes, 
and in half an hour add two large spoonsful of 
good yeast; incorporate it thoroughly with the mass, 
cover it close and let it remain undisturbed for forty 
eight hours in a moderate temperature; at the end 
«1" that period it will be found to be wholly con- 
verted into good yeast It is requisite that the 
rye and mall should be fine, and the leaven com- 
pletely dissolved before being put to the remaining 
wort, which, previous to the yeast being added, 
should be at about 100 deg. Fahrenheit. — I'raus- 
actions of the Economical Society of Petersburg. 
To preserve yeast. 

Common ale yeast may be kept fresh and fit for 
use several months by the following method: Put 
a quantity of it into a close canvass bag, and gen' ly 
squeeze out the moisture in a screw-iiress till the 
remaining matter be as firm and stiff as clay. In ' 
this state it may ue close packed up in a tight cask i 
ifor securing it from the air; and will keep fresh, 
sound, and fit for use, for a long timel This is a se- i 
sret that might be of great use to the brewers and 
distillers, who, though ihey employ veiy large quan- 
tities of yeast, seem to know no method of pr-jserv- 
kng it or raising nurseries of it; for want ol wliich i 
Jjaej sustain a very considerable loss; whereas the I 



brewers in Flanders make a very gieat advantage 
of supplying the malt distillers of Holland with 
yeast, which is rendered lasting and fit for carnage 
by this easy expedient. 

.Another metliod. — Stir a quantity of yeast and 
work it well with a whisk, till it seems liquid 
and thin. Then get a large wooden disli or tub, 
clean and dry, and with a soft brush lay a thin layei 
of yeast thereon, turning the mouth downward-., 
to prevent its getting dust, but so that the air mar 
come to it to dry it. When that coat or crust is 
sufficiently dried, lay on another, which serve in 
the same manner, and continue pulling on others 
as tiiey dr)', till two or three inches thick, which 
will be useful on many occasions. But be sure 
the yeast in the vessel be drv before more be laid 
on. When wanted for use, cut a piece out, lay it 
in warm water, stir it toi^ether, and it will be fit 
for use. If for brewing, take a handful of birch 
tied together, dip it into the yeast, and hang it to 
dry, taking care to keep it free from dust. \Vhen 
the beer is fit to set to work, throw in one of these 
and it will work as well as fresh yeast. Whip it 
about in the wort and then let it lie. When the 
beer works well take out the broom, dry it again, 
and it will do for the next brewing. 
Tn restore bad yeast. 
Mix with it a little flower, sugar, salt, brandy, 
and beer, and these will confer on it tlie qualities 
of good yeast. Good yeast may also be made by 
adding xhe same mixture to the grounds of ale. 
To make purl bitters. 
Take of Roman wormwood two dozen pounds, 
gentian root six p, vwids, calamus aromaticus (or the 
sweet flag root) tvfo pounds, snake rooc one pound, 
horse radish one bunch, orange peel dried and 
juniper berries, each two pounds, seeds or kernels 
of Seville oranges cleaned and dried two pounds. 
Cut these, and bruise them, and put them into a 
clean butt, and start some mild brown or pale beer 
upon them, so as to fill up the vessel, about the be- 
ginning of November, wnich let stand till the next 
season. If a pound or two of galanga root is added 
to it, the composition will be better. 

Cautions in the use of foreign ingredients. 
In general, the beer shoulri be racked oft" first, 
because the. sediments and lees will not accord with 
the foreign substances. — Salt and alum in too large 
quantities induce staleness. The powder of soft 
stone, unburnt, should be avoided; too many whites 
of eggs are apt to make tlie beer ropy. The intro- 
duction of cocculus indicus confei's a pernicious 
strength or headiness, which gratifies drunkards, 
but destroys the nervous system, and produces pal- 
sies and premature old age. It has been well re- 
marked, that the brewer that uses this slow, but 
certain poison, as a substitute for a due quantity of 
maJt, ought to be boiled ia his own copper. 

Bitters are in like manner pernicious in man/ 
states of the stomach. W hen oyster shells at e used, 
the bung should be left out to avoid biu-stiag. 
Use of sugar in brewing. 
Families brewing their own malt liquor may use 
thirty-two pounds of brown sugar with two bushels 
of malt, which will produce 50 gallons of ale, as 
good in every respect as if made from six bushels 
of malt, effecting a saving of 3ls. 8J. The sugju- 
is mixed with the wort as it ruus from the mash- 
tub. 

To close casks raithout bungs. 
Some persons cover tlie bung-hole simply with 
brown paper, fastened at the sides, and covered 
with clay: others have found a single piece of blad- 
der, well fixed at tlie edges, a complete ana effica- 
cious substitute for oungs. These methods at least 
prevent the bursting of the cask from changes of 
air. 



ISO 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



To bottle porter, ale, &c. 

In the first place, the bottles should be clean, 
sweet, and dry, the corks sound and good, and the 
porter or ale fine. When the bottles are filled, if 
for home consumption, they should not be corked 
till the day following; and if for exportation to a 
hot climate, they must stand three days or more: 
if the liquor is new, it should be well corked 
and wired; but for a private family they may do 
■without wiring,, only they should be well packed 
in sawdust, and stand upright. But if some ripe 
are wanted, keep a few patked on their sides, so 
that the liquor may touch the corks — and this will 
soon ripen, and make it fit for drinking. 

To ripen porter and ale, if flat -when bottled. 

When about to fill the bottles, put into each of 
fhem a tea-spoonful of raw brown sugai- — or two 
tea-spoonsful of rice wheat — or six raisins. 
To remove tartness. 

Put a tea-spoonful of carbonate of soda into a 
quart of tart beer, and it will be pleasant and whole- 
some. 

7'o bottle malt liquor. 

It should be ripe, and not too young. Cork loose 
at first, and afterwards firm, i'or a day or two, 
kee^) the bottles in cold water, or in a cold place; 
or throw some cold water over them. Steep the 
corks in scalding water, to make them more elas- 
tic. Lay the bottles on their sides. When it is 
desired that the liquor should ripen soon, keep the 
bottles in a warmer place. October beer should 
not be bottled till Midsummer; nor March beer 
till Christmas. If the ale is flat, or stale, put 3 
horse-beans, or 3 raisins into eacli bottle, and to 
prevent the bottles bursting, make a hole in the 
middle of the cork with an awl; or put into each 
bottle, one or two pepper corns. If it is desired 
to ripen it quick, boil some coarse sugar in water, 
and when cold, ferment it with yeast. Then put 
3 or 4 spoonsful of it, with two cloves, and if kept 
in a warm place, it will be ripe the next day. 
When the ale is sour, put into it a little syrup of 
capillaire, and ferment it with yeast; when settled, 
bottle it, and put a clove or two with a small lump 
of sugar into each bottle. It is also useful to put 2 
or 3 pieces of chalk, or some powdered chalk, into 
the barrel before bottling. 

I'o bottle table beer. 

As soon as a cask of table beer is received into 
the hou^e, it is drawn off into quart stone bottles, 
with a lump of wnite sugar in each, and securely 
corkod. In three days it becomes brisk, is equal 
in strength to table ale, remarkably pleasant, very 
wholesome, and will keep many months. • 
To render bottled beer ripe. 

The following method is employed in Paris, by 
some venders of bottled beer, to render it what they 
term ripe. — It is merely by adding to each bottle 
3 or 4 drops of yeast, and a lump of sugar, of the 
size of a large nutmeg. In the course of twenty- 
four hours, by this addition, stale or flat beer is 
rendered most agreeably brisk. In consequence 
of the fermentative process that takes place in it, a 
small deposit follows, and on this account the bot- 
tles shou'd be kept in an erect position. By this 
means white wine may likewise be rendered brisk. 
To manage ale in the cellar. 

In general, nothing is more necessary than to 
keep it well stopped in a cool cellar, looking oc- 
casionally to see that there is no leakage, and to 
open the vent-holes, if any oozings appear between 
the staves of the stacks: but connoisseurs in malt 
liquor may adopt some of the following means; 
leave the cook-hole of an upright cask, or the vent- 
hole of an horizontal one, open for 2 or 3 months; 
then rack oft' into another casli with 1 or 2 pounds 
of r.ew hops, and closely bung and stop down. 



Or, leave the vent-holes open a month; then stop 
and about a month before tapping, draw off a little, 
and mix it with 1 or 2 lbs. of new hops, wViich 
having poured iato the cask, it is again closely stop- 
ped. 

Or, salt may be used with the hops, as it always 
gives beer the flavour of age. 

To keep hops for future use. 

Hops lose all their fine flavour by exposure to the 
air and damp. They sho aid be kept in a dry close 
place, and lightly packed. 



TO MAKE CIDER, 

After the apples are gathered from tne trees, 
they are ground into what is called pommage, 
either by means of a common pressing stone, with 
a circular trough, or by a cider mill, which is either 
driven by the hand, or by horse power. When the 
pulp is thus reduced to a great degi-ee of fineness, 
it is conveyed to the cider press, where it is formed 
by pressure into a kind of cake, which is called 
the cheese. 

This is effected by placing clear sweet straw, or 
hair clotlis, between the layers of pommage, till 
there is a pile of ten or twelve layers. This pile 
is then subjected to different degrees of pressure in 
succession, till all the must, or juice, is squeezed 
from the pommage. This juice, after being strained 
in a coarse hair-sieve, is then put either into open 
vats or close casks, and the pressed pulp is either 
thrown away, or made to yield a weak liquor call- 
ed washings. 

After the liquor has undergone the proper fer- 
mentation in these close vessels, wliicli may be best 
effected in a temperature of from forty to sixty de- 
grees of Fahrenheit, and which may be known by 
its appearing tolerably clear, and having a vinous 
sharpness upon the tongue, any farther fermenta- 
tion must be stopped by racking off the pure part 
into open vessels, exposed for a day or two in a 
cool situation. After this the liquor must again be 
put into casks, and kept in a cool place during win- 
ter. The proper time for racking may always be 
known by the brightness of the liquor, the discbarge 
of the fixed air, and the appearance of a thick crust 
formed of fragments of the reduced pulp. The li- 
quor should always be racked off" anew, as often as 
a hissing noise is heard, or as it extinguishes a can- 
dle held to the bung-hole. 

When a favourable vinous fermentation has been 
obtained, nothing more is required than to fill up 
the vessels every two or three weeks, to supply the 
waste by fermentation. On the beginning of March, 
the liquor will be bright and pure, and tit for final 
racking, which should be done in fair weather. 
When the bottles are filled, they should be set by 
uncorked till morning, when the corks must be 
driven in tightly, secured bj' wire or twine and 
melted rosin, or f.ny similar substance. 
'J'o make Devonshire cider. 

Prefer the bitter sweet apples, mixed with milJ 
sour, in the proportion of one-tliird. Gather thei'ji 
wlieii ripe, and lay them in heaps in the orchard. 
Then take them to the crushing engine, made ot 
iron rollers at top and of stone beneath; after pass- 
ing through which, they are received into large 
tubs or cives, and are then called pommage. They 
ai-e afterwards laid on the vat in nltemate layers of 
the pommage and clean straw, called reeds. They 
are then pressed, the juice running through a hair 
sieve. After the cider is pressed out, it is put into 
hogsheads, where it remains for two or three days 
previously to fermenting. To stop ttie fermenta- 
tion, it is drawn off into a clean vessel; but if t.be 
fermentation be very strong, two or three cans of 



CIDER. 



1^1 



eider are put into a clean vessel, and a match of 
brirastone burnt in it: it is then agitated, by which 
the tVraentation of that quantity is completely 
stopped. The vessel is then nearly filled, the fer- 
mentation of the whole is checked, and the cider 
becomes fine: but if, on the first operation, the fer- 
mentation is not checked, it is repeated til) it is 
so, and continued from time lo time till the cider 
is in a quiet state for drinking. 

Some persons, i\. stead of deadening a small 
quantity with a match, as above directed, put froin 
one 10 two pints of an article called stum (bought 
of the wine coopers) into each hogshead: but the 
system of racking as often as the fermentation ap- 
pears, is generally preferred by the cider manufac- 
turers of Devonshire. 

About six sacks, or twentj'-four bushels of ap- 
ples, are used foi a hogshead of sixty-tlu-ee gal- 
lons. During the process, if the weather is warm, 
it will be necessary to carry it on in the shade, in 
the open air, and by every means keep it as cool 
as possible. 

In nine months it will be in condition for bot- 
tling or drinking; if it continnes thick, use some 
isinglass finings, and if at any time it ferments and 
threatens acidity, the cure is lo rack it and leave 
the head and sediment. 

Scotch method. 

The apples are reduced to mucilage, by beating 
them in a stone trough (one of those used at 
pumps tor watering horses) with pieces of ash- 
poles, used in the manner that potaioes aremaslied. 
The press consist? of a strong box, three feet 
square, and twenty inches deep, perforated on 
^ach side with small auger or gimble.t holes. It 
is placed on a frame of wood, projecting three 
inches beyond the base of the box. A groove is 
cut in this projection one inch and a half wide, and 
one inch deep, to convey the juice when ^jressed 
out of the box into a receiving pail. This opera- 
tion is performed in ths following manner. The 
box is filled alternately with strata of fresh straw 
and mashed fruit, in the proportion of one inch of 
straw to two inches of mucilage: these are pilrd up 
a foot higher than the top of the box; and care is 
taken in packing the box itself, to keep the fruit 
and straw about one inch from the sides of the 
box, which allows the juice to escape freely. A 
considerable quantity of the liquor will run off 
without any pressure. This must be applied gra- 
dually at first, ind increased regvdarly towsrdsthe 
conclusion. A box of the above dimensions will 
require about two tons weight to render the resi- 
duum completely free from juice. 

[The residuum is excellent food for pigs, and 
peculiarly acceptable to them.] 

The necessary pressure is obtained very easily, 
and in a powerful manner, by the compound lever 
pressing upon a lid or sink made of wood about 
two inches thick, and rendered sufficiently strong 
by two cross-bars. It is made to fit the opening 
of the box exactly; and as the levers force the lid 
down, they are occasionally slacked or taken off, 
and blooks of wood are placed on the top of the 
lid, to permit the levers to act, even after the lid 
has entered the box itself. Additional blocks are 
repeatet'i, until the whole juice is extracted. The 
pressure may be increased more or less, by adding 
or diminishing the weight suspended at the extre- 
mity of the lever. 

The liquor thus obtained is allowed to stand un- 
disturbed twelve hours, in open vessels, to deposit 
sediment. The pure juice is then put into clean 
casks, and placed in a proper situation to ferment, 
the temperature being from fifty-five to sixty d.;- 
grees. The fermentation will commence sooner 
«r later, depending chiefly on the temperature of 
Q 



the apartment where the liquor is kept; in most 
cases, during the first three or four days; but 
somet'-mes it will requirs more than a week to be- 
gin this process. If the fermentation begins early 
and proceeds rapidly, the liquor must be racked 
o^f, and put into fresh casks in two or three daysi 
but if this does not take place at an early period, 
and proceeds s'owiy, five or six days may elapse 
before it is racked. In general, it is necessary to 
rack the liquorat least twice. If,notwithstanding, 
the fermentation continues briskly, the racking 
must be repeated; otherwise the vinous fermenta- 
tion, by proceeding too far, may terminate in 
acetous fermeniation, when vinegar would be the 
result. 

In racking off the I'quor it is necessary to keep 
it free of sediment, and the scum or yeast produced 
by the fermentation. A supply of spare liquor 
must be reserved to fill up the barrels occasionally, 
whiJe the fermentation continues. As soon as this 
cef'.aes, the bairels should be bunged up closely, 
and the bungs covered with rosin, to prevent the 
admission of air. If the cider is weak, it should 
remain in the cask about nine months; if strong, 
twelve or eigliteea months is necessary before it 
should be bottled. — Fannet^'s Ma^. Vol. IX. 
To manage cider and perry. 

To fine and improve tlie liavour of one hogs- 
head, take a gallon of good French brandy, with 
half an ounce of cochineal, one pound of alum, and 
three pounds of sugar-candy; bruise them all well 
i'l a mortar, and infuse them in the brandy for a 
day or two; then mix tne whole v/ith the cider, and 
stop it close for five or six months. After wliieh, 
if fine, bottle it off. 

Cider or perry, when bottled in hot weather, 
should be left a day or two uncorked, that il may 
get fiat; hut if too flat in the cask, and soon wanted 
for use, put into each bottle a small lump or two 
of sugar-oandy, four or five raisins of the sun, or a 
small piece of raw beef; any of which will much 
improve the liquor, and make it brisker. 

Cider should be well corked and waxed, and 
packed upright in a cool place. A few bottles 
may always be kept in a warmer place to ripen 
and be ready for use. 

To mahe cheap cider from raisins. 

Take fourteen pounds of raisins with the stalks; 
wash them out in four or five waters, till the water 
remains clear; then put them into a clean cask 
with the head out, and put six gallons of good wa- 
ter upon them; after which cover it well up, and 
let it stand ten days. Then rack it off into anotlier 
clean cask, which has a brass cock in it, and in 
four or five days time it will be fit for bottling. 
"^Vhen it has been in the bottles seven or eight 
days, it will be fit for use. A little colouring 
should be added when putting into the cask the 
second time. The raisins may afterwards be used 
for vinegar. 

To make perry. 

Perry is made after the same manner as cider, 
only from pears, which must be quite dry. The 
best pears for this purpose are such as are least fit 
for eating, and the redder they are the better. 
Ol'sei~vatimis on cider. 

From the great diversity of soil and climate in 
the United States of America, and the almost end- 
less variety of its apples, it follows that much di- 
versity of taste and flavour will necessarily be 
found in the cider that is made from them. 

To make good cider the following general, but 
important rules should be attended to. They de- 
mand a little more troubic than the ordinary mode 
of collecting and mashing apples of all sorts, rot- 
ten and sound, sweet and sour, dirty and clean, 
from the tree and the soil, and the rest of the slov 



122 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



enly pi'ocess usually employed; but in return they 
produce you a ■wholesome, liigli flavoured, sound 
and palatable liquor, that always commavds an 
adeqiuite price, instead of a solution of " villainous 
compouuds," in a poisonous and acid wash, tliat 
110 man in his senses will drink. The finest cider 
I ever tasted, was made of an equal portion oi ripe, 
sound, pippin and crab apples, //a.'crf, cored, and 
m-essed, fcc. with the utmost nicety. It was equal 
in flavour to any champagne that ever was made. 
General ndeftfor making cider. 

1. Always choose perfectly ripe and sound fruit. 

2. Pick the apples by hand. An active boy, 
with a biig slung over his shoulders, will soon clear 
a tree. Apples that have lain any time on the soil, 
contract an earthy taste, which wi;i always be 
found in the cider. 

3. After sweating, and before being ground, 
-ivipe them dry, and if any are found bruised or 
rotten, put them in a heap by themselves, for an 
inferior cidt^r to make vinegar. 

4. Always use hair cloths, instead of straw, to 
place between the layers of pommage. Tbe straw 
when heated, gives a disagreeable taste to the 
cider. 

5. As the cider runs from the press, let it pass 
tlirough a hair sieve into a large open vessel, tliat 
will liold as much juice as can be expressed in one 
day. Ill a day, or sometimes less, the pumice will 
rise to the to]), and in a short tin^e grow very 
thick: when little white bubbles break llii-ough it, 
draw off the liquor by a spigot, placed about three 
inches from the bottom, so that the lees may be 
left quietly behind. 

6. Tiie'cider must be drawn off into very clean 
sweet casks, and closely watched. The moment 
the wiiite bubbles before mentioned are perceived 
rising at the bung-hole, rack it again. "When the 
fermentation is completely at an end, fill up the 
cask with cider, in all respects like that already 
contained in it, and bung it up tight; previous to 
ivhich a tumbler of snueet oil may be poured into 
the bung-heie. 

Sound, well made cider, that has been produced 
as described, and without any foreign mixtures 
ixcepting always that of good coguiac brandy, 
[whick added to it in the proportion of one gallon 



to thirty, greatly improves it) is a pleasant, cool- 
ing and useful beverage. While on the contraiy, 
the acid and nasty wash that has passed through 
leaden pipes, and been otherwise carelessly and 
unskilfuliv made, is a perfect poison, producing 
colic, and not unfreqtiently, incurable obstruc- 
tions. 



TO MAKE PUNCH. 

For a gallon of punch take six fresh Sicily le- 
mons — rub the outsides of them well over with 
lumps of double refined loaf sugar, until they be- 
come quite yellow; throw the lumps into the bowl; 
roll your lemo.'s well on a clean plate or table, cut 
them in half and squeeze them with a proper in- 
strument over the sugar; bruise the sugar, and con- 
tinue to add fresh portions of it, mixing the lemon 
pidp and juice well witli it — much of the goodness 
of thepuncli will depend upon this. The quantity 
of sugar to be added, should be great enough to 
render llie mixture ivitbont -water pleasant to the 
jialate even of a child. Wlien this is obtained, add 
gradually a small quantity of hot water, just enough 
to render the sirup thin enough to pass through 
the strainer — mix all well together, strain it, and 
try if there be sugar enough: if at all sour a*dd 
more. When cold nut in a little cold water, and 
ecpial quantities of the best cognific brandy and old 
Jamaica rum, testing its strength by tiiat infallible 
guide the palate. A glass of calf's foot jelly av.',ded 
to the sirup when warm, will not injure its quali- 
ties. 

The great secret of making good punch may be 
given ill a few words: a great deal of fresii lemon 
juict — more than eiiougii of good sugar — a fair 
proportion of brandy and rum, and very little 
water. 

To make nectar. 

Put half a pound of loaf sugar into a large porce- 
lain jiig; add one pint of cold water; bruise and stir 
the sugar till it is completely dissolved; [louroverit 
half ■! bottle of liock and one bottle of madeira — 
mix them well together, and grate in half a nut- 
meg, with a drop or two of the essence of lemon — 
set the jug in a bucket of ice for one hour. 



TO MAKE BRITISH WINES. 

The different processes in wine making, range 
themselves under the following heads: 

Gathering the fruit, picking the fruit, bruising 
the fruit, and vatting the fruit. 

Vinous fermentation, flavouring the wine, draw- 
ing the niuft, pressing the husk, caskingtlie must. 

Spirituous fermentation, racking tlie wine, fining 
ihe wine, bottling and corking the wine. 
Gathering tlie fridt. 

Fruit of every sort, says Mr CarncJl, in his ex- 
cellent treatise on wine making, should be gather- 
ed HI fine weather; those of the berry kind often 
appear ripe to the eye before they are really so, 
therefore it is reipiisite tr taste them several limes 
in order to ascertain that they are arrived at the 
crisis of maturity. If the fruit be not ripe, the wine 
will be harsh and hard, unpleasant to the palate, 



and more so the stomach; it will also require more 
spirit and saccharine, and take a longer time to be 
fit for the table, li the fruit be too ripe, the wine 
from it will lie faint, low, and vapid; it will not be 
strong and generous; it will also requu-e more 
trouble, additional Sjiirit, and expense. 

Picking. 
Detach the unripe and bad berries: tiie resu.t, 
when the wine is (h-ank, will be greatly superior 
in rieliness. Pick stalks from grapes, currants, and 
gooseberries, previously to their being placed in 
the vat. 

Brmsing. 
The quantity of fruit for making a vintage of do- 
mestic wine, is not so largfe but it may be bruised 
in a tub, and from thence removed into the vat, o< 
if die quantity be very small, it may be bruised iv- 
the vat. W'liile the fruit is picking by one person 



vvines. 



123 



anoitier may oruise it, and as it is bruised, remove 
it into the vat. When Malaga or SmjTna raisins 
are used, they are to b j put into the vat with the 
■water, to soak, and the flowing day taken out and 
bruised, then returned into the vat again. 
Vatting. 

The first thing to be done is to place the guard 
against the tap-!.ole, to prevent the husks escaping 
at the time the must or extract is drawn off. When 
all the fruit is in the vat the water should be added, 
and the contents stirred with the vat-staff, and left 
to macerate until the next day, when sugar, tartar, 
&c. diluted with some of the liquor, is to be put in- 
to the vat, and the whole again stirred up. Tlie 
place where tlie vat is situated should have a free 
circulation of ah-, and a temperature of not less tlian 
58 degrees. If the vinous fermentation do not take 
place in a reasonable time, the contents must be 
often stirred, and the place made warmer. 
Vinous fermentation. 

The time of a vinous fermentation commencing 
jS always uncertain; it depends much on the qual- 
ity and quantity of the contents of the vat, on its 
local situation, 0!J the season or weather, and most 
particularly on the greenness or ripeness of the 
fruit. To produce a medium vinous fermentation, 
the vats and contents ought to be placed in a tem- 
perature from 60 to 70 degrees. And if th.is is 
found not to produce fermentation in a short time, 
the temperature of the place must be made warm- 
er, and the vat often stirred with tlie vat-staff. 

The commencement of the vinous fermentation 
may be known by piungingthe thermometer into the 
middle of the vat, for a minute, and when taken 
out, if a fermentation has commenced, the tempe- 
rature of the contents will be higher than at the 
place where the vats are situated. When the vi- 
nous fermentation begins, it is very conspicuous, 
and may be known by its taste, smell, appearance, 
and effects. The contents will first gently rise, 
and swell with a slight movement and a little hiss- 
ing. A considerable motion will take place, and 
the contents will increase in heat and bulk, while 
a quantity of air escapes. 

It is impossible to lay down an exact time for a 
vinous fermentation; but for eighteen gallons, two 
or three days are generally sufficient for white 
wines; and red wines i-equire a day or two more. 
Flavouring the -wine. 

W hen the vinous fermentation is about half over, 
the flavouring ingredients are to be put into the vat 
and well stiri'ed into the contents. If almonds form 
a component part, they are first to be beaten to a 

Saste and mixed with a pint or two of the must. 
Tutmegs, cinnamon, ginger, seeds, &c. should, be- 
fore they are put into the vat, be reduced to pow- 
der, and mixed with some of the inust. 
Drawing the must. 

When the must in the vat gives, by tasting, a 
strong -vinous pungency, that is the period to stop 
the remaining slight ftvmentation by drawing off 
the must, in order to have strong and generous 
wine. 

A cock, or spicket and faucet is to be put into 
tlie tap-hole of the vat, and tlie must drawn off and 
put into open vessels, there to remain till the pres- 
sing is finished. 

Pressing the hiisk. 

As soon as all the must is drawn off from the 
vat, the husks are to be nut into hair-bags, and the 
moutn of the bag is to De well fastened, then put 
into the press, and the whole pressed without de- 
lay. The must that is pressed out is to be mixed 
with the must that was drawn off from the vat. 
Many ways may be contrived for jiressing a small 
vintage, for tliose jiersons w]io cannot afford to 
purehrfse a proper wine-press; but several wines do 



not require pressing, and may be strained through 
a sweet, clean, canvass bag, made with a p&iiitcd 
end downwards. 

Cashing the must. 

Each cask is to be filled within about an inch ot 
the bung-hole, which should be covered over light- 
ly with a flat piece of wood. Tlie rnusjt now is 
perfectly cool and calm, and will remain in this 
state until the spirituous fermentation commences. 
Spirituous fermentation. 

The spirituous fermentation is essentially neces- 
sary to the claritication, goodness, and perfection 
of the wine. If the vinous fermentation has been 
well conducted, and the wine cellar be not too cold, 
a spirituous fermentation will commence in a few- 
days, and abate in six or twelve days, the time de- 
pending on circumstances, and on the quality and 
quantity of the wine. The brandy or spirit assign- 
ed should at this time be put to the wine by pour- 
ing it in gently without disturbing the wine. The 
cask now, if not full, must be filled Uf) and bunged 
with a wooden bung covered with a piece of new 
canvass larger than the bung. In about a month 
after the spirit has been added, the cask will again 
want filling up, this should be done with the over- 
plus of tile vintage, if not with some other good 
wine, and the cask re-bunged very tight. 

The cask should be pegged once a month or of- 
tener to see if the wine be clear and not thick, and 
as soon a. it is fine and bright, it must be rackv-d 
off its lees. 

Racking the -wine. 

This is an operation highly requisite to the keep- 
ing wine good; to its purification, strength, colour, 
brilliancy, richness, and flavour, and is performed 
by drawing off the -imie and leaving the lees in the 
cask. A siphon should be used: but if not, the 
cask should be tapped two or three days previous- 
ly. It may be racked off into anotlier cask, or into 
a vat or tub, and returned into the same cask again, 
after it has been ivell cleaned: and, if requisite, the 
cask may be slightly fumigated, immediately be- 
fore the wine is returned into it. If the wine, on 
being tasted, is found weak, a little spirit is to be 
given to it, the cask filled up and bunged tight. 

The racking oft' ought to be performed in tempe- 
rate weather, and as soon as the wines appear clear, 
a second racking will make them perfectly brilliant, 
and if so, they will want no fining. 
Fining. 

Many wines require fining before they are rack- 
ed, and the operation of fining is not always neces- 
sary. Most wines, well made, do not want fining; 
this may be ascertained by drawing a little into a 
glass, from s. peg-hole. 

One of the best finings is as follows: — Take one 
pound of fresh marsh-mallow i-ools, washed clean, 
and cut into small pieces; macerate them in two 
quarts of soft water, for twenty-four hours, then 
gently boil the liquor down to three lialf pints, 
strain it, and when cold mix with it half an ounce 
of pipe-day or chalk in powder, then pour tlie mu- 
cilage into the cask, and stir up the wine so as not 
to disturb the lees, and leave the vent-peg out for 
some days after. 

Or, take boiled rice, two table-spoonsful, the 
while of one new egg, and half an ounce of burnt 
alum, in powder. iSlix with a pint or more of the 
wine, then puur the mucilage into the cask, and 
stir the wine with a stout stick, but not to agitate 
the lees. 

Or, dissolve, in a gentle heat, half an ounce of 
isinglass in a pint or more of the wine, then mix 
I with it half an ounce of chalk, in powder; wher 
I ihe two are well incorporated, pour it into the 
I cask, and stir the wine, so as not to disturb the 
I lees. 



124 



UNIVERSAL RECEirr BOOK. 



As soon as wines are clear and bright, after be- 
ing fined down, they ought to be racked into a 
Bweet and clean cask, the cask filled up and bung- 
ed tight. 

Bottling and corking. 

Fine clear weather is best for bottling all sorts 
of wines, and much cleanliness is required. The 
first consideration, in bottling wines, is to examine 
and see if the wines are in a proper state. The 
■wines should be fine mid brilUant, or they will 
never brighten after. 

The bottles must be all sound, clean and dry, with 
plenty of good sound corks. 

The cork is to be put in with the hand, and then 
driven well in with a flat wooden mallet, the weight 
of which ought to be a fmind and a quarter, but 
Iwwever, not to exceed a pound and a half, for if 
the mallet be too light or too heavy it will not 
drive the cork in properly, and may break the bot- 
tle. The corks must so completely fill up the neck 
of each bottle as to render them air tight, but leave 
a space of an inch between the wine and the cork. 

When all the wine is bottled, it is to be stored 
in a cool cellar, and on no account on the bottles'' 
bottoms, but on their sides and in saw-dust. 
Apparatus for luine malcing. 

To make wine well, and with facility, persons 
should have all the rei-uisite apparatus, namely, the 
vats, vat-staft", fruit-bruiser, strainer, hair-bags, i 
wine-press, thermometer, and bottling machine. 

Mr Carnell's receipt for red gooseberry ivine. 

Take cold soft water, 10 gallons,— red goose- 
berries, 11 gallons, and ferment. Now mix raw 
sugar, 16 lbs.— beet-root, sliced, 2 lbs. and red 
tartar, in fine powder, 3 ounces. Afterwards put 
in sassafras chips, 1 lb. and brandy, 1 gallon, or 
less. This will make 18 gallons. 

Jimther.—When the weather is dr)', gather 
gooseberries about the time they are halt ripe; i)ick 
them clean, put the quantity of a peck into a con- 
venient vessel, and bruise them wuh a piece of 
wood, taking as much care as possible to keep the 
seeds whole. Now bavins; put the pulp into a can- 
vass bag, press out all the juice; and to every gal- 
lon of the gooseberries add about three pounds of 
fine loaf sugar: mix the whole together by stirring 
it with a stick, and as soon as the sugar is quite 
dissolved, pour it into a convenient cask, which 
will hold it exactly. If the quantity be about 8 or 
9 galloiis, let it stand a fortnight; if 20 gallons, lO 
days, and so on in proportion; taking care the 
place you set it in be cool. After standing the 
proper time, draw it off from the lees, and put it 
into another clean vessel of equal size, or into the 
same, after pouring the lees out, and making it 
clean; let a cask often or twelve gallons stand tor 
about three months, and twenty gallons for five 
months, after which it will he fit tVr bottling oft. 
Red and -white gooseberry ivine. 

Take cold soft water, 3 gallons, red gooseberries, 
l^ gallons, white gooseberries, two gallons. Fer- 
ment. 

Now mix i-aw sugar, 5 lbs. honey, 1^ lbs. tartar, 
in fine powder, 1 oz. Afterwards put in bitter al- 
monds, two ounces, sweet-briar, one small handful, 
and brandy one gallon, or less. This will make 
six gallons. 

White gooseberry or champagne wins. 
Take cold soft water, 4^ gallons, white gooseber- 
ries, 5 gallons. P'erment. 

Now mix refined sugar, 6 pounds, — honey, 4 
pounds,— white tartar, in fine powder, 1 oz. Put 
in oi-an!?e and lemon peel, 1 oz. dry, or two ounces 
fresh; and add white brandy half a gallon. This 
will make nine gallons. 

Gooseberry -wine of the best quality, resembling 
champagne. 
To each Scotch pint of full ripe gooseberries. 



mashed, add 1 Scotch pint of water, milk warm, 
in which has been dissolved 1 lb. of single refined 
sugar: stir the whole well, and cover up the tub 
with a blanket, to preser\e the heat generated by 
the fermentation of the ingredients: let them re- 
main in this vessel three days,stirring them twice 
or thrice a day: strain off the liquor through a 
sieve, afterwards through a coa.-se linen cloth; 
put it into the cask: it will ferment without 
yeast. Let the cask be, kept full with some of the. 
liquor reserved for the purpose. It will ferment 
for ten days, sometimes for three weeks: when 
ceased, and only a hissing noise remains, draw oft 
two or three bottles, according to the strength you 
wish it to have, from every ^0 pint cask, and fill 
up the cask with brandy or whiskey; but brandy is 
preferable. To make it very good, and that it may 
keep well, add as much sherry, together with a ^ 
oz. of isinglass dissolved in water to make it quite 
liquid; stii the whole well. Eung the cask up, and 
surround the bung with clay; the closer it is bung- 
ed, the better; a fortnight after, if it be clear at 
top, taste it; if not sweet enough, add more sugar; 
22 lbs. is the just quantity in all for 20 pints of 
wine; leave the wine six months in the cask; but 
after being quite fine, the sooner it is bottled, the 
more it will sparkle and resemble champagne. 
The process sh-)yld be carried on in a place where 
a.e heat is between 48 deg. and .'i6 deg. Fahren- 
heit. — N.B. Currant wine may be made in the 
same manner. 

To make British champagne. 

Take gooseberries before they are ripe, crush 
them with a mallet in a wooden bowl, and to 
every gallon of fru'.t put a gallon of v/ater; let i< 
stand two days, stirring it veil; squt-eze the mix-, 
ture well with the hands through a h')j:-sieve; theu 
measure the liquor, and to every gallon put 3| lbs. 
of loaf-sugar; mix it well in the tub, and !el it stand 
one day: put a bottle of the best brandy into the 
cask; which leave open five or six weeks, taking off 
the scum as it rises; then make it up, and let it 
stand one year in the ban-el before it is bottled. 

The proportion of brandv to be used for this li- 
quor, is one pint to 7 gallons. 

Gooseberry and currant -mine mixed. 

Take cold soft water, 6 gallons, — goosebenies, 
4 do. — currants, 4 do. Ferment. 

Mix, raw sugar, 12 lbs. — honey, P. lbs. and tar- 
tar, in fine powder, Ij oz. — bitter almonds, 1| oz. 
Put in brandy, 6 pints or more. This will make 
12 gallons. 

A7iother. — Take cold soft water, 5| gallons, — 
gooseberries and currants, 4 gallons. Ferment. 
Then add — raw sugar, 12^ lbs. — tartar, in fine 
powder, 1 oz. — ginger, in powder, 3 ounces — 
sweet marjoram, half a handful, — British spirits, 1 
quart. This will make 9 gallons. 
lied currant ivine. 

Take cold soft water, U gallons — red currants, 
8 gallons, — raspberries, 1 quart. Ferment. Mix, 
raw sugar, 20 lbs. — beet-root, sliced, 2 lbs. and red 
tartar, in fine powder, 3 ounces. Put in 1 nutmeg, 
in fine powder; add brandy, 1 gallon. This will 
make 18 gallons. 

Another. — Put five quarts of currants and a pint 
of raspberries to every two gallons of .vater; let 
them soak a night; then squeeze and break them 
well. Next day rub tliem well through a^ne sieve 
till the juice is expresse-"j washing the skins with 
some of the water; then, to every gallon, put four 
pounds of the best sugar, put it into your barrel, 
an J set the bung lightly in. In two or three days 
add a bottle of good cogniae brandy to every four 
gallons; bung it close, but leave out the spiggot for 
a few days. It is very good in three years, better 
m four. 

Another.— Boil four gallons of sjwtng water, and 



WINES. 



l2o 



stir into it 8 lbs. of honey; when thoroughly dis- 
solved, take it off* the fire; then stir it well in order 
to raise the scum, which take clean off, and cool 
the liquor. 

When thus prepared, press out the same quan- 
tity of the juice of red currants moderately ripe, 
which being well strained, mix well with the wa- 
ter and honey, then put them into a cask, or a large 
earthen vessel, and let them stand to ferment for 
24 hours; then t-^ every gallon add 2 lbs. of fine su- 
gar, stir t'uem wel'i to raise the scum, and when 
well settled, take it off, and add half an oz. of 
cream of tartar, with the whites of two or three 
eggs, to refine it. When the wine is well settled 
<»nd clear, draw it off into a small vessel, or bottle 
It up, keeping it in a cool place. 

Of white currants a wine after the same manner 
may be made, that will equal in strength and plea- 
santness many sorts of white wine; but as for the 
black or Dutch currants, they are seldom used, 
except for the preparation of medicinal wines. 

Another. — Gather the currants in dry weather, 
put them into a pan and bruise them with a wooden 
pestle; let them stand about 20 hour?, after which 
sti'ain through a sieve; add 3 lbs. of fine powdered 
sugar to each 4 quarts of the liquor, and after shak- 
ing it well, fill the vessel, and put a quart of good 
brandy to every ^seven gallons. In 4 weeks, if it 
does not prove quite clear, draw it off into another 
vessel, and let it stand previous to bottling it off 
about 10 days. 

Red and rolute currant ■wine. 
Take of cold soft water, 12 gallons; white cur- 
rants, 4 do. ; red currants, 3 do. Ferment. Mix, 
raw sugar, 25 lbs. ; white tartar, in fine powder, 3 
o'z. Put in sweet-briar leaves, 1 handful; lavender 
leaves, 1 do.; then add spirits, 2 quarts or more. 
This Avill make 18 gallons. 

Dutch currant -rmne. 
Take of cold soft water, 9 gallons; red currants, 
10 do. Ferment. Mix, raw sugar, 10 lbs. ; beet- 
root, sliced, 2!bs. ; red tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz. 
Put in bitter almonds, 1 oz. ; ginger, in powder, 2 
oz. then add brandy, 1 quart. This will make 18 
gallons. 

Dzetch red currant wine. 
Take of cold soft water, II gallons; red currants, 
S do. Ferment. Mix, raw sugar, 12 lbs.; red 
jartar, in fine powder, 2 oz. Put in coriander 
leed, bruised, 2 oz. then add British spirit, 2 quarts. 
This will make 18 gallons. 

Mixed berries from a small garden. 
Take of cold soft water, 11 gallons; fruit, 8 do. 
Ferment. Mix, treacle, 14 or 16 lbs. ; tartar, in 
powder, 1 oz. Put in ginger, in powder, 4 oz.; 
sweet herbs, 2 handsful: then add spirits, 1 or 2 
quarts. This will make 18 gallons. 
To make compound -wine. 
An excellent family wine may be made of equal 
parts of red, white, and black currants, ripe cher- 
ries, and raspberries, well bruised, and mixed with 
soft water, in the proportion of 4 lbs. of fruit to 1 
gallon of water. When strained and pressed, 3 
lbs. of moist sugar are to be added to each gallon 
of liquid. After standing open for 3 days, during 
which it is to be stirred frequently, it is to be put 
into a barrel, and left for a fortnight to work, when 
a ninth part of brandy is to be added, and the whoie 
bunged down. In a few months it will be a most 
excellent wine. 

Other mixed fruits of the berry kind. 
Take of cold soft water, 2 gallons; fruit, 18 do. 
Ferment. Honey, 6 lbs. ; tartar, in fine powder, 2 
oz. Put in peach leaves, 6 handsful: then add 
orandy, 1 gallon. This will make 38 gallons. 
White currant wine. 
Take of cold soft water, 9 gallons; white currants, 



9 do. ; white gooseberries, 1 do. Ferment. Mix, 
refined sugar, 25 lbs. ; white tartar, in powder, 1 
oz.; clary seed, bruised, 2 oz. or clary flowers, 9r 
sorrel flowers, 4 handsful: tlien add white brandy, 
1 gallon. This will make 18 gallons. 

Another. — Take of cold soft water, 10 gallons; 
white cun-ants, 10 do. Ferment. Mix, refined 
sugar, 25 lbs. ; white tartar, in fine powder, 1 oz. 
then add, bitter almonds, 2 oz. and white brandy, 
oae gallon. This will make eighteen gallons, 
Jilack czrrant wine. 
Take of cold soft water, 10 gallons; black cur- 
rants, 6 do. ; strawberries, 3 do. Ferment. Mix, 
raw sugar, 25 lbs.; red tartar, in fine powder, 6 oz. 
orange-thyme, 2 handsful: then add brandy, 2 or 3 
quarts. This will make eighteen gallons. 

Another. — Take of cold soft water, 12 gallons; 
black currants, 5 do.; white or red currants, or 
both, 3 do. Ferment. Mix, raw sugar, 30 lbs. or 
less; red tartar, in fine powder, 5 oz.; ginger in 
powder, 5 oz. ; then add brandy, 1 gallon, or less. 
This will make 18 gallons. 

Another, very fine. — To every three quarts of 
juice, add as much of cold water, and to every 
three quarts of the mixture, add three pounds of 
good, pure sugar. Put it into a cask, reserving 
some to fill up. Set the cask in a warm dry room, 
and it will ferment of itself When this is over, 
skim off the refuse, and fill up with what you have 
reserved for this purpose. When it has done work- 
ing, add three quarts of brandy to forty quarts of 
the wine. Bung it up close for ten months, then 
bottle it. The thick part may be separated by 
straining, and the percolating liquor be bottled 
also. Keep it for twelve months. 
Strawberry wine. 
Take of cold soft water, 7 gallons; cider, 6 do.; 
strawberries, 6 do. Ferment. Mix, raw sugar, 
16 lbs.; red tartar, in fine powder, 3 oz. ; the peel 
and juice of 2 lemons: then add brandy, 2 or 3 
quarts. This will make 18 gallons. 

Another. — Take of cold soft water, 10 gallons; 
strawberries, 9 do. Ferment. Mix, raw sugar, 
25 lbs. ; red tartar, in fine powder, 3 oz. ; 2 lemons 
and 2 oranges, peel and juice: then add brandy, I 
gallon. This will make 18 gallons. 
Raspberry -wine. 
Take of cold soft water, 6 gallons; cider, 4 do» 
raspberries, 6 do. ; any other fruit, 3 do. Ferment 
Mix, raw sugar, 18 or 20 lbs.; red tartar, in fine 
powder, 3 oz. ; orange and lemon peel, 2 oz. dry, 
or 4 oz. fresh: then add brandy, 3 quarts. This 
will make 18 gallons. 

Another. — Gather the raspberries when ripe, 
husk them and bruise them; then strain them 
through a bag into jars or other vessels. Boil the 
juice, and to evety gallon put a pound and a half 
of lump sugar. Now add whites of eggs, and let 
the whole boil for fifteen minutes; skimming it as 
the froth rises. When cool and settled, decant 
the liquor into a cask, adding yeast to make it fer- 
ment. When this has taken place, add a pint of 
white wine, or half a pint of proof spirit to each 
gallon contained in the cask, and hang a bag in it 
containing an ounce of bruised mace. In three 
months, if kept in a cool place, it will be very ex- 
cellent and delicious wine> 

Mulberry wine. 
On a dry day, gather mulberries, when they are 
just changed from redness to a shining black; 
spread them thinly on a fine cloth, or on a lioor or 
table, for twenty-four hours; and then press them. 
Boil a gallon of wattr with each gallon of juice; 
putting to every gallon of water an ounce of cinna- 
mon bark, and six ounces of sugar candy finely 
powdered. Skim and strain the water, when it ia 
taken off and settled, and put to it the mulberry 



126 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



juice. Now Ai\(\ to every j^allon of the mixture a 
pint of white or Tlhenish wine. Let the whole 
8taH(5 in a task to ferment, for five or six days. 
When settled, di'aw it off into bottles, and keeji it 
cool. 

Elder-berry toine. 

Take of cold soft water, 16 gallons, Malaga 
raisins, 50 lbs. elder-berries, 4 gallons, red tartar, 
in fine poivder, 4 ounces. Mix giager, in pow- 
der, 5 ounces, cinnamon, cloves, and mace, of 
each 2 ounces, 3 oranges or lemons, peel and juice. 
Then add 1 gallon of brandy. This will make 18 
gallons. 

Another. — In making elder juice, let the berries 
be fully ripe, and all the stalks be clean picked 
from them; then, have a press ready for drawing 
off all the juice, and four iiair cloths, somewhat 
broader than the press: lay one layer above another, 
having a haircloth betwixt every layer, which must 
be laid very thin, and pressed a little at first, and 
then more till the press be di'awn as close as possi- 
ble. Now take*out the berries, and press all the 
rest in the like manner: then take the pressed ber- 
ries, break out all the lumps, put th"ni into an open 
headed vessel, and add as much liquor as will just 
cover them. Let them infuse so for seven or eight 
days; then put the best juice into a cask proper for 
it to be kept in, and add one gallon of malt spirits, 
not rectified, to every twenty gallons of elder juice, 
whicii will effectually preserve it from becoming 
sour for two years at least. 

Another. — Pick the berries when quite ripe, put 
them into a stone jar, and set them in an oven, or 
in a kettle of boiling water, till the jar is hot 
through, then take them out, and strain them 
through a coarse sieve: squeeze the berries, and 
put the juice into a clean kettle. To every quart 
of juice put a pound of fine Lisbon sugar: let it boil, 
and skim it well. When clear and fine, pour it 
into a cask. To every ten gallons of wine add an 
ounce of isinglass dissolved in cider, and six whole 
eggs. Close it up, let it stand six months, and 
then bottle it. 

To make an imitation of Cr/pnis -wine. 

To ten gallons of water put ten cpiarts of the 
juice of white elder berries, pressed gently from 
the berries by the hand, and passed through a sieve, 
without bruising the seeds; add to every gallon of 
liquor three pounds of Lisbon sugar, and to the 
whole quantity two ounces of ginger sliced, and 
one ounce of cloves. Boil this nearly an hour, 
taking off the scum as it rises, and pour the whole 
to cool, in an open tub, and work it with aie yeast, 
spread upon a toast of bread for three days. Then 
turn it into a vessel that will just hold it, adding 
about a pound and a half of bruised raisins, to lie 
in the liquor till drawn off, which should not be 
done till the wine is fine. 

This wine is so much like the fine rich wine 
brought from the island of Cyprus, in colour, taste, 
and flavour, that it has deceived the best judges. 
To make elder-Jiotver ivine; or English Frontiniac. 

Boil eighteen pounds of white powdered sugar 
in six gallons of water, and two whites of eggs well 
beaten; skim it, and put in a quarter of a peck of 
elder-flowers; do not keep them on the fire. When 
cool, stir it, and put in six spoonsful of lemon juice, 
four or five of yeast, and beat well into the liquor; 
stir it well every day; put six pounds of the best 
raisins, stoned, into tlie cask, and tun the wine. 
Stop it close, and bottle i.i six months. When 
well kept, this wine will pass very well for Fron- 
tiniac. 

Another. — To six gallons of spring water put six 
pounds of sun raisins cut small, and a dozen pounds 
of fine sugar; boil the whole together for about an 
hoar and a half. When the liquor is cold, put 



half a peck of ripe elder-flowers in, with about 9 
gill of lemon juice, and half the quantity of ale 
yeast. Cover it up, and after standing three days, 
strain it off. Now poiu' it into a cask that is quite 
clean and that will hold it with ense. When this 
is done, put a quart of Rhenish w i:ie to every gal- 
lon; let the bung be slightly put in for twelve o\- 
fourteen days; tJien stop it down fast, ami p^ii it in 
a cool diy place for four or five months, till it be 
quite settled and fine; then bottle it off. 
Imitation of port ivine. 

Take 6 gallons of good cider; I^ gallons of port 
wine; 1^ gallons of the juice of elder-berries; 3 
quarts of brandy; 1| ounces of cochineal. I'his 
will procI'iCQ 0^ gallons. 

Bruise the cochineal very fine, and put it wiili 
the brandy into a stone bottle; let it remain at least 
a fortnight, shaking it well once or twice everv 
day; at the end of that time procure the cider, and 
put five gallons into a nine galljn cask, add to it 
the elder juice and port wine, then tlie brandy and 
cochineal. Take the remaining gallon of cider to 
rinse out the bottle that contained the brandy; and 
lastly, pour it into the cask, and bung it down 
very close, and in six weeks it will be readv for 
bottling. 

It is, however, sometimes not quite so fine as 
could be wished: in that case add two ounces of 
isinglass, and let it remain a fortnight or three 
weeks longer, when it will be perfectly bright: it 
would not be amiss, perhaps, if the quantity of 
isinglass mentioned was added to the wine before 
it was bunged down; it will tend v*^ry considera- 
bly to improve the body of the wine. If it should 
not appear sufficiently rough flavoured, add an 
ounce, or an ounce and a half of roche-alum, which 
will, in most cases, impart a sufficient astringency. 

After it is bottled, it must be packed in as cool 
a place as possible. It will befit for using in a few 
months; but if kept longer, it will be greatly im- 
proved. 

Wortleberry or bilberry -wine. 

Take of cold soft water, 6 gallons; cider, 6 gal- 
lons; berries, 8 gallons. Ferment. Mix, i-aw su- 
gar, 2U pounds; tartar, in fine powder, 4 ounces. 
i Add ginger, in powder, 4 ounces; lavender and 
rosemary leaves, 'iliandsful; rum or Britisli spirits, 
1 gallon. I'his will make 18 gallons. 
Birch -mine. 

The season for obtaining the liquor from birch- 
trees, is in the laiter end of Februar}^ or llie be- 
ginning of March, before the leaves shoot out, and 
as the sap begins to rise. If the time is delayed, 
the juice will grow too thick to be drawn out. It 
should be as thin and clear as possible. The me- 
thod of procuring the juice is by boring holes in 
the trunk of the tree, and fixing faucets of elder; 
but care should be taken not to tap it in too many 
places at once, for fear of injuring the tree. If the 
tree is large, it may be bored in five or six places 
at once, and bottles are to be placed under the 
aperture for the sap to flow into. When four or 
five gallonshave been extracted from different trees, 
cork the bottles very close, and wax them till the 
wine is to be made, which should be as soon as 
possible after the sap has been obtained. Boil the 
sap, and put four pounds of loaf sugar to every gal- 
ion, also the peel of a lemon cut tiiin; then boil it 
again for nearly an hour, skimming it all the time. 
Now pour it into a tub, and ss soon as it is almost 
cold, work it with a toast spread with yeast, and 
let it stand five or six days, stirring it twice or 
three times each day. Into a cask that will contain 
it, put a lighted brimstone match, stop it up till 
the match is burnt out, and then pour the wine into 
it, putting the bung lightly in, till it has done 
working. Bung it very close for about three months, 



WINES. 



1^7 



and th=n bottle it It will be good in a week after 
ik is put into the bottles. 

Another. — Uirch wine may be made with raisins, 
m the following manner: To a hogshead of birch- 
water, take four hundred of Malaga raisins: pick 
them clean from the stalks, and cut them small. 
Then boil the birci. liquor for onp hour at least, 
skirn it well, and let it stand till it be no warmer 
than milk. Then put in the raisins, and let it 
stand close covered, stirring it well four or five 
times every day. Boil all the stalks in a gallon or 
two of birch liquor, whi'jh, when added to the other, 
when almost cold, will give it an agreeable roug^h- 
ness. Let it stand ten days, then put it in a cool 
cellar, and when it has done hissing in the vessel, 
stop it Tip close. It must stand at least nine months 
before it is bottled. 

Blackberry -wine. 

Having procured berries that are fully ripe, put 
them into a large vessel of wood or stone, with a 
cock in it, and pour upon them as much boiling 
water as will cover them. As soon as the hea{ will 
permit the hand to be put into the vessel, bruise 
them well till all the berries are broken. Then 
let them stand covered till the berries begin to rise 
towards the top, which they usually do in three or 
four days. Then draw off the clear into another 
vessel, and add to every ten quarts of this liquor, a 
pound of sugar. Stir it well and let it stand to 
work a week or ten days, in another vessel like 
the first. Then draw it off at the cock through a 
jelly-bag into a large vessel. Take four ounces 
of isinglass, and lay it to steep twelve hours in a 
pint of white wine. The next morning, boil it upon 
a slow fire till it is all dissolved. Then take a gal- 
lon of blackberry-juice, put in the dissolved isin- 
glass, give them a boil together, and pour all into 
the vessel. Let it stand a few days to purge and 
settle, then draw it off, and keep it in a cool place. 
Spruce -wine. 

For this, which is only a superior sort of white 
spruce beer, proceed as follows: To every gallon 
of water take 1^ lbs. of honey, and § lb. of fine 
starch. The starch however, previously to its be- 
ing blended with the honey, liquor or syrup, must 
be reduced to a transparent jelly, by boiling it 
with part of the water pui'posely preserved. A 
quarter of a pound of essence of spruce may be used 
to 6 gallons of water; and the same method may be 
pursued in working, fining and bottling, as directed 
for white spruce beer. 

Spruce is a wholesome and pleasant drink to 
those who are used to it, and persons soon become 
habituated. It contains a vast quantity of fixed air, 
which is exti'emely bracing; and the use of this 
liquor is particularly to be recommended to such 
as are troubled with scorbutic humours, or have 
the gravel. It is chiefly used in summer. 
Juiiiper-berrij luine. 

Take of cold soft water, 18 gallons, Malaga or 
Smyrna raisins, 35 lbs. juniper berries, 9 quarts, 
red tartar, 4 ounces, wormwood and sweet maijo- 
rara, each 2 handsful, British spirit, two quarts or 
more. Ferment for ten or twelve days. 'I'his will 
make eighteen gallons. 

To make damson -wine. 

Take of cold soft water, 11 gallons, damsons, 8 
gallons. Ferment. Mix raw sugar, 30 lbs. red 
lartar, in fine powder, 6 oz. Add brandy, 1 gal- 
lon. This will make 18 gallons. 

" When the must," sayS Mr Carnell, " has fer- 
mented 2 days, (dui-ing which time it should be 
stirred up two or three times,) take out of the vat 
about 2 or 3 quarts of the stones, and break tliem 
and the kernels, and then return them into the vat 
again." 

Another method, — Take a coasiderable qviantit 



of damsons and common plums inclining to ripe- 
ness: slit them in halves, so that the stones maybe 
taken out, then mash them gently, and add a little 
water and honey. Add to eveiy gallon of the pulp 
a gallon of spring water, with a few bay leaves and 
cloves; boil the mixtui^e, and add as much sugar as 
will sweeten it; skim oft' the froths, and let it cool. 
Now press the trait, squeezing out the liquid part; 
strain all through a fine strainer, and put the wa- 
ter and juice together in a cask. Having allowed 
the whole to stand and ferment for three or four 
days, fine it with white sugar, flour and white of 
eggs; draw it ofi" into bottles, then cork it well. 
In twelve days it will be ripe, and will taste like 
weak Fort, having tJie flavour of Canary. 

Another. — Gather the damsons on a dry day, 
weigh them, and then bruise them. Put them into 
a stein that has a cock in it, and to every 8 pounds 
of fruit add a gallon of water. Boil the water, 
skim it and put it scalding hot to the fruit. Let 
it stand two days, then draw it off and put it into a 
vessel, and to every gallon of liquor put 2^ lbs. of 
fine sugar. Fill up the vessel, and stop it close, 
and the "onger it stands tlie better. Keep it for 
twelve months in the vessel, and then bottle, put- 
ting a lump of sugar into every bottle. The small 
damson is the best for this purpose. 
Cherry ivine. 

Take of cold soft water, 10 gallons — cherries, 10 
gallons — Ferment. Mix raw sugar, 30 lbs. — red 
tartar, in fine powder, 3 oz. Add brandy, 2 or 3 
quarts. This will make 18 gallons. 

Two days after tlie cherries have been in the 
vat, Mr Carnell says, we should take out about 3 
quarts of the cherry stones, break them and the 
kernels, and return them into Uie vat again. 

Another. — Take cherries nearly r)[)e, of any red 
sort, clear them of the stalks and stones, then put 
them into a glazed earthen vessel, and squeeze 
them to a pulp. Let them remain in this state for 
12 hours to ferment; then put them into a linen 
cloth not too fine and press out the juice with a 
pressing board, or any other convenient instru- 
ment. Now let the liquor sta„d till the scum ri- 
ses, and with a ladle or skimmer take it clean oft"; 
then pour the clear part, by inclination, into a cask, 
where, to each gallon, put a pound of the best loaf 
sugar, and let it fern'.ent for seven or eight days. 
Draw it oft", when clear, into lesser casks or bot- 
tles; keep it cool, as other wines, and in ten or 
twelve days it will be ripe. 

To make JMorella -wine. 

Cleanse from the stalks sixty pounds of Morella 
cherries, and bruise them so that the stones shall 
be broken. Now press out the juice and mix it 
with 6 gallons of sherry wine, and 4 gallons of 
warm water. Having grossly powdered separate 
ounces of nutmeg, cinnamon, and mace, hang them 
separately, in small bags, in the cask containing 
the mixture. Bung it down and in a few weeks it 
will become a deliciously flavoured wine. 
To make peach wine. 

Take of cold soft water, 18 gallons, refined su- 
gar, 25 lbs. honey, 6 lbs. white tartar, in fine pow- 
der, 2 ounces, peaches, sixty or eighty in num- 
ber. Ferment. Then add 2 gallons of brandy. 
This will make 18 gallons. 

The Jlrst division is to be put into the vat, and 
the day after, before the peaches are put in, take 
the stones from them, break tliem and the kernels, 
then put them and the pulp into the vat, and pro- 
ceed with the general process. 

Peach and apricot wine. 

Take peaches, nectarines. Sec. pare them, and 
take the stones out; then slice them thin, and pour 
over them from a gallon to two gallons of water, 
and a quart of white wine. Place the whole on a 



1! 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



fire to simmer gently for a consiilerable time, till 
the sliced fruit becomes soft; pour otf the liquid 
part into snotber vessel cciitainiiig' more peaches 
tliat have been sliced but not heated; let them stand 
for twelve hours, then pour out the liquid part, and 
press what remains through a fine hair bag. Let 
the whole be now put into u cask to ferment; add 
of loaf sugar, a pound and a half to eacli gallon. 
Boil well, an ounce of beaten cloves in a quart of 
white wine, and add it to the above. 

Apricot wine may be made by only bruising the 
fruit and pouring the hot liquor over it. This 
wine does not require so much sweeteuing. To 
give it a curious flavour, boil an ounce of raace, and 
half an ounce of nutmegs, in a quart of white v/ine; 
and -vhen the wine is fermenting pour the liquid 
in liot. In about twenty days, or a month these 
Wines will be fit for bottling. 

Apricot ivine. 

Boil together three pounds of sugar, and three 
quarts of water; and skim it well. Put in six 
pounds of apricots pared and stoned, and let them 
boil till they become tender. Then take them up, 
and when the liquor is cold, bottle it. After tak- 
ing out the apricots, lettlie liquor be boiled with 
a sprig of flowered clary. The apricots will make 
marmalade, and be very good for present use. 
Ijemon xoiiie. 

Pare off the rinds of 6 large lemons, cut them, 
and squeeze out the juice. Steep the rinds in the 
juice, and put to it a quart of brandy. Let it 
stand three days in an earthen pot close stopped; 
then squeeze 6 more, and mix with it 2 quarts of 
spring water, and as much sugar as will sweeten 
the whole. Boil the water, lemons, and sugar to- 
gether, and let it stand till it be cool. Then add a 
quart of white wiiie, and the other lemons and 
brandy; mix them together, and run it thiough a 
flannel bag into some vessel. Let it stand three 
months and then bottle it off. Cork the bottles 
well; keep it cool, and it will be fit to drink in a 
month or six weeks. 

Another. — Pare 5 dozen of lemons very thin, put 
the peels into 5 qrirts of French brandy, and let 
tiiem stand 14 days. Then make the juice into a 
syrup with 3 ibs. of single refined sugar, and wlien 
the peels are ready, boil 15 gsillons of water with 
VO lbs. of single refined sug^.r for half an hour. 
Then put it into a tub, and when cool add to it one 
spoonful of yeast, and let it work two days. Theii 
tun it, and put in the brandy, peels, and syrup. 
'Stir them all together, and close un the cask. Let 
it stand three months, then bottle it, and it will be 
as pale and as fine as any citron water. 
Apple xvhite -wine. 

Take of cold soft water, 2 gal'ons, apples, well 
bruised, 3 bushels, honey, 10 lbs., white tartar, 2 
ounces, 1 nutmeg, in powder, rum, 3 quarts, Tliis 
will make 18 gallons. 

To make apple -wine. 

To every gallon of apple juice, immediately as it 
comes from the press, add 2 ibs. of common lor.f 
sugar; boil it as long as any scum rises, then strain 
it through a sieve, and let it cool; add some good 
yeast, and stir it well; let it work in tiie tub for 
two or three weeks, or till the head begins to flat- 
ten, then skim oft' tlie head, draw it clear off, and 
tun it. When made a year, rack it off, and fine it 
with isinglass; then add 5 a pint of the best recti- 
fied spirit of wine, or a pint of French brandy, to 
every 8 gallons. 

Apple red -wine. 

Take of cold soft water, 3 gallons, apples, 
well bruised, 3 bushels. Ferment. Mix, raw 
sugar, 15 lbs., beet I'oot, sliced, 4 lbs., red tartar, 
in fine powder, 3 oz. then add ginger, in powder, 



3 oz. rosemary and lavender leaves, of each two 
handsful, British spirits, 2 quarts. This will 
make 18 gallons. 

To inake quince ivine. 
Gather the quinces when pretty ripe, in a dry 
da/jTub off the down with a linen cloth, then lay 
them in liay or straw for te 1 days, to perspire. 
Now cut them, in quarters, take out the cores, and 
bruioe them well in a mashing tub with a wooden 
pestle. Squeeze out the liquid part, by pressing 
them in a hair bag, by degrees, in a cider press; 
strain this liquor through a fine sieve, then warm it 
gently over a fire, and skim it, but do not suffer it 
to boil. Now sprinkle into it some loaf-sugar re- 
duced to' powder; then in a gallon of water and a 
quart of white wine, boil 12 or 14 large quinces 
thinly sliced; add 2 lbs. of fine sugar and then 
strain off the liquid part, and mingle it with the na- 
tural juice of the quinces; put this into a cask (not 
to fill it) and mix them well together; then let it 
stand to settle; put in 2 or 3 whites of eggs, then 
draw it off". If it be not sweet enough, add more 
sugar, and a quart of the best Malmsey. To make 
it still better boil a ^ lb. of stoned raisins, and ^ an 
oz. of cinnamon bark in a quart of the liquor, to 
the consumption of a third part, and straining it, 
put it into the cask when the wine is fermenting. 

Another. — Take 20 large quinces, gathered when 
they are dry and full ripe. Wipe them clean with 
a coarse cloth, and grate them with a large grater or 
rasp as near the cores as possible; but do not touch 
the cores. Boil a gallon of spring-water, throw in 
the quinces, and let them boil softly about a ^ of 
an hour. Then strain them well into an eartlien 
pan, on 2 lbs. of double refined sugar. Pare the 
peel of 2 large lemons, throw them in, and squeeze 
the juice through a sieve. Stir it abo'it till it be 
very cool, and tlien toast a thin bit ot bread very 
brown, rub a little yeast on it, and let the whole 
stand close covered 24 hours. Then take out the 
toast and lemon, put the wine in a cask, keep it 
three months, and then bottle it. If a 20 gallon 
cask is wanted, let it stand six months before bot- 
tling it; and remember, when straining the quinces, 
to wi'ing them hard in a coarse cloth. 
Orange ivine. 

Put 12 lbs. of powdered sugar, with the whites 
of 8 or 10 eggs uell beaten, into 6 gallons of spring 
water; boil them -f of an hour; when cold, put into 
it 6 spoonsful of yeast and the juice of 12 lemons, 
which being pared, must stand with 2 lbs. of white 
sugar in a tankard, and in the morning skim off the 
top, and then put ?t into the water; add the juice 
and rinds of 50 oranges, but not the white or pithy 
parts of the rinds; let it work all together 2 days 
and 2 nights; then add two quarts of llhenish or 
white wine, and put it into the vessel. 

Another.— To 6 gallons of water put 15 lbs. of 
soft sugar; before it boils, add the whites of six 
eggs well beaten, and take oft' the scum as it rises; 
boil it ^ an hour: when cool, add the juice of 50 
oranges, and two-thirds of the peels cut very thin; 
and immerse a toast covered with yeast. In a 
month after it has been in the cask, add a pint of 
brandy and 2 quarts of Rhenish wine: it will be fit 
to bottle in 3 or 4 months, but it should remain in 
bottle for 12 months before it is drank. 

I'o make orange and lemon ivine. 

Orange wine of a superior quality may be made 
with 2 lbs. of clayed sugar, and 1 lb. of Malaga 
raisins to each gallon of water, to which add the 
juice and peel of an orange, and to every 100 gal- 
lons of fluid 4 lbs. of Rhenish tartar. 

Two lbs. of honey, 1 lb. of Malaga raisins, witb 
the juice and peel of a large orange, to every gal- 
lon of water, and 4 lbs. of Rhenish tartar to every 



WINES. 



129 



100 gallons fluid, will make an orange wine still 
superior to tlie former. Steep and press the fruit, 
and expend the tw tar in setting, raising, and cut- 
ting the baclis: the orange peel and juice are not 
to De added until the last stage of fermentation, 
that is on cutting: tliey will possess infinitely more 
vinosity than the ordinary orange wines, indeed, 
nearly as much as tlie juice of the vine. 

Lemon wine, equally delicious, may be made in 
a similar manner: both these wines, as they ad- 
vance in age, lose much of the grosser part of the 
orange and lemon flavour; one approaclies the ber- 
gamot and the other a iine citron, and become fra- 
grant as they advance in years: they will be more 
improved if treacle be used, divested of its colour 
and burnt flavour. 

To make parsnip lidtie. 

To 12 pounds of parsnips, cut in slices, add 4 
gallons of Mater; boil them till they become quite 
soft. Squeeze the liquor well out of tliem, run it 
through a sieve, and add to ever}' gallon 3 pounds 
of loat sugar. Boil the whole thi-ee quarters of an 
hour, and when it is nearly cold, add a little yeast. 
Let it stand for ten days in a tub, stirring it every 
day from the bottom, then put it into a cask for 
twelve months: as it works over, fiii it up every 
day. 

White mead ivine. 

Take of cold soft water, seventeen gallons, white 
currants, six quai'ts. Ferment. Mix honey, 30 
pounds, white tartar, in fine powder, 3 oz. Add 
balm and sweetbriar, each 2 handsful, white bran- 
dy, 1 gallon. This will make IS gallons. 
Hed mead or methegiin tvine. 

Take of cold soft water, 17 gallons, red currants, 
6 quarts, black currants, 2 quarts. Ferment. Mix, 
honey, 25 pounds, beet root, sliced, 1 pound, red 
tartar, in fine powder, 4 oz. Add cinnamon, in 
powder, 2 oz. brandy, 1 gallon. This will make 
18 gallons. 

Another. — Fermented mead is made in the pro- 
portion of I pound of honey to 3 pints of water; or 
by boiling over a moderate fire, to two-thirds of 
the quantity, three parts water and one part honey. 
The liquor is then skimmed and casked, care be- 
ing taken to keep the cask fall while fermenting. 
During the fermenting process, tlie cask is left un- 
stopped and exposed to the sun, or in a warm 
room, until the working cease. The cask is then 
•bunged, and a few months in the cellar renders it 
fit for use. Mead is rendered more vinous and 
pleasant, by the addition of cut raisins, or other 
fruits, boiled after the rate of half a pound of rai- 
sins to six pounds of honey, with a toasted crust of 
bread, an ounce of salt of tartar in a glass of bran- 
dy, being a<lded to the liquor when casked; to 
whicii some add five or six drops of the essence of 
cinnamon; others, pieces of lemon peel with vari- 
ous syrups. 

Walnut mead -wine. 

To every gallon of water put three pounds and a 
half of honey, and boil them together three quar- 
ters of an hour. Then to every gallon of liquor put 
about two dozen of walnut leaves, pour the boiling 
liquor upon them, and let them stand all night. 
Then take out tlie leaves, put in a spoonful of 
yeast, and let it work for two or three days. Then 
make it up, and after it has stood for three months, 
bottle it. 

To make American honey -wine. 

Put a quantity of the comb, from which honey 
has been drained, in a tub, and add a barrel of ci- 
der, immediately from the press; tins mixture stir, 
and leave for one night. It is then strained before 
*(2rmentation; and honey added, until the specific 
gravity of the liquor is sufficient to bear an egg. It 
IS then put into a barrel; and after the fermentation 



is commenced, the cask is filled every diy, for 
three or lour days, that the froth may work out of 
the bung-hole. When the fermentation mode/ates, 
put the bung in loosely, lest stopping it tiglit might 
cause the cask to burst. At the end of live or six 
weeks, the liquor is to be drawn off into a tu}), and 
the whites of eight eggs, well beaten u]), with a 
pint of clean sand, are to he put into it: then add a 
gallon of cider spirit; and after mixing the whole 
together, j-eturn it into the cask, which is to be 
well clea#;d, bunged tight, and placed in a proper 
situation vfiv racking off, when fine. In the month 
of April following, draw it oft' into kegs, for use; 
and it will be equal to almost any foi'eign wine. 
Cowslip red tvine. 

Take of cold soft water, 18 gallons, Smyrna rai- 
sins, 40 lbs. Ferment. Mix beet-root, sliced, 3 
pounds, red tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz. Add 
cowslip-flowers, 14 lbs. cloves and mace, in pow- 
der, 1 oz. Brandy, 1 gallon. This will make IS 
gallons. 

Coivslip -white wine. 

Take of cold soft water, 18 gallons, Malaga rai- 
sins, 35 lbs. white tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz. 
Ferment. Mix cowslip-flowers, 16 lbs. Add 
white brandy, 1 gallon. This will make 18 gal- 
lons. 

Cowslip mead 

Is made in this manner: to 15 gallons of water 
put 30 pcnnds of honey, and boil it till 1 gallon be 
wasted. Skim it, take it oft' the fire, and have rea- 
dy 16 lemons cut in halves. Take a gallon of the 
liquor, and put it to the lemons. Put the rest of the 
liquor into a tub, with 7 pecks of cowslips, and let 
them stand all night. Then put in the liquor with 
the lemons, 8 spoonsful of new yeast, and a hand- 
ful of sweetbriar. Stir them all well together, and 
let it work three or four days. Then strain it, put 
it into the cask, and after it has stood six months, 
bottle it off". 

Cider white wine. 

Take of cold soft water, 2 quarts, cider, 9 gal- 
lons, honey, 8 pounds, white tartar, in fine powder, 
2 oz. Ferment. Mix cinnanion, cloves, and 
mace, 2 oz. Add rum, ^ gallon. This will make 
9 gallons. 

Cider red wine. 

Take of cold soft water, 3 gallons, cider, 16 gal- 
lons, honey, 10 pounds. Ferment. Add raw sugar, 
4 pounds, beet-i'oot, sliced, 4 pounds, red tartar, in 
fine powder, 6 oz. Mix sweet marjoram and 
sweetbriar, ,S handsful, rum. 1 gallon. This will 
make 18 gallons. 

Cider wine. 

Take of cold soft water, 4 gallons, cidei, 15 gal- 
lons, honey, 12 pounds, tartar, in fine powder, 2 
ounces. Ferment. Mix ginger, in powder, 6 
ounces, sage and mint, 2 handsful. Add British 
spirits, one gallon. This will make eighteen gal- 
lons. 

Grape red wine. 

Take of cold soft water, 5 gallons, black or red 
grapes, 40 pounds. Ferment. Mix cider, 9 gal- 
lons, raw sugar, 20 pounds, barberry leaves, 3 
handsful, beet-root sliced, 2 pounds, red tartar, in 
powder, 4 ounces. Add white elder flowers, 6 
handsful, or sassafras chips, 4 pounds, brandy, 1 
gallon. This will make 18 gallons. 

Another. — Take of cold soft water 6 gallons, 
grapes, of any colour, 30 pounds. Ferment. Mix 
treacle, 10 pounds, beet-root sliced, 1^ pounds, 
red tartar, in powder, 2 ounces. Add rosemary 
leaves, 2 handsful, brandy, ^ a gallon. This will 
make 9 gallons. 

Ariotlier. — Take of cold soft water, 8 gallons, 
grapes, of any sort, 100 poimds.. Ferment. Mix 
raw sugar, 20 pounds, beei-root sliced, 4 pounds. 



130 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



oarberry leaves, 4 handsful, red tartar, in powder, 
6 ounces. Add coriander seed, bruised, bounces, 
brandy, 6 quarts. This will make 18 gallons. 
Grape -white "Mine. 
Take of cold soft water, 13 gallons, white grapes, 
50 pounds. Ferment. Mix refined sugar, 25 
pounds, white tartar, in powder, 3 ounces. Add 
clary seed bruised, 3 ounces, or clary flowers, C 
handsful, rum, 1 gallon. This will make 18 
gallons. 

7'o make raisin -wine equal to sherry. 

Let the raisins be well washed and picked from 
the stalks; to every pound thus prepared and chop- 
ped, add 1 quait of water whicli has been boiled 
and has stood till it is cold. Let the whole stand 
in the vessel for a month, being frequently stirred. 
Now let the raisins be taken from the cask, and let 
the liquor be closely stopped in the vessel. In the 
course of a month, let it be racked into another 
vessel, leaving all the sediment behind, which 
must be repealed till it becomes fine, when add to 
every ten gallons six pounds of fine sugar, and one 
dozen of Seville oranges, the rinds being pared 
very thin, and infused in two quarts of brandy, 
which should be added to the liquor at its last 
racking. Let the vhole stanil three months in the 
cask, when it will be fit for bottling; it should re- 
main in the bottle for a twelve-month. 

To give it the flavour of Madeira, when it is in 
the cask, put in a couple of green citrons, and let 
them remain till the wine is bottled. 

Another raidn xuine. — Put two hundred weight 
of raisins, with the stalks, into a hogshead, and fill 
it almost with spring water; let them steep for 
about twelve days, frequently stirring, and after 
pouring off the juice, dress the raisins and mash 
them. The whole should then be put togetlier into 
a very clean vessel that will exactly contain it. It 
will hiss for some time, during which it should not 
be stirred; but wiien the noise ceases, it must be 
stopped close, and stand for about six or seven 
months: and then, if it proves fine and clear, rack 
it oft' into another vessel of the same size. Stop 
it up, and let it remain for twelve or fourteen weeks 
longer, then bottle it oft". If it should not prove 
clear, fine it down with three ounces of isinglass, 
and a quarter of a ))ound of sugar-cand}', dissolved 
in some of the wine. 

Another grape ivine. — To every gallon of ripe 
grapes put a gallon of soft water, bruise the grapes, 
let them stand a week without stirring, and draw 
the liquor off'fine; to every gallon of wine put three 
pounds of lump sugar; put the whole into a vessel, 
but do not stop it till it has done hissing, then 
stop it close, and in six months it will be fit for 
bottling. 

A better wine, though smaller in quantity, will 
be made by leaving out the water, and diminish- 
ing the quantity of sugar. Water is necessai-j-, 
only where tlie juice is so scanty, or so thick, as 
in cowslip, balm, or black currant wine, that it 
eould not be used without it. 

Claret vine-leaf vfine. 

Take of cold soft water, 18 gallons, claret vine- 
le;iv;-s, 3 pecks. I'erment. Mix raw sugar, 50 
pounds, barberrie", 6 quarts, red tartar, in fine 
powder, 8 ounces. Add roses, 6 or 8 handsful, 
sassafras chips, 3 pounds. Brandy, one gallon or 
more. 

Mr Carnell directs to macerate the vine-leaves 
in the water 3 days, and then proceed with the ge- 
neral process. This will make 18 gallons. 

Another. — Take of cold soft water, 11 gallons, 
claret vine leaves, 2 pecks. Ferment. Add cider, 
9 gallons, raw sugar, 30 pounds, red tartar, in pow- 
der, 6 ounces. Mix cinnamon, in powder, 2 oz. 
2 nutmegs in powder, brandy, 1 gallon. This 
will make 1 8 gallons, 



To 7nake ivine from frosted potatoes . 

Wine of considerable quality may be made from 
frosted potatoes, if not so much frosted as to have 
become soft and waterish. The potatoes must be 
crushed or bruised; a wooden mallet answers the 
purpose. If a phnk of wood is made hollow, in 
the manner of a shallow bowl, they may be bruised 
with a mallet, or put into a cider press. A Win- 
chester bushel must have 10 gallons of water, 
prepared by boiling it mixed with ^ lb. of hops 
and ^ lb. of common white ginger. This water, 
after having boiled for about half an hour, must be 
poured upon the bruised ^JOtatoes, into a tub or 
vessel suited to the quantity to be made. After 
standing in this mixed state for three days, yeast 
must be added, to ferment the liquor. When the 
fermentation has subsided, the liquor must be 
drawn off, as pure as possible, into a cask, adding 
half a pound of raw sugar for every gallon. After 
it has remained in the cask for three months, it will 
be ready for use. Farmei^'s Mag. 
Ginger -wine, excellent. 

Put into a very nice boiler ten gallons of water, 
fifteen poimds of lump sugar, with the whites of six 
or eight eggs, well beaten and strainefl; mix all 
well while crld; when the liquor boils skim it well, 
j)ut in half a pound of common white ginger, bruis- 
ed, and boil it twenty minutes. Have ready the 
rinds (cut very thin) of seven lemons, and pour 
the hot liquor on them; when cool put it into your 
cask, with two spoonsful of yeast; i)ut a quai't of 
the warm liquor to two ounces of isinglass shav- 
ings, tvhisk it well three or four times, and put all 
into the barrel. Next day stop it up, in three 
weeks bottle it, and in three months it will be a 
delicious and safe liquor. 

Another. — Take of cold soft water, 19 gallons; 
Malaga raisins, 50 lbs.; white tartai", in powder, 
4 oz. Ferment. Mix ginger, in powder or bruised, 
20 oz.; 18 lemons, peel and juice. Add brandy. 2 
quarts, or more. 'I'his will make 18 gallons. 

Another. — Take HO quarts of water; 5 lbs. of 
sugar; 3 oz. of white ginger; 1 oz. of stick liquorice. 
Boil them well together; when it is cold put a lit- 
tle new yeast upon it, but not too much; then put 
it into the barrel for 10 days, and after that bottle 
it putting a lump of wliite sugar into every bottle. 

Another. — To seven gallons of water put 19 
poiuids of claj ed sugar, and boil it for half an hour,, 
taking oif the scum as it rises; then take a small 
quantity of the liquor, and add to it 9 ounces of the 
best ginger bruised. Now put it all together, and 
when nearly cold, chop 9 pounds of raisins veiy 
small, and put them into a nine gallon cask (beer 
measure,) with one ounce of isinglass. Slice 4 le- 
mons into the cask, taking out all the seeds, and 
pour the liquor over them, with half a pint of fresh 
yeast. Leave it unstopped for three weeks, and in 
about three mouths it v/iU be fit for botllin;;-. 

There will be one gallon of the sugar and water 
more than the cask will hold at first: this must be 
kept to fill u]), as the liquor works oft", as it i* ne- 
cessary that tiie cask should be kept full, till it has 
done working. The raisins should be 2-3ds Mala- 
ga, and l-3d M'uscadel. Spring and autumn are 
llie best seasons for making this wine. 

7'o make koumiss, a Tartar -wine. 

Take of fresh mare's r:;ilk any quantity; add to 
it a sixth part of water, and pour the mixture into 
a wooden vessel. Use as a ferment an eighth part 
of skimmed milk; but at any future preparation a 
small portion of old koumiss will answer better. 
Cover the vessel with a thick cloth, and set it in a 
place of moderate warmth; leaving it at rest for 
twenty-four hours: at the end of which time the 
milk will become sour, and a thick substance will 
be gathered on its top. Now, with a churn staft", 
he^t it till the thick sohstaDce above-mentioned he 



WINES. 



131 



blended intimately wrth the subjacent fluid. In 
this situation, leave it at rest for twenty-four hours 
more; after which, pour it into a higher and nar- 
rower vessel, resemhlinij a churn, where the agi- 
tation must be repeated as before, till the liquor 
appears to be perfectly homogeneous. In this state 
it is called koumiss; of which the taste ought to 
have been a pleasant mixture of sweet and sour. 
Agitation must be employed every time before it 
is used. This -wine is cooling and antiseptic. 
Sometimes aromatic herbs, as Angelica, are infused 
in the liquor during fermentation. 

To make rhubarb ivine. 
Take of sliced rhubarb, 2^ oz. — lesser cardamom 
seeds, bruised and husked,^ oz.; saifron 2 drachms; 
Spanish white wine, 2 pints; proof spirit, ^ pint. 
Digest for ten days, and strain. This is a warm, 
cordial, laxative medicine. It is used chiefly in 
weakness of the stomach and bowels, and some 
kinds of loosenesses, for evacuating the oftending 
matter and streiigtiiening the tone of the viscera. 
It may be given !n doses of from half a spoonful to 
three jr four spoonsful or moi-e, according to the 
circumstances of the disorder, and the strength of 
the \ atient. 

To make sageivine. 
B jil 26 quarts of spring water a quarter of an 
hour, and when it is blood warm, put 25 pounds 
of'^Ialaga raisins, ])icked, rubbed, and shred, into 
it, witli almost half a bushel of red sage shred, and 
a porringer of ale yeast; stir all well together, and 
let it stand in a tub, covered warm, six or seven 
days, stirring it once a day; then strain it oft", and 
put it in a rimlet. Let it work three or four days, 
and then stop it up; when it has stood six or seven 
days, put in a quart or two of Malaga sack; and 
■H'lien it is fine bottle it. 

To make giUifloivev -wine. 
To three gallons of water put 6 pounds of the 
jest powder sugar, boil the sugar and water toge- 
.her for tlie space of iialf an hour, keep skimming 
t as the scum rises; let it stand to cool, beat up 
three ounces of syrup of betony with a large spoon- 
•ul of ale yeast, put it into the liquor, and brew it 
ivell together; then having a peck of gilliflowers, 
tut from the stalks, put them into the liquor, let 
hem infuse and work togetlier three days, covered 
vith a cloth; strain it, and put it into a cask, and 
tt it settle for three or four weeks; then bottle it. 
To make twmip -wine. 
Pare and slice a number of turnips, put Ihem 
<nto a cider press,and press out all the juice. To 
■veri' gallon of the juice, add three pounds of lump 
■ugar; have a vessel ready large enough to hold the 
juice, and put half a pint of brandy to every gallon. 
(*ourin thejuiceandlay something overthe bungfor 
A week, to see if it works; if it does, do not bung it 
down till it has done working; then stop it close 
for three montlis, and draw it oif into another ves- 
sel. When it is fine, bottle it off. 

Tlnis is an excellent wine for gouty habits, and 
is much i-ecoramended in such cases in lieu of any 
other wine. 

Rose tvine. 
Take a well glazed earthen vessel, and put into 
it 3 gallons of rose-water drawn with a cold still. 
Pot into that a sufficient quantity of rose leaves, 
cover it close, and set it for an hour in a kettle or 
copper of hot water, to take out the whole strength , 
and tinctm'e of the roses; and when it is cold, press \ 
the rose leaves hard into the liquor, and steep fresh 
ones in it, repeating it till the liquor has got the 
full strength of the roses. To every gallon of li- 
quor put threepoundsof loaf sugar, and stir it well, 
that it may melt and disperse in every part. Then 
put it into a cask, or other convenient vessel, to 
ferment, and put into it a piece of bread toasted 



hard, and covered with yeast. Let it stand about 
thirty days, when it will be ripe and have a fine 
flavour, having the whole strength and scent of tlie 
roses in it; anil it may be greatly improved by ad- 
ding to it wine and spices. By "this method of in- 
fusion, wine of carnations, clove gilliflowers, vio- 
lets, primroses, or any other flower, having a cu- 
rious scent, may be made. 

Jiarley Tvine. 
Boil half a ])0und of fresh barley in 3 waters, 
and save 3 pints of the last water. Mix it with a 
quart of white wine, half a pint of borage water, 
as much clary water, a little red rose-water, the 
juice of 5 or 6 lemons, 3 quarters of a pound of 
fine sugar, and the thin yellow rind of a lemon. 
Mix all these well together, run it through a strain- 
er, and bottle it. It is pleasant in hot we:ither, and 
very good in fevers. 

English fig -uine. 
Take the large blue figs, when pretty ripe, and 
steep them in white wine, having made some slits 
in them, that they may swell and gather in tlie sub- 
stance of the wine. Then slice some other figs, 
and let them simm'>r over afire in water u'ttil they 
are reduced to a kind of pulp. Tiien strain out the 
water, pressing die pulp hard, and pour it as hot 
as possible on the figs that are imbrewed in the 
wine. Let the quantities be nearly equal, but the 
water somewhat more than the wine and figs. Let 
them stand 24 liours, masli them well togetlier, 
and draw off what will run without squeezing. 
Then press the rest, and if not sweet enough, ackl 
a sufficient quantity of sugar, to make it so. Let it 
ferment, and add to it a little honey and sugar- 
candy; then fine it with whites of eggs and a little 
isinglass, and draw it oft" for use. 
Si'camnre -wine. 
Boil 2 gallons of the sap half an hour, and thei> 
add 1,0 it 4 pounds of fine pov.'dered sugar. Beat 
the whites of 3 eggs to froth, and mix them with 
the liquor; but take care that it is not too hot, as 
that will poach the eggs. Skim it v.'ell, and boil 
it half an hour. Then strain it through a hair sieve, 
and let it stand till next day. Then pour it clean 
from the sediment, put half a pint of yeast to every 
twelve gallons, and cover it close up with blankets. 
Then put it into the baiTel, and leave the bung- 
hole open till it has done working. Then close it 
up well, and after it has stood 2 months, bottle it. 
The fifth part of the sugar must l)e loaf; and if 
raisins are liked, they will be a great addition tc 
the wine. 

JJalm luine. 
Take 40 pounds of sugar and 9 gallons of water, 
boil it gently for 2 hours, skim it well, and put i: 
into a tub to cool. Take 2 pounds and a half of 
the tops of balm, bruise tiiem, and put tliem into a 
barrel, with a little new yeast; and when the liquor 
is cold, pour it on the balm. Stir it well together, 
and let it stand 24 hours, stirring it often. Then, 
close it up, and let it stand 6 weeks. Then rack 
it off" and put a lump of sugar into every bottle. 
Cork it well, and it will be better the second year 
than the first. 

To make scurvy-grass -uiine. 
Scurvy-grass, or spoonwort, is a very sovereign' 
medicinal herb, appropriated chiefly to the health 
of invali<ls. 

Take the best large scurvy-grass tops and leaves. 
in May, June, or July, bruise them well in a stone 
mortar, then put them in a well glazed eardieo 
vessel, and sprinkle them over with some powder 
of crystal of tartar, then smear them with virgin 
honey, and being covered close, let it stiind 24 
hours; then set water over a gentle fire, putting to 
every gallon 3 pints of honey, and when the scum 
rises, lake it off", and let it cool; then put tlic 



132 



UNRTiRSAL. RECEIPT BOOK. 



stamped scurvy grass into a barrel, and ponr the 
liquor to it, setting the vessel convenient!)' end- 
ways, with a tap at the bottom. When it has been 
infuseu 24 hours, draw off the liquor, strongly press 
the juice and moisture out of the herb into the bar- 
rel or vessel, and put tlie liquor up ugain; then put 
a Utile new )'«ast to it, and sufter it to ferment 3 
days, covering the place of the bung or vent with 
a piece of bread spread over with mustard seed, 
downward, in a cool pl'oe, and let it continue till 
it is fine and drinks brisk; then draw off the finest 
part, leaving only ihe dregs behind: afterwards add 
more herbs, and ferment it with whites of eggs, 
flour, and fixed nitre, vei juice, or the juice of green 
grapes, if they are to be had ; to which add 6 pounds 
of the syrup of mustard, all mixed and well beaten 
together, to refine it down, and it will drink brisk, 
but is not very pleasant; being here inserted among 
artificial wines rather for the sake of health, than 
for the deligbtfulness of its taste. 

To make clieap and xahnlesome claret. 

Take a quart of fine draft Devonshire cider, 
and an equal quantity of good port. Mix tliera, 
and shake them. Bottle them, and let thera stand 
for a month. The best judge will not be able to 
distinguish them from good Bordeaux. 
To make dry -Mine. 

Those who like a dry wine, should put into the 
vat, at the commencement of the vinous fermenta- 
tion, an ounce or two of calcined gypsum, in fine 
powder. 

MANAGEMENT OF BRITISH WINES. 

To g^iard against unripe fruit. 

If the season proves had so that some fruits are 
not sufficiently ripe, immediately after the vinous 
fermentation, and the must of such fruit is put into 
the cask, it is to be rolled two or three times a 
day, for a week or two. A spirituous fermentation 
will soon commence, the bung of the cask must 
then be taken out, and the hole covered with a bit 
of light wood or canvass, and as any scum arises, 
it should be taken away. When the scum disap- 
pears, fill up the cask, and bung it up. But a vent- 
nole must be left open for a week. 

To keep and manage -wines. 

Wines will diminish, therefore the cask must be 
kept filled up with some of the same wine, or some 
other that is as good or better. 

They must at all times be kept in a cool cellar, 
if not, they will ferment. If wines are kept in a 
warm cellar, an acetous fermentation will soon 
commence, and the result consequently will be vi- 
negar. Th;e more a wine frets and ferments, the 
more it parts wirn its strength and goodness: when 
wiaes are found to work improperly in the cellar, 
the vent-peg must be taken out for a week or tv/o. 

If any wine ferments, after being perfected, draw 
off a quart and boil it, and pour it hot into the cask, 
add a pint oraiuart of brandy, and bung up a day 
or two after. 

Or, draw off the wine, and fumigate the cask, 
with one ounce of flower of brimstone, and half an 
ounce of cinnamon, in powder. Mix the two to- 
gether, and tie them up in a rag. Turn the bung- 
hole of the cask downwards, place the rag und^r 
the bung-hole, and set fire to it, so that the gas 
ascends into the cask. As soon as it is burnt out, 
fill up the cask with wine, and bung it up tight. 
To sweeten afoid cask. 

Set fire to a pound or more of broken charcoal, 
put it into tlie cask and immediately fill up the 
cask with boiling water. After this, rol the cask 
once or twice a day for a week; then pour out the 
charcoal ar.il water, wash out the cask with clean 
cold water, and expose it to the external air for 
some days. 



To improve poor toines. 

Poor wines may be improved by being racked 
off, and returned into the cask again; and then put- 
ting into the wine about a pounil of jar or box rai- 
sins, bruised, and a quart of brandy. 

Or, put to the wine two pounds of honey, and a 
pint or two of brandy. The honey and brandy to 
be first mixed together. 

Or, draw off three or four quarts of such wine 
and fill the cask up with strong wine. 

To improve tvine when loivering or decaying. 

Take one ounce of roche-alum, make it into 
powder; then draw out four gallons of wine, mix 
the powder with it, and beat it well for half an 
hour; then fill up the cask, and when fine (which 
will be in a week's time or little more), bottle it 
off. This will make it drink fine and brisk. 
To restore fiat wines. 

Flat wines may be restored by one povmd of 
jar raisins, one pound of honey, and hau a pint of 
spirit of wine, beaten up in a mortar with some of 
the wine, and then the contents p'H into the cask. 
To remove a musty or disagreeable taste in wine. 

Put into the cask tliree or four sticks of charcoal, 
and bung up the cask tight. In a month after take 
tiiem out. — Or, cut two ripe medlars, put them in 
a gauze bag, and suspend them from the bung hole 
into the w.ne, and bung up the cask air-tight. A 
month after take thera out, and bung up the cask 
again. Or, mix half a pound of bruised mustard- 
seed, with a pint or more of brandy, and stir it up 
in the wine; and two days after bung up the cask. 

Another mode. — AttVie finish of the process, wheii 
the brandj' or spirit is put to the wine, it is par- 
ticularly recommended that a quarter of an ounce 
of crystal camphor, in the lump, be dropped into 
the bung-hole of each eighteen gallons of vine. 

Another mode. — Oil poured upon wine, or any- 
other liquor, will prevent it from growing musty, 
or turning corrupt. 

To take away the ill scent of wines. 

Bake a long roller of dough, ciack well with 
cloves, and hang it in the cask. 

To pass white wine off for char.ipagne. 

Rack it often from the lees; and when very bril 
liant, hott'e it off: this must be done between vin 
tage time and the month of May. 

It has (says Mr Carnel) been a most absurd prae • 
tice with many families to use green gooseberrie- 
in order to imitate champagne wine; but green fruit 
is, by no means, fit or proper for the making o{ 
any wine. Nor, indeed, is it at all necessary i^ 
making an imitation of champagne.- 

'J make wine sparkle like Champagne. 

Take great care to rack off the wine well, and h 
March bottle it as quick as possible. I'he bottle* 
must be very clean and dry, and the corks of tht 
best sort, made of velvet or white cork. In twt 
months after, the wine will be in a fine conditio*? 
to drink. 

To clear foul or ropy ivines. 

Take ^ ounce of chalk in powdei*, ^ an ounce ol 
burnt alum, the white of an egg, and one pint of 
spring water. 

Beat the whole up in a mortar, and pour it into 
the wine; after which, roll the cask ten minutes^ 
and then place it on the stand, leaving the bung 
out for a fevi' days. As soon as the wine is fine, 
rack it off. 

Or take one ounce of ground rice, ^ oz. of burnt 
alum, and ^ oz. of bay-salt. 

Beat the whole up in a mortar, with a pint or 
more of the wine, pour it into the cask, and roll it 
ten minutes. The cask must not be bunged up fo* 
a few days. As soon as such wine becomes fine 
rack it off. 

Or, bring the cask of wine out of the cellar, and 



WINES. 



133 



place it in a shady situation to receive the circula- 
tion of the air, and take out the bung. In three 
weeks or a month rack it off into a sweet cask, 
which fill up, and put into the wine an ounce of 
. cinnamon, in the stick; and bung it up tight. 

Another method. — Tap the cask, and ]mt a piece 
of coarse linen cloth upon that end of the cock 
■which goes to the inside of the cask; then rack it 
into a dry cask to 30 gallons of wine, and put in 
5 ounces of powdered alum. Roll and shake them 
well together, and it will fine down, and prove a 
verj'' clear and pleasant wine. 

To correct green or harsh wiws. 

Take 1 oz. ot salt, ^ oz. calcined gypsum, in 
powder, and 1 pint of skimmed milk. 

Mix those up with a little of the wine, and then 
pour the mixture into the cask: put in a few lav- 
ender leaves, stir the wine with a stick, so as not 
to disturb the lees, and bung it up. 

7 correct sharp, tart, acid -itdnes. 

Mix 1 oz. of calcined gypsum in powder and 2 
pounds of honey, in 1 quart of brandy; pour the 
mixture into the wine, and stir it so as not to dis- 
turb the lees; fill up the cask, and the following 
day bung it up: — rack this wine as soon as fine. 

Or, mix ^ oz. of the salt of tartar, ^ oz. of cal- 
cined gypsum, in powder, with a pint nf the wine; 
pour it into the cask, and put an ounce of cinnamon 
in the stick; stir the wine without disturbing the 
lees, fill up the cask, and the day following bung 
it up. 

Or, boil 3 oz. of rice, when cold put it into a 
gauze-bag, and immerge it into the wine; put into 
the wine also a few sticks of cinnamon, and bung 
up the cask. In s bout a month after, take the rice 
out. 

To restore sour -wines. 

Take calcined gypsum, in powder, 1 oz., cream 
of tartar, in powder, 2 oz. 

Mix tiiem in a pint or more of brandy; pour it 
into tlie cask; put in, also, a few sticks of cinna- 
mon, and then stir the wine without disturbing the 
lees. Bung up the cask the next day. 

Another method. — »Boil a gallon of wine, with 
some beaten oyster-shells and crab's claws, burnt 
into powder, an ounce of each to eveiy ten gallons 
of wine; then strain out the liquor through a sieve, 
and when cold, put it into wine of the same sort, 
and it will give it a pleasant lively taste. A lump 
of unslaked lime put into the cask will also keep 
wine from turning sour. 

To fine or clarify ttdnes. 

Boil a pint of skimmed milk; when cold, mix 
with it an ounce of chalk in fine powder, pour it 
into the cask, and roll it ten minutes. The fol- 
lowing day, bung up the wine, and rack it off" as 
soon as fine. 

Or, take 1 J oz. of gum arahie, in fine powder, 
and I oz. of chalk in powder. 

Mix those up with a pint more of wine, pour the 
mixture into the cask, roll it ten minutes, and then 
fill it up. Bung it up the next day, and rack off 
the wine as soon as fine. 

Or, take the yolk and white of an egg, ^ oz. of 
chalk, in powder, and ^ oz. of burnt alum, in pow- 
der. 

Beat those up in a mortar with a pint of spring 
water, an I ])our the mixture into tlie wine, roU the 
cask; then fill it up, and bung it up the next day. 
Rack oil the wine as soon as fine. 
To sweeten -wines. 

In 30 gallons of wine infuse a handful of the 
flowers of clary; then add a pound of mustard seed, 
dry groimd, put it into a bag and sink it to the 
bottom of the cask. 

To stop tlie fermentation of -wine. 

It is in the first place necessary to consider 



whether the existing sta'^^e of fermentation be the 
original or secondary s'^ge of that pi-ocess which 
comes on after the t'ocmer has ceased for several 
days, and is indeed the cornmenctnient of acetous 
fermentation. That of tlie former kind rarely pro- 
ceeds beyond what is necessary tor the perfect de- 
composition of the saccliarine and other parts of thfj 
vegetable substances necessary for tlie production 
of spirit, unless the liquor be kept too warm oris 
too weak, and left exposed to the air after the vi- 
nous fermentation is completed. The means to 
correct these circumstancesare sufficiently obvious. 
The heat for spirituous fermf^ntation should not be 
above 60 degrees Fahrenheit; when it is much 
above that point, the rnpior passes rapidly through 
the stage of vinous fermentation, and the acetous 
immediately commences. When too long continu- 
ed fermentation arises from the litjuor having been 
kept in a warm situation, it will be soon checked 
by bunging, after being removed into a cold place; 
the addition of a small proportion of spirits of wine 
or brandy, previously to closing it up, is also pro- 
per. A degree of cold, a[>proaching to the freez- 
ing point, will check fermentation of whatever kind. 
Fenneiitation of this kind cannot be stopped by 
any chemical agent, except such as would destroy 
the qualities of the liquor intended to be produced. 

The secondary stage of fermentation, or the com- 
mencement of the acetous, may be stopped b}' re- 
moving the liquor to a cool situation; correcting 
the acid already formed; and if tlie liquor contain 
but little spirit, the addition of a proper propor- 
tion of brandy is requisite. 

The operation of racking is also necessary to pre- 
serve liquor in a vinous state, and to render it clear. 
This process should be performed in a cool place. 
To restore piicked British luines. 

Rack the wines down to the lees into another 
cask, where the lees of good wines are fresh: then 
put a pint of strong aqua vitae, and scrape half i» 
pound of yellow bees'-wax into it, which by heat- 
ing the spirit over a gentle fire, will melt; after 
which dip a piece of cloth into it, and when a little 
dry, set it on fire with a brimstone match, put it 
into the bung-hole, and stop it u- close. 

Another method. — First prepare a fresh empty 
cask that has had the same kind of wine in it which 
is about to be racked, then match it, and rack off 
the wine, putting to every ten gallons two ounces 
of oyster powder, and halt an ounce of bay salt, 
then get the staff and stir it well about, letting it 
stand till it is fine, which will be in a few days; 
after which rack it off into another cask, (previous- 
ly matched) and if the lees of some wine of the 
same kind can be got, it will iuiprove it much. — 
Put likewise a quart of brandy to every ten gallons, 
and if the cask has been emptied a long lime, it 
will match better on that account; but if even a new 
cask, the matching must not be omitted. A fresh 
empty cask is to be preferred. 

This method will answer for all made wines. 



TO MANAGE FOREIGN W)XE VAULTS 

The principal object to be attended to in the ma- 
nagement of foreign wine vaults, is to keejj them 
of a temperate heat. Care must be taken, there- 
fore, to close up every aperture or opening, that 
there may be no admission given to llie external 
air. The floor of the vault should likewise be well 
covered with saw-dust which must not be suffered 
to get too dry and dusty, hut must receive now and 
then an addition of new, lest, when bottling or 
racking wine, some ot the old dust should fly into 
it. At most vaults, in the winter, it is necessary 
to have a stove or chafing-dish, to keep up a proper 
degree of warmth. In the summer tinie it will be 
best to keep them as cool as possible. 

M 



134 



UNTVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



To fd up a cellar of xvines and sfnrits. 
Provide a good roije ani tackling, to let down 
the casks into the vaults ot'^-ellar, and a slide, lad- 
der, or pulley for the casks to slide or roll on; a 
pair of strong slings; a pair of can hooks and a pair 
of crate hooks; a block of wood to put under the 
pipes when topping them over in a narrow passage, 
or in casing them; a small valinchto taste wines; a 
crane, and a small copper pump to rack off"; two or 
three gallon cans, made of wood; a large w.ooden 
funnel; two or three copper funnels from a quart to 
a gallon each; two racking cocks; two wine bot- 
tling cocks; a brace and various bits; two small 
tubs; a square basket to hold the corks; two small 
til funnels; a small strainer; two cork screws; two 
or three baskets; a whisk to beat the finings; three 
flannel or linen bags; a strong iron screw to raise 
the bungs; a pair of pliers; bungs, corks, and vent 
pegs^ two frets or middle sized gimlets; some sheet 
lead and tacks to put on broken staves; brown pa- 
per to put round cocks and under the lead, when 
stopping leaks; a staff with a chain at one end to 
rumage the wines. &c. ; shots and lead canister, or 
bristle brush, and two cloths to wash bottl,es; two 
Jarge tubs; some small racks that will hold six 
dozen each; a cfjoper's adze; an iron and a wooden 
driver to tighten hoops; two dozen of wooden 
bungs of different sizes; a thermometer, which is 
to be kept in the vault, a stove or chafingdish, to 
keep the heat of the vault to a known temperature; 
a few dozen of delph labels; a cupboard to hold all 
the tools; a spade, two good stiff birch brooms, and 
•A rake to level the saw-dust. 

Process of foreign luine making. 

When the grapes are ripe, and the saccharine 
principle is developed, they are then pressed, and 
the juice which flows out is received in vessels of a 
proper capacity, in which the fermentation a[)pears, 
and proceeds in the following manner. At the end 
of several days, and freqiently after a few hours, 
according to the heat of the atmosphere, the nature 
of the grapes, the quantity of the liquid, and the 
temperature of the place in which the operation is 
performed, a movement is produced in the liquor, 
which continimlly incietises; the volume of the fluid 
increases; it becomes turbid and oily; carbonic acid 
is discharged, which fills all the unoccupied part 
of the vessel, and the temperature rises to the 
72-5th degree. At the end of several days these 
tumultuous motions subside, the mass falls, the li- 
quor becomes clearer, and is found to be less sac- 
charine, more odorant, and of a red colour, from 
the i-e-action of the ardent spirit upon the colour- 
ing matter of the pellicle of the grape. 

The wine is usually taken out of the fermenting 
vessel at the period when all the phenomena of fer- 
mentation have subsided. When the mass is set- 
tled, the colour of the liquor is well developed; 
when it has become cleai-, and its heat has disap- 
peared, it is put into casks, where, by a second in- 
sensible fermentation, tlie wine is clarified, its 
principles combine more perfectly together, and 
its taste and smell be<inme more and more deve- 
loped. If th'S fermentation We stopped or suffo- 
cated, the gaseous principles are retamu>i, ui,,) the 
wine is brisker, and more of the nature of must. 
'1 b make port luine. 

The dark red port is made from grapes gathered 
indiscriminately, and thrown into a cistern, they 
are then trod, and their skins antl stalks leit in the 
mass, which separate during fermentation, and 
form a dry head over the li'iuid. When the fer- 
mentation is completed, the liquor underneath is 
drawn out, and casked. Before being brought to 
England it is mixed with one third of brandy to 
enable it to keep during the voj^age: otherwise the 



carriage bi'ings on the acetous fermentation, and 
the wine is converted into vinegar. 

French method of making -wines. 
In the southern parts of France, their way is 
with red wines to tread or squeeze the grapes be- 
tween the hands, and let the whole stand, juice and 
husks, till the tincture be to their liking; aftet 
which they press it. i:''or white wines, they press 
the grapes immediately, and when pressed, they 
tun the nmst and stop up the vessel, leaving only 
the dej th of a foot or more to give room for it to 
work. At the end of ten days they fill this space 
with some other good wine, that will not work it 
again. 

7'o rack foreign -wines. 

The vault or cellar should be of a temperate 
heat, and the casks sweet and clean. Should they 
have an acid or musty smell, i*^ may be remedied 
by burning brimstone matches in them: and if not 
clean, rinse Ihem well out with cold water, and 
after draining, rinse with a quart of brandy, putting 
the brandy afterwards into the ullage cask. Then 
strain the lees or bottoms through a flannel or linen 
bag. But put the bottoms of ])ort into the ullage 
cask without going through the filtering bag. la 
racking wine that is not on the stillage, a wine 
pump is desirable. 

To manage and improve poor red port. 

If wanting in body, colour, and flavour, draw out 
thirty or forty gallons, and return the same quan- 
tity of young and rich wines. To a can of which 
put thi'ee gills of colouring, with a bottle of wine 
or brandy. Then wliisk it well together, and pul 
it into the cask, stirrir.g it well. If not bright in 
about a week or ten days, fine it for use; previous 
to which put in at different times a gallon of good 
brandy. If the wine is short of body, put a gallon 
or two of brand)' in each pipe, by a quart or two at 
a time, as it feeds the wine better than putting it in 
all at once. But if tlie wines are in a bonded eel- > 
lar, i)rocm'e a funnel that will go to the bottom of 
the cask, that the brandy may be completely incor- 
porated with the wine. 

To manage claret, 
i Claret is not a wine of a strong body, though it 
re(inires to be of a good age before it is used, and 
therefore it should be well managed; the best me- 
thod is to feed it every two or three weeks with a 
pint or two of I-'rench brandy. Taste it frequently, 
to know what state it is in, and use the brandy ac- 
j cordingly, but never put much in at a time, while 
a little incorporates with the wine, and feeds and 
mellows it. 

If the claret is faint, rack it into a fresh-emptied 
hogshead, upon the lees of good claret; and bung it 
up, putting the bottom downwards for two or 
three days, that the lees may run through it. 
To colour claret. 

Ifthe colour be not yet perfect, rack it off again 
into a hogshead that lias been newly drawn oft', 
with the lees; then take a pound of turnsole, and 
put it into a gallon or two of wine; let it lie a day 
or two, and then put it into ihe vessel; after which 
lay the bung downwards for a night, and the next 
day roll it about. 

Or, take any quantity of damsons or black sloes, 
and strew them with some of the deepest coloured 
wine and as much sugar as will make k into a sy- 
rup. A pint of this will colour a hogslu-ad of cla- 
ret. It is also good for red port wines, and may 
be kept ready for use in glass bottles. 

To restore claret that drinks fnid. 

Rack it off from the dregs on some fresh lees of 
its own kind, and tlien take a dozen of new pippins, 
pare them, and take away the cores or hearts; then 
put them in the hogshead, and if that is not suffi- 



WINES. 



135 



elcr.t, tnke a handful of the oak of Jerasalem, and 

bruise it; then put it into the wine, and stir it well. 

To make claret and port rough. 

Put into a quart of claret or port two quarts of 
sloes; bake them in a o;cntle oven, or over a slow 
fire, Cill a good part of their moisture is stewed out, 
then pour off the liquor, and squeeze out the rest. 
A pint of this will be sufficient for 30 or 40 gallons. 
To recover pricked foreign -mnes. 

Take a botvle of red port that is pricked, add to 
it half an ounce of tartarized spirit of wine, shake 
the liquor well together, and set it by for a few 
days, and it will be found much altei-ed for llie bet- 
ter. If this operation he dexterously performed, 
pricked wines may be absolutely recovered by it, 
and remain saleable for some time; and tlie same 
method may be used to malt liquors just turned 
sour. 

To manage hermitage and Burgundy. 

lied hermitage must be managed in ti>e same 
wav as claret, and the white likewise, except the 
colouring, which it does not require. Burgundy 
should be managed in the same manner as red her- 
mitage. 

To manage Lisbon -wine. 

If the Lisbon is dry, take out of the pipe tlilrty- 
fixe or forty gallons,"and put in the same ((Uimtity 
of cakavellii, slir it well about, and this will make 
a pipe of good mild Lisbon: or, if it be desireJ to 
convert mild into dry, lake the same ([Uantity out 
as above mentioned before, and fill the pipe with 
Malaga Sherry, stirring it about as the other. The 
sanieViud of fining used for V'idonia will answer 
for J.,isbon wine; or it may be fined with tlie 
wlutes and shells nf sixteen eggs, and a small hand- 
ful of sail; beat it together to a froth, and mix it 
with a little of the wine: then pour it into the 
pipe, stir it about, and let it have vent for three 
davs; after which bung it up, and in a few days it 
will he tine. Lisbon, when bottled, should be 
packed either in saw-dust or leaths in a temperate 
place. 

To manage JBncella -zvine. 

In fining it, proceed in the same way as with the 
Madeira; only observe, tlr<it if not wanted very 
pale, keep the milk out of the finings. This ten- 
der wine should be fed with a little brandy, for if 
kept in a place that is either too hot or too cold, it 
will be in danger of turning foul. 

To improve Sherry. 

If the Sherry be new and hot, rack it off into a 
sweet cask, add five gallons of mellow Lisbon, 
which will take off the liot taste, then give it a head, 
take a quart of honey, mix it with a can of wine, 
and put it into the cask \\\\cn racking. Ey this 
method slieriy for present use will be greatly im- 
proved, having much the same effect upon it as 
age. 

To improve -uhite ivine. 

If the wine have an unpleasant taste, rack off one 
«alf, and to the remainder add a gallon of new 
milk, a handful of bay salt, and as much rice; after 
which, lake a staff, beat Itiem well together for 
half an hour, and fill up the cask, and when rolled 
well about, slillage it, and in a few days, it will be 
ranch ira proved. 

If the white wine is foul and has lost its coloiu-, 
for a butt or pipe take a gallon of new milk, put it 
into the cask, and stir it well about with a stafl'; 
aiul when it has settled, put in three ounces ..f is- 
inglass made into a jelly, w ith a cjuarter of a pound 
of loaf sugar scraped fine, and stir it well about. 
On the day following, bung it up, and in a few 
days it will be fine and have a good colour. 
To improve -vine by chalk. 

Add a little chalk to the mmt, w hen it is some- 
what sour; for the acidity arising from citric and 



tartaric acids, there is thus formed a precipitate of 
citrate and tartrate of lime, while the muat becomes 
sweeter, and yields a much finer wine. Too much 
chalk may render the wine insipid, since it is pro- 
per to leave a little excess of acid in the must. 
Concentrate the must by boiling, and add the pro- 
per quantity of chalk to the liqudr, while it is stil! 
hot. Even acid w ine may be benefited tjy the ad- 
dition of chalk. Oyster-shells may be used with 
this view; and when calcined are a cleaner carbo- 
nate of lime than common chalk. 

To renovate sick wine. 

Wines on tlie fret should be racked; if their own 
lee indicates decay they should be racked on the 
sound lee of another wine of similar but stronger 
quality, to protract their decline: if this be done 
at an early period, it may renovate the sick wine; 
on these occasions giving the sick wine a cooler 
place, will retard its progress to aoidity; if conve- 
nient, such wines should be torced and bottled. 
Previous to bottling, or rather at the forcing, give 
it one, two, or three table-spoonsful of calcined 
gypsum finely pulverized. This will check its 
tendency to acidity, without exciting much intu- 
mescence, without injuring the colour of the red 
wine, and without retarding its coating to the bot- 
tle, which it rather promotes. The projier forc- 
ing for red wines are, the whites of ten or twelve 
eggs, beat up with one or two tea-spoonsful of salt, 
per hogshead, and well worked into the wine with 
a forcing-red; the gypsum should be first boiled 
in a little water. This is intended to check the 
acetous process. To retard the vinous, the French 
are in the habit of burning sulphur imr.iediately 
under the cask, and possibly the sulphuric acid 
evolved by the combustion may check its progress 
and pt'event the necessity of an admixture. 
To mello-u! wine. 

Cover the orifices of ihe vessels containing it 
with bladder closely fastened instead of the usual 
niiiterials, and an aqueous exhalation will pass 
through the bladder, leaving some fine ciyslalliza- 
tions on the surface of the wine, which, when 
skimmed off, leaves the wine in a highly improved 
state of flavour. Remnants of wine coveted in this 
manner, whether in bottles or casks, will not tarn 
mouldy as when stopped in the usual wa)', but 
will be improved instead of being deteriorated. 
German method of restoring sour ■ivi7ies. 

Put a small quantity of powdered charcoal in the 
wine, shake it, and after it has remained still for 
48 hours decant steadily. 

To concentrate whies by cold. 

If any kind of wine be exposed to a suflicient 
degree of cold in frosty weather, or be jiut into 
any place where ice continues all the year, as 
in ice-houses, and there sufiered to freeze, the 
superfluous water contained in the wine will be 
frozen into ice, and will leave the proper and truly 
essential part of the wine unhvjzen, unless tlie de- 
gi-ee of cold should be very intense, or the wine but 
weak and poor. When ilie frost is moderate, the 
experiment has no difficulty, because not above a 
third or a fourth part of the sup(.'rilunus water 
will be frozen in a whole night; but if the cold 
be very intense, the best way is, at the end of a 
fnw hours, when a tolerable quantity of ice is 
formed, to pour out th.e remaining fluid liquor, 
and set it in another vessel to freeze again by itself. 

The fro«en part, or ice, consists only of the wa- 
tery part of the wine, and may be thrown away, 
an(i the liquid part retains all the strength, and is 
to ' e preserved. This will never grow sour, mus- 
ty, or mouldy, and may at any time be reduced to 
wine of the common strength, by adding to it as 
much water as will make it up to the former quan- 
tity. 



136 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



To fine white rmnes. 
Take an ounce of isinglass, beat it into thin 
shreds with a hammer, and dissolve it, by boiling in 
a pint of water; this, when cold, becomes a stiff 
jelly. Whisk up some of this jelly into a froth 
with a little of the wine intended to 'be fined, then 
stir it well among the rest in the cask, and bung it 
down tigitt; by this means the wine will become 
bright in eight or ten days. 

I'ofine red -wines. 
Take whites of eggs beat up to a froth, and mix 
in the same manner as in white wines. 

Jlnother method. — Put the shavings of green 
oeech into the vessel, having first taken oft' all the 
rind, and boil them for an hour in water to extract 
their rankness, and afterwards diy them in tlie 
sun, or in an oven. A bushel serves tor a tun of 
wine; and being mashed, they serve again and 
again. 

Mortimer recommends to gather the gi-apes 
when very dry, pick them from the stalks, press 
them, and let the juice stana twenty-fjur hours in 
a covered vat. Afterwards to draw it oft' from the 
gross lees, tlien put it up in a cask, and to add a 
pint or quart of strong red or white port to every 
gallon of juice, and let the whole work, bunging 
it up close, and letting it stand till January; then 
bottling it in dry weather. 

Bradley chooses to have the liquor, when press- 
ed, stand with the husks and stalks in the vat, to 
ferment for fifteen days. 

To fine a hogshead of claret. 
Take the whites and shells of six fresh eggs, and 
proceed as with port finings. Claret requires to be 
kept warm in saw-dust when bottled. 
To fine sherry. 
Take an ounce and a half of isinglass, beat it 
with a hammer till it can be pulled into small 
pieces, then put it into three pints of cider or per- 
ry, and let it remain twenty-four hours, till it be- 
comes a jelly. After which mix it with a quartor 
two of wine, and whisk it well Aviththe whiles and 
shells of six fresh eggs. Take four or five gallons 
out to make room for the finings, and stir the wine 
well. Then nearly fill the can of finings with wine, 
whisk it well, and put it in the butt, stirring it well 
for about five minutes; afterwards fill it up, and 
put the bung in loose. In two days bung it up, and 
in eight or ten it will be fit for bottling. 
To fine pale Sherry. 
Put three pints of skim-milk with the whites of 
eight eggs, beat well togetlier in a can; then put in 
finings, in the same manner as for common sherry. 
If the sherry be thin and poor, feed them witii good 
brandy as otiier wines. 

To fine jyiadeira. 
Take three ounces of isinglass, and dissolve it, 
but if old wine two ounces will be enough, also one 
quart of skim-milk, and half a pint of marble sand: 
■whisk these in a can with some wine. If the pipe 
is full, take out a canful, and stir the pipe well; 
then put in the can of finings, and stir that with a 
staff lor five minutes; after which put the other can 
of wine into it and let it have vent for three days. 
Then close it up, and in ten days or a fortnigiit it 
will be fine and fit for bottling and stowing with 
saw-dust in a warm place. 

To improve Madeira xvhich has been round to the 
Indies. 
Madeira should be kept in a warmer place than 
port wine, and therefore re([uires a good body, and 
to be fed with brandy, but if deficient in flavour or 
mellowness, add to it a gallon or two of goodM^.m- 
sey. 

To fine Vidonia tvine. 
When first imported, Vidonia has a harsh and 
acid taste; but if propeily managed it more resem- 



bles Madeira wine than any other. To take off 
the harshness, fine it down, and then rack it off 
upon the lees of Madeira or white port, fining it 
again with a light fining; and if 20 or 30 gallons oi 
good Madeira wine be added, it will pass'for Ma- 
deira. ¥qv the finings, dissolve 2 ounces of isin- 
glass and the whites and shells of 6 fresh eggs; beat 
them well up together with a whisk and add a gill 
of marble sand. 

To fine Malmsey and other luinex. 

Take 20 fresh eggs, beat the whites, yolks, and 
shells together, and manage it the same as other 
finings. — Calcavella, Sweet Mountain, Paxaretta, 
and Malaga, should be managed and fined in the 
same manner as Lisbon. — Tent, Muscadine, Sack, 
and Bastard, should be managed the same as 
Malmsey, and fined with 16 or 20 fresh eggs, and 
a quart or three pints of skim-milk. — Old Hoek, 
and Vin de Grave, are tiiin but pleasant wines, and 
should be fed with a little good brandy, and fined, 
if necessary, with the whites and shells of 6 or 8 
eggs. 

To fine port wijie. 

Take the whites and siiells of eight fresh eggs, 
beat them in a wooden can or pail, with a whisk, 
till it becomes a thick froth; then add a little wine 
to it, and whisk it again. If the pipe is full, take 
out four or five gallons of the wine to make room 
for the finings. If the weather be warmish, add a 
pint of fresh water sand to the finings. Stir it well 
about; after which put in tiie finings, stirring it for 
five minutes; put in the can of wine, leaving the 
bung out for a few hours, 'hat the froth may fall; 
then bung it up, and in eight or ten days it will be 
fine and fit for bottling. 

To make and apply firiings. 

Put the finings into a can or pail, with a little of 
the liquor about to be fined, whisk them all toge- 
tlier till tiiey are perfectly mixed, and then nearly 
fill the can with the liquor, whisking it well about 
again; after which, if the cask be full, take out four 
or five gallons to make room; then take the staff, 
and give it a good stirring; next whisk the finings 
up, and put them in; afterwards stir it with the 
st«ff for five minutes. Then drive the bung in, 
and bore a hole with a gimlet, that it may have 
vent for 3 or 4 days, after which drive in a vent- 

To convert lahite ivine into red. 

Put four ounces of turnsole rags into an earthen 
vessel, and pour uyion them a pint of boiling water; 
cover the vessel close, and leave it to ';ool; strain 
off" the liquor, which will be of a fine deep red in- 
clining to purple. A small portion of this colours 
a large quantitj^ of wine. This tincture may either 
be made in brandy, or rtiixed with it, or el-se made 
into a syrup, with sugar, for keeping. 

In those countries which do not produce the 
tinging grape which affords a blood-ied juice, 
wherewith the wines of France are often stained, 
in defect of this, the juice of elder-berries is used, 
and sometimes log-wood is used at Oporto. 
To force doxvn the finings of all ivhile -wines, ar- 
racks, and small spirits. 

Put a few quarts of skimmed milk into the cask. 
7 'o render red ivine white. 

If a few quarts of well-skimmed milk be put to a 
hogsliead of red wine, it will soon piecipitale the 
greater part of the colour, and leave the whole 
nea.ly white; and this is of known use in the turn- 
ing red wines, when pricked, into white; in which 
a small d.gree of acidity is not so much perceived. 

Milk is, from tiiis quality of disciiarging colour 
from wines, of use also to the wine-coopers, for the 
whitening of wines that have acquired a brown co- 
lour from the cask, or from having been hastily 
boiled before fermenting; for the addition of a lit- 



WINES. 



137 



Oe skimmed milk, in these cases, precipitates the 
brown colour, and leaves the wines almost lim- 
pid, or of what they call a water whiteness, 
which is much coveted abroad in wiues as well as 
in brandies. 

To preserve new wine against timnder. 

Thunder vvill turn and often chang:e wines. 
Cellars that are paved, and the walls of stone, are 
preterable to boarded floors. Befox-e a tempest of 
thunder, it will be advisable to lay a plate of iron 
upon the wine-vessels. 

To make tviae settle xvell. 

Take a pint of wheat, and boil it in a quart of 
water, till it burst and become soft; then squeeze 
itthroug' a linen cloth, and put a pint of the liquor 
into a ho°;shead of unsettled white wine; stir it 
well about, and it will become fine. 

To make a match for srveetening casks. 

Melt some brimstone, and dip into if a piece of 
coarse linen cloth; of which, when cold, take a piece 
of about an inch broad and five inches long, and set 
fire to it, putting it into the bung hole, with one 
end fastened under the bung, wViich must be driven 
in very tight: let it remain a few houi-s before re- 
moving it out. 

To make oyster powder. 

Get some fresh oyster shells, wash them, and 
scrape oft" the yellow part from the outside; lay 
them on a clear fire till they become red hot; then 
lay them to cool, and lake off the softest ])art, pow- 
der it, and sift it through a fine sieve; after whieii 
use it immediately, or keep it in bottles well cork- 
ed up, and laid in a dry place. 

To make aJiUering bag. 

This bag is made ot a yard of either linen or 
flannel, not too fine or close, and sloping, so as to 
have the bottom of it run to a point, J.nd the top as 
broad as the tlolh will allow. It must be well 
sewed up tlie side, and the upper part of it folded 
round a wooden hoop, and well fastened to it;tiien 
tie the hoop in three or four places with a cord to 
support it; and when used, put a can or pail under 
it to receive the liquor, filling the bag witli the se- 
diments; after it lias ceased to run, wash out the 
bag in three or four clear waters, then hang It up 
to dry in an airy jilace, that it may not get musty. 
A wine dealer should always have two bags by 
him, one for red, and the other for white wines. 
To bottle -wine. 

^Vhen wine is made fine and pleasant, it maybe 
bottled, taking care afterwards to pack it in a tem- 
perate place with saw-dust or leatlis. After which 
it will not be fit to drink for at least two months. 
Never use new deal saw-dust, as that causes the 
wine to fret, and often communicates a strong tur- 
pentine smell through the corks to the wine. 
To detect adi'Hei^ated idne. 

Heat equal parts of oyster shells and sulphur to- 
gether, and keep them in a white heat for fifteen 
minutes, and when cold, mix them with an equal 
quantity of cream of tartar; put this mixture into a 
strong bottle with common water to boil for one 
hour, and then decant into ounce phials, and add 
20 drops of muriatic acid to each; this liquor pre- 
cipitates the least quantity of lead, copper, &c. 
from wiues in a very sensible black precipitate. 
To actec.t alnm in -wine. 

Wine merchants and alum to red wine, to com- 
muaicate to it a rough taste and deeper colour; but 
this mixture produces on vhe system the most seri- 
ous effects. For the discovery of the fraud in 
question, adopt the following means:— The wine is 
to be discoloured by means of a concentrated solu- 
tion of chlorine; the mixture is to be evaporated 
until reduced to nearly the fourth of its original vo- 
lume; the liquor is to be filtered; it then jiossesses 
the following properties when it contains alum: — 
S 



1st, it has a sweetish astringent taste; 2d, it fur- 
nishesa white precipitate (sulphate of bary tes) with 
nitrate of bar; tes, insoluole in water and in nitric 
acid; 3d, caustic potash gives rise to a yellowish 
white precipitate of alumine, soluble in an excess 
of potash; 4th, the sub-carbonate of soda produces 
a yellowish white precipitate (suD-car))onate of 
alumine) decomjiosaijle by fire mto carbonic acid 
gas, alumine, easily recognizable by its charac- 
ters. 

.Another mode. — Add to the wine a sufficient 
quantity of a strong solution of chlorine water, 
(oxygenated muriatic acid) until it is changed to a 
yellow colour: let the precipitate, (composed of 
the chlorine and the vegeto-aniraal matter contain- 
ed in the wine), which immediately forms, become 
settled, then filter the liquor, and" evaporate it to 
|th of its volume; it will now, in consequence of 
the presence of the alum, have an astringent sweet- 
isli taste, and will furnish a white precipitate on 
the addition of nitrate of barytes, which is insolu- 
ble in water and in nitric acid. It will give a yel- 
lowish white precipitate with pure potass, that is 
soluble on the addition of an excess of the potass; 
and a precipitate of the same colour, with the sub- 
carbonate of soda. 

To detect lead and copper in wine, cider, perry, &c. 
Put into a crucible 1 oz. of sulphur, and 1 oz. ol 
pure lime; and keep them in a white heat lot 
nearly half an hour; when cold, add 1 ounce of the 
super-tartrate of potass, and boil the whole in a 
matrass with some distilled water for half an hout. 
Decant the supernatant liquor into small phials, 
adding about 20 or 30 drops of muriatic acid to 
each. The phials must be well stopped and pre- 
served for use. Lead, copper and other deleterious 
metals will be precipitated, of a black colour, by 
this liquid, if poured, in the quantity of only a few 
drops, into the suspected wine or cider. 

Another mode. — Another test for these perni- 
cious metals in wineandcider, exists ready formed 
in nature. Pour into a glass of suspected wine, 
cider, or perry, a few drops of Harrowgate water. 
If any lead, 8ic. be present, it will fall down in the 
state of a black precipitate, being combined with 
the sulphuretted hydrogen by which these waters 
are impregnated. 

Lead is used by many wine-merchants to give 
an astringency to port-wine; that, like old port, it 
may a[)pear rough to the tongue. Sometimes tliey 
hang a sheet of lead in the cask; at others they pour 
in a solution of acetate (sugar) of lead, for the pur- 
pose of sweetening, as they term it. 
To detect lead, corrosive sublimate, and antimony 
in wines, &c. 
Sulphuric acid decomposes them with precipi- 
tate, that is blackish when antimony is present, 
hut white with the two first mentioned: then, let 
the precipitate be washed witii boiling water; if it 
change not, it is lead; iH it acquire a yellow colour, 
it is mercury. 

Another test for lead in wine. 
Whatever quantity ot lead resides in wine, may 
be precipitated by mixing with it a fluid, made by 
exposing powdered oyster-shells and sulphur, equal 
quantities, to a white heat for a quarter of an hour; 
and when the compost is cold, add as much cream 
of tartar thereto. Put the whole in a strong bottle 
with common water, and let the liquor boil an 
hour; pour off the solution into ounce phials, each 
of which will be sufficient for a cask of wine, and 
add to each 20 drops of muriatic acid. Every por- 
tion of lead it may contain, will be found at the 
bottom, in the form of a black cindery precipitate. 
Having collected a sufficient quantity of this preci- 
pitate, upon an iron plate, expose it to a heat and 
the lead will rim off. 

JH 2 



38 



UXT^nERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



Another. — Take a paste of sulphur and iron fli- 
ngs, put it into a phial, and pour on it a small 
quantity of sulphuric acid. Pass fhe gas, which 
•vill arise, througli a bent tube, into a bottle of 
«'ater: when thus impregnated, it will form a new 
and improved test for the purpose. Wiien poured 
into wine which contains litharge, it will render it 
black and flakcy, and occasion a considerable pre- 
cipitation. 



jVote by the Amencan Editor. 
The culture of the vine, and the art of obtaining 
its delicious products, are subjects of so much pub- 
lic interest in this country at this particular mo- 
ment, that no apology is necessary for digressing 
a moment, to« state, that in the " Vine-Dresser's 



Manual, and Art of making Wine, Brandy, and 
Vinegar, by Thiebaut de Berneaud," published 
by P. Canfield, New York, 1829, every particular 
relative thereto is to be found. This little volume 
is wholly practical, and should be procured, and 
attentively studied by every one who intends plant- 
ing a vmeyard. Indeed, of so much importance 
does the editor consider the book in question, that, 
had time been afforded him to procure the origi- 
nal, he should have transferred ii wholly to this 
work. Though no legal obstaclesprevented his using 
the New York translation, others not less imperi- 
ous forbade him. Any of the booksellers of New 
York, or Philadelphia, can procure the treatise in 
question; and again 1 say to those interi;;ied, pui"- 
chase and study it. 



The object of distillation is the preparation of 
alcohol or pure spirit, whicli is obtained from bran- 
dy, rum, arrack, and whiskey, prepared from wine, 
sugar, rice, and malt. It also includes compound 
spirits, or those which, in addition to alcohol, con- 
tain some volatile or pungent oil or essence, — as 
gin, hollan(]s, caraway, and peppermint; tlie es- 
sential oils, as oil of cinnamon, oil uf clcves, oil of 
peppermint, lUid otto of roses; and tlie simple dis- 
tilled waters, which retain the fi-agrant flavour of 
the particular herbs with which ihev have been dis- 
tilled. 

To manage clislillation. 

Previous to distilling, the processes of brewing 
and fermentation are necessary. In distilling, there 
is only one general rul-^, namely, to let the heat, in 
all cases, be as gentle as possible. A water-bath, 
if sufficiently large, is preferable to any other mode, 
and will perform the operation with all the dis- 
pnlch requisite tbr the most extensive business. 
The spirit, as it first coniL'S over, should be receiv- 
ed into a quantity of cold water; as, by this means, 
the connexion between it and the oily matter will 
DC considerably lessened. For tlie same reason, 
after it has been once rectified in the water-bath, 
it should be again mixed with an equal quantity of 
■water, and distilled a second time. After the si)i- 
rit has been distilled once or twice in this manner, 
from water, it may be distilled in a water-bath 
without any addition; and this last rectification will 
free it from the greater part of the water which it 
may contain. 

In distilling compound spirits, a small still has 
been found to answer better than a large one. 
Uteyistl". 

In a distillery are required a variety of utensils, 
stsch as a still, worm-tub, pump, a water-cask, a 
strong press, hair-cloths, three or four iron-bound 
tubs, capable of containing from a hogshead to a 
pipe, of at^^' liqiior; three or four cans, capable of 
holding from two to six gallons by measure, an 
iron-bound wooden funnel, having a strong iron 
nosel, or pipe; a pewter syphon, about six feet and a 
half long, and four inches in circumference; iiannel 
bags, for refining the thick and feculent matter at 
the bottom of the casks and other vessels. 
Operation of the still. 

When the still is charged, let the fire under it 
be lighted; and whilst it burns up, the joints should 
je carefully hite.d. 



By la3'ing the hand on the still and capital, as 
the fire gains strength, the process of the operation 
will be ascertained; for, whenever the head, or ca- 
pital, feels hot, it is a proof that the volatile parti- 
cles have arisen, and are about to enter the worm. 
When the still head is about to become liot, pre- 
pare a damp, made of the ashes under the grate, 
mixed with as much water as will [iroperly wet 
them. This mixture is to be thrown iq)on the fire, 
to moderate its action, at the instant when distilla- 
tion has commenced. Continue the heat as long 
as the distilled liquid is spirituous to the taste. 
When the distilled li(juor carries with it any par- 
ticular flavour, it should be re-distilled with essen- 
tial oils, in order to convert it into a compound 
spirit, as gin, peppermint, and other cordials. 

When all the spirituous fluid is drawn oft', the 
still should be emptied by a cock in the side. The 
head, ike. should then be removed, and the several 
lutes taken clean ofl'. The still may now be charg- 
ed a second time, and luted. If the spirit, or com- 
pound to be made, is of a diflerenl natuie or flavour 
from that procured by die last distillation, the still, 
capital, and worm should be thorougiily cleaned 
by hot water, sand, and a scrubbing brush, to re- 
move the oily particles which adhere to their in- 
tei'nal surfaces. The worm is best cleansed by 
passing hot water through it repeatedly, until the 
water flows out quite flavourless. 

Great care should be taken that no grease, tal- 
low, soap, or any other unctuous matter, fall into 
the tubs, pieces, rundlets, or cans. — Above all 
things, lighted candle? torches, or papers, should 
not be brought near any vessel containing spirits. 
The flue or chimney should be kept constantly 
clean. 

To use a portable furnace. 

In the laboratories of experimental chemists, 
portable furnaces are employed. Charcoal is the 
only fuel that can be used in them, except the oc- 
casional use of the finer kinds of stone coal that 
yield a bright flame, and burn to a white ash with- 
out forming clinkers. When the fire is regulated 
by the admission of only the necessary quantii}' of 
air through the charcoal, and the whole heat of the 
fuel is ilirected upon the subject exposed to it, tlie 
expense is not so great as might be supposed, for 
no other fuel gives out so much heat. One lb. of 
charcoal will boil away 13 lbs. of water, whereas 
tlie same weight of Newcastle coal will boil awa? 



DISTILLA1TON. 



139 



only 8 or 9 lbs. A pound of coke will only boil 
away 4 lbs. of water, and a pound of peat seldom 
more than 5 lbs. or by a skilful mode of using it at 
the utmost 10 lbs. 

Ts build fixed fuTiiaces. 

Windsor bricks are generally used, as they may 
be cut as easily as chalk, and yet bear a violent 
heat without alteration; they must be set in clay of 
the same field. The parts" distant from the fire 
may be of common bricks set in mortar, but this 
mortar must be carefully removed before the other 
part is begun, as an accidental admixture of it witli 
the clay would cause the latter to run into glass, 
and thus spoil the furnace. These furnaces are 
generally built as thin as possible that they may 
take up the less room, and to save fuel in heating 
them as they have seldom fire constantly in them; 
in this case, they should be surrounded with iron 
braces, to prevent the alternate contraction and ex- 
pansion destroying them as soon as they otherwise 
•would. 

To make a portable sand-pot. 

For a portable one, the ash pit may be an iron 
cylinder, 17 inches in diameter and 8 deep, closed 
at bottom. In the front is cut a hole 3 inches high 
and 4 wide, with sliders to shut close. Three pins 
are riveted on the inside about an inch below the 
upper edge; these are to support the fire-place. 
Ihe bottom of this ash pit is lined with clay, beat 
up with charcoal dust a\id formed into a kind of 
saucer. The fire-place is a small cylinder of nearly 
the same width, so as to fit easily into the top of the 
ash pit, and rest on the tiiree pins; its height is 15 
inches, and it lias a Hat border at each end, leaving 
a circularrpening of 10 inches in diameter. Around 
the lower border are riveted three screws, to which 
are fixed, by nuts, a grate. In the upper border, 
towards the circumference, and at equal distances 
from each other, are made four circular holes an 
inch over. The inside of the fire-place is lined 
-with clay and charcoal, whose surface is adjusted 
to a core, made by drawing on a board an ellipsis, 
having its foci 15 inches asunder, and its semior- 
dinates at tlie foci 5 inches, sawing off the board at 
each focus, and also down the greatest diameter, so 
that the internal cavity may represent an ellipsoid 
of those dimensions, cut off at the foci. A fire- 
hole al)out 6 inches wide and 4 inches and a half 
high, with the lower limit about 3 inches above the 
grate, is left in the front to be closed with a lined 
stopper; both the fire hole and stopper liaving a 
border to retain the lining. When tlie lining is 
dry, four openings are cut sloping through it, cor- 
responding to tlie oneniiigs in the upper border, to 
serve as vents for the burnt air, and to regulate the 
fire In- sliding pieces of tile more or less over them. 
In the central opening at the top of the fire-place is 
hung a cast-iron pot, eitlier hemispherical, or, 
which is most usual, cylindrical, about 6 inches 
deep at the edge, with a rounded bottom, so that 
the axis is about an inch deeper. The r nimoii 
pots have only a reflected border by which tliey 
hang; but the best kind have also an upright edge 
that rises an inch higher, to which a stone-ware 
head is fitted; and thus the pot serves for many dis- 
tillations that require a strong fire. It is usual to 
cut a notch on one side of the top ot the fire-place, 
sloping u])wards to the edge of the pot, about 3 
inches wide and 2 deep, to admit a low retort to be 
sunk deeper into the pot, by allowing a passage to 
its neck. 

7'o 7nake a sand-heai jumace. 

A furnace of this kind may be stationary, and 
built of bricks that will stand the fire: and in this 
case, the ash pit is built about I'i inches high, and 
has an ash-door opening into it about 6 mches 
square; a grate is then laid, and a fire-door 6 inches 



by S opens immediately into the fire-place, even 
with the grate. The fire-place is made cylindrical, 
2 inches wider than the sand pot, and about 8 
inches deeper; the grate being a square whose side 
is about two-thirds the internal diameter of the 
sand-pot. This pot hangs by its border in an iron 
ring placed at the top of the furnace; we have iio< 
yet adopted Teichmeyer's method of sloping thf 
pot. As stone coal is genei-ally used in fixing fur- 
naces, instead of the 4 register holes used as vents 
in the portable furnaces, only one opening, about 
as wide as the grate, and 3 inches high, either in 
the back or on one side, is made to vent the burned 
air into the chimney. This, however, has the in- 
conveniency of heating the pot unequally, the side 
next the vent becoming much the hottest, in spite 
of the endeavour to equalize the heat by bringing 
tlie fire from under the centre of the pot as forward 
as ])ossible, by raising the wall opposite to the vent 
per,!endicularly, and enlarging it only on the other 
three sides; sometimes, with the same view, seve- 
ral small vents are made round the pot, leading 
into the chimney. A notch for the neck of the re- 
tort is generally made on one side. As much heat 
passes tlirougli the vent, it is usi;al to cause the 
healed air to yiass under a large cast-iron plate, 
placed on a border of bricks surrounding a plat- 
form of the same materials, and leaving a cavity of 
about 2 inches and a half deep, at the further end 
of which, another opening leads into the chimney. 
On this iron plate, sand is laid to form a sand heat, 
and tlius several operations are carried on at the 
saiTie time. If that in the sand-pot is finished, and 
it is desired to keep on those in the sand-lieat 
wi'ihout interruption, the vessel may be drawn out 
of the sand, some warm sand thrown on that re- 
maining in the pot, and a fresh vessel with mate- 
rials introduced. But if this new operation should 
require the neat to be more giadualiy exhibited, a 
pot of thin plate iron, filled with cold sand, con- 
taining the vessel, may be partly slid into the heat- 
ed sand-pot, and, being supported by pieces of 
brick placed under the edge or otherwise, kept 
there until it be necessary to increase the heal, 
when it may be slid down lower until at length it 
is permitted to reach the bottom of the sand-pot. 
Tc make a hot still. 
Portable hot stills should have an ash-pit and 
fire-place exactly similar in dimensions to those 
used with the sand-pot, or the same furnace may 
be used with a hot still, if economy and not conve- 
nieixce is the prim ipal object. The copper or tin 
plate cucurbite will, of course, he 10 inches wide, 
and about 12 deep, and hang 7 inches within the 
fire-place. The mouth should be wide, 'Jiat the 
water-bath lo be occasionally hung withiu ii so as 
to reach witliin 3 inches of the bottom may be the 
larger. Hetwuen this wide neck and the circum- 
ference there should be a short pipe, through which 
the liquor left ;.fter distillation may be drawn off 
b)'^ a crane without uiduting the vessels; fresh li- 
quor added; or, in distilling with the water-bath, 
the steam may escape. This pipe has a ring round 
it, that the cork witli which it is stopped may be 
firmly tied down, and like the other joinings be 
luted; for which purpose slips of paper smeared 
wiih flour and water, or common paste, are usually 
esteemed suificient; l)ut the best material is blad- 
ders rotted in water until they smell extremely 
offensive and adhere to the fingers v.hen touched, 
and then worked between the hands into rolls, 
which are to be tiiplied to the joinings. These 
small stills havt usually a Moor's head that fits 
both the cucurbite and the water-bath, their necks 
being cf equal diameter, and is furnished with a 
groove round the lower part on the inside to dire»>l 
the condensed vapour to the nose of the alembick; 



HO 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



and this head is surrounded bv a pefrigeratory con- 
taining cold water, wliich is not so cumbersome as 
and less expensive than a worm and tub. But the 
most advantageous way of cooling tlie vapours is to 
use a Moor's head without a surrounding refi'ige- 
ratory, or only a plain bent tube, which should be 
at least 18 inches long, that the small globules of 
the boiling liquor which are thrown up near a foot 
high, should not pass over, and render the distilled 
liquor unfit for keeping. To this is to be adapted 
a pewter 7)ipo, about 8 feet long if spirit of wine is 
to be distilled; or shorter for watery liquors; and 
in both cases | of an inch in diameter on the inside, 
inclosed in a tinned plate tube with a funnel. With 
an adopter of this kind, and the consumption of a 
pint and a half of water in a minute, or about 9 gal- 
lons in an hour, spirit of wine may be distilled at 
the rate of a gallon by the hour, from one of these 
portable stills. Another convenience of these straiglit 
pipes is, that they may be cleansed in the sume 
manner as a fowling piece. 

To make a large still. 

If this furnace is fixed, and made of bricks, it 
may be constructed with a sand heat like that an- 
nexed to the sand-pot: but this is seldom practised, 
although it would be advantageous for digestions 
and evaporations with a gentle heat, because the 
fire is generally kept up at an even height. If the 
cucurbite is not wanted for distilling, it may be 
used as a boiler to keep water ready heated for use, 
and to be drawn oft' when wanted by a syphon or 
crane. But these fixed stills are usually furnished j 
with a pipe and cock on a level with thf bottom, 
by which they can be emptied, and have almost al- 
ways a worm and tub to cool the vapours; the head 
is usually of that kind which is called a swan's 
neck. 

Jlstier''s improved still. 

It has been proved that as soon as a common still 
is in operation, tl>e steam from the capital in the 
first turn of the worm is at a temperature of 80°, or 
100° of Reaumur. Here water only condenses, 
and the alcohol in vapour passes into the second 
turn, where it condenses bj' the lowered tempera- 
ture. If the condensed liquid is drawn off from 
the upper turn, it is mere phlegm, or water; while 
that from the second turn is alcohol, or spirit. The 
mode of doing this is veiy simple, and can be ap- 
plied to any old still; so that every advantage re- 
sulting from the most complicated and expensive 
stills can be obtained; tliat is to say, plain brandy, 
Dutch proof, and even thirty-five and thirty-sixth 
proof. The alterations are effected as follows. 
Each turn of the worm is to be furnished with a 
very slender lateral pipe, ending in a faucet and 
tap. A crescent shaped valve, placed just before 
the opening of the pipe into the worm, obliges the 
condensed liquid to trickle into the pipe, and a 
slight elbow above and below the pipe prevents 
any of the steam from running in the same direc- 
tion. Each of these pipes follows the main worm 
in all its convolutions, comes out of the condenser 
at the same opening, and is led thence to its own 
receiver. The pipe of the first turn has also a se- 
cond branch with a faucet, which lets out the phlegm, 
(which is worthless) as fast as it is condensed. A 
prover indicates the moment when the feints should 
be separated, as simple brandy or proof spirit is 
wanted. These feints are either detained in the 
Boiler, or set aside for rectification, in all cases 
necessary for the last spirit that comes over, with- 
out which it IS worthless. 

Besides producing more spiriv., and saving three- 
fourths out of the feints, the woim prepared as 
ibove shortens the term of distillation l)y one half, 
»nd consequently reduces the expense of fuel. In 
uidition to tliis, and what is of more consequence. 



a sour wine may be distilled as well as any other, 
and without the least taint being perceptible in the 
brandy. The spirit is, ol course, less in quantity, 
but whatever is obtained is good, and all the acid 
separates and flows out by the first pipe, which 
gives an opportunity of profiting by the acetous por- 
tion. 

To extingrdsh fire in distilleries. 

A woollen blanket or rug, hang over a roller in 
a water-butt, is the readiest and best extinguisher. 
'I 'o diddfy spirits. 

In dulcifying, or sweetening the spirits, weigh 
the sugar, and dissolve it in one or more cans of 
the water, with which the compound is to be made 
up: bruise the sugar, and stir it well, till all is dis- 
solved. Then empty it into the cask containing 
the spirits; mixing all together, by drawing off se- 
veral cans by the cock, and emptying them into the 
casks by the bung holes. Now rummage all well 
together, till tiiey are perfectly compounded. 

Spirits or compounds that are strong, require no 
assistance in setting, and becoming clear; but those 
that are weak must be refined by the addition of 
some other substance. To every hogshead of Ge- 
neva, or other spirituous compound, ])ut six ounces 
of powdered alum, previously dissolved in three or 
four gallons of the compound: stir all well together. 
In the course of twenty-four hours, the whole will 
be rendered completely clear. 

It is a good practice to leave the bung-lioles of 
casks (containing spirits or compounds newly 
made) open for several days: this impi-oves their 
flavour; and I'enders them clear, sooner than they 
would otherwise be. 

Table-salt throw n into the still, in the propor- 
tion of 6 ounces to 10 gallons of any liquid to be 
distilled, will greatly iiT.prove the riiivonr, taste, 
and strength of llie spirit. The viscid matter will 
be fixed by tlie salt, whilst the volatile matter 
ascends in a state of great purity. 

The flavour of malt spirits is highly improved 
by putting 3^ ounces of finely ])0wdered charcoal, 
and 4^ ounces of ground rice, into a quart of spi- 
rits, and letting it stand during 15 days, frequent- 
ly stirring it; then let the liquor be strained, and 
it will be tound nearly of the same flavour as brandy. 
To make charcoal. 

This is usually manufactured from coppice wood, 
cut eveiy 16 years; the faggots are made into a 
large conical pile, covered up with clods of eai'th, 
leaving circular rows of holes from top to bottom. 
The wood is then kindled, and as it becomes red, 
the holes are regularly closed to stop the further 
combustion, and when the whole has been closed 
up, the pile is left to cool; when the black skeleton 
of the wood is left, which differs from the raw 
wood in burning without any smoke, and with lit- 
tle or no flame, yielding at the same time no soot, 
although some of the finer particles of the ashes are 
volatilized and adhere to ti»e chimney. The air 
which passes through the burning charcoal has its 
o.xygenous part converted into carbonic acid gas, 
without being, when cooled, any ways altered in 
bulk, although its weight by the gallon is increased 

The air being thus rendered unfit for respira- 
tion, kills whatever animals or plants are confined 
in it: numerous accidents have happened of persons 
being suffocated by sleeping in close rooms with s 
charcoal fire. 

l"he cnarcoal for medical purposes should, like 
that for gun-powder, be nvxde of soft woods, as al- 
der, healed in iron long necks until no volatile 
matter is given out. Small quantities may be made 
by burying wood u.jder sand in a covered crucible^ 
and exposing the whole to fire. 

To make spirit ofiuine. 

Spirit of wine, as it is called, was formerly, and 



DISTILLATION. 



141 



is still, in southern countries, obtained by distill- 
tiig wine for its yield of brandy, and then slowly 
aostracting the more volatile part of the branily, by 
a small fire and the use of tall vessels. In England, 
spirit of wine is, in general, obtained from gronnd 
meal, either of wheat, rye, or barley, with from 
otie-tenth to one-third of the same, oranothersjrain, 
malted and ground, and then called malt spirit; or 
from treacle, and then called molasses spirit; some 
IS also made from apples, or cider wash. The 
fermentation is earned on quiclier and farther than 
in brewing or making cider, in order lliat all tlie 
sugar in the wash may be converted into siiirit and 
water. The infusion of the malt and meal is made 
so strong, that its specific gravitj' is from 1.083 to 
1.14, (whereas that for strong ale is generally 1.0(3 
and for small beer, 1.015 to 1.04) and is mixed 
with a large quantity of yeast, added by successive 
portions, until, in about ten days, the specific gra- 
vity is reducecl to 1.002, when it is fit for the still. 
In general, a third part is drawn off at the first stil- 
ling, under the name of low wines, the specific gra- 
vity being about 0.975. On ic-distilling the low 
wines, a fiery spirit, of a milky cast, comes over 
first, and is returned into the still: then follows the 
clean spirit: when it begins to grow too watery, 
the remaining spirit that comes over, as long as it 
will take fire, is kept apart, under the name of 
feints, and mixed with the next parcel of low wines. 
Instead of these trials, the iiead of the still may 
have the bulb of a thermometer inserted into it, 
and by observing the temperature of the steam, an 
accurate judgment may be formed of the strength 
of the spirit that distills over. It is computed, that 
100 gallons of malt or corn wash will produce about 
UO of spirit, containing about half its weight of wa- 
ter; mohsses wash, 22 gallons; cider wash, 15 gal- 
lons. The best French wines yield from 20 to 25 
gallons. The spirit thus obtained is for chemical 
and pharmaceutical purposes mixed with water, to 
separate the oil it contait s, and re-distilled several 
times in tall vessels, with a very gentle heat, until 
its specific gravity is reduced to 82; though that 
usually sold is only 0.837, at 60 deg. Fahrenheit. 
By distilling spirit of wine with purified pearl 
ashes, salt ot tartar, muriate of lime, lime, or com- 
mon salt, all previously heated to redness, and 
cooled, its specific gravity may be reduced still 
lower, even as low as 0.792, at 68 deg. Fahrenheit; 
but there is reason to think, that it not only parts 
with water, but also undergoes some change, or 
acquires some impregnation by these additions, as 
its taste is altered. This spirit of wine, from which 
every pailicle of water is separated, is called by 
the Arabic name of alcohol. 

To make ether. 
The old chemists, after mixing spirit of wine 
with an equal weight of oil of vitriol, digested it for a 
long time, and then distilled the most volatile part, 
which was called the sweet oil of vitriol. At pre- 
sent, the mixture, whose temperature is consider- 
ably increased, is placed in a heated sand bath and 
distilled, without being suffered to cool until one 
half the quantity of the spirit is come over, mean- 
while, an inflammable gas also passes over. If 
the distillation is continued, sulphurous acid passes 
over, and a light yellow sweet oil of wine; the 
black residuary sulphuric acid contains charcoal 
diffused through it, which may be separated by ad- 
mixture with water and filtration. If fresh alco- 
hol is poured on the residuum, more ether maybe 
obtained by distillation. The unrectified ether, as 
the first product is called, contains both water and 
alcohol: dry salt of tartar separates the first, and 
then pouring off the upper liquid, and adding dry 
muriate of lime in powder, this salt unites with 
the alcohol, and the ether swims on the solution. 



To imitate foreign spirits. 

A. great desideratum among <lislillers, in this 
countr}', is to imiiate foreign spirits, sudi as bran- 
dy, rum, geneva, &c. to a tolerable degree of i)er- 
fection; but, notwithstanding the rnaiiy attempts 
that are daily made for this purpose, the success, 
in general, has been indifferent. The general me- 
thod of distilling brandies in France, differs it, no- 
tliing from that practised here, with malt-wash or 
molasses; nor are the French distillers in the least 
more cleanly in their operations. Still, though 
brandy is distilled from wine, experience tells us 
that tiiere is a great difference in the grapes from 
which the wine is made. Every soil, every cli- 
mate, every kind of grape, varies with regard to 
the quantity and quality of the spirit distilled from 
them. A large quantity of brantH is distilled in 
France during the time of the vintage: for the 
poor grapes that prove unfit for wine, are usually 
first gathered, pressed, their juice fermented, and . 
instantly distilled. It is a general rule with them, 
not to distil wine that v, ill fetch any price as luine; 
for, in this stnte, the profits obtained ai'e much 
greater than when the wine is reduced to brandies. 

For a long time, this liquor was distilled only 
from spoilt wine, and afterwards from the dregs of 
beer and wine: and when, instead of these, the dis- 
tillers employed rye, wheat, and barley, it was con- 
sidered as a wicked and unpardonable misuse of 
corn. 

To condense vapours in distillation. 

This is best acconjplished by means of a disk at- 
tached to the tube of the still which has the figure 
of a lens, flattened as much as possible and made 
of copper. It produces a much better and more 
rapid effect than the worms employed for that 
purpose. 

To make British brandy. 

To sixty gallons of clean rectified spirit put 1 
pound of sweet spirit of nitre, 1 pound of cassia 
buds ground, 1 pound of bitter almond meal, (the 
cassia and almond meal to be mixed together be- 
fore they are put to the spirits), 2 ounces of sliced 
orris root, and about 30 or 40 prune stones pound- 
ed; agitate the whole well together, two or three 
times a day, for three days or more: let them set- 
tle, then pour in 1 gallon of the best wine vine- 
gar; and add to every 4 gallons 1 gallon of foreign 
brandy. 

To imitate Cogniac brandy. 

English spirits, with proper management, are 
convertible irto brandy, hardly distinguishable 
from foreign, provided the operation is neatly per- 
formed. The best, and indeed the only method of 
imitiiting the French brandies to perfection, isby an 
essential oil ofimie, tliis being the very ingredient 
which gives the French brandies their flavour. It 
must however be remembered, that, in order to 
use even this ingredient to advantage, a pure taste- 
less spirit must first be produced. 

To prepare the oil ot wine, dissolve some cakes 
of diy wine-lees in six or eight times their weight of 
water, distil the liquor by a slow fire, and separate 
the oil by a separatory glass, reserving for the ni- 
cest uses that which comes over the first, tha suc- 
ceeding oil being coarser and more resinous. This 
oil of wine should be dissolved in alcohol, other- 
wise it will soon grow rancid. 

To imitate Cogniac brandy, it will be necessary 
to dist'l the essential oil from Cogniac lees, and 
the same for any other kind of brandy. The proof, 
it may be easily accomplished, by using a spirit 
rectified above proof, wiiich, intimately combined 
with the esential oil, may be reduced to a proper 
standard by distilled water. The softness may, in 
a g'"eat measure, be obtaine<l by distilling and reo- 
tifying the spirit over a gentle fire; and, what it 



14^ 



UNI'VERSAL RECEIPT EOOK. 



wanlins;, when the spirit is lirsl. made, will be sup- 
plied by time. Treacle ov burnt sugar gives tiie 
spiritafine colour, nearly resembling tliat of French 
brandy; but as its colour is deep, a large quantity 
must beused; and the bubble proofis greatly height- 
ened by the tenacity imparted to the liquor by tlie 
treacle, while the spirit acquires from the mixture 
a luscious taste. A much smaller quantity of burnt 
sugar than of treacle will however be sufficient fcjr 
colouring the same quantity of spirits, and it ac- 
quires an agreeable bitterness. The burnt sugar 
is prepared by dissolving a i)roper quantity of sugar 
til a little water, and scorching it over the fire till 
!t acquires a black colour. 

To procure the oil of wine. 
This oil should he distilled from the thick lees 
of Fi'ench wiiie«, because of the flavour, and when 
procured must be kept ready for use. It must be 
mixed with the purest spirit of wine, such as alco- 
hol; by which means it may be preserved a long 
time. The Lottie should be shaken before the oil 
is used. 

When the flavour of the brandy is well imitated 
by a proper portion of llie essential oil, and the 
•whole reduced into one nature, yet other difficul- 
ties still exist; whicli are, the colour, the softness, 
and the proof. The ))roof may be effected by using 
a spirit above proof, which after being mixed with 
the oil may be let down to any strength with water. 
'I'lie softness will be attained bj' getting a spirit 
that has been distilled by a slow fire; and tlie co- 
lour may be regulated by the use of brandy co- 
louring. 

To make brandy from treacle. 
Spirit distilled from common tref.cle dissolved 
in water, should be fermented in the same manner 
as the wash for common malt spirit. Kfresh wine- 
lees abounding in tartar, are well fermented with 
molasses, the spirit will acquire a greater vinosity 
and briskness, and approach the nature of foreign 
brandy. If the molasses spirit, brought to the 
common proof strength, is found not to have suffi- 
cient vinosity, it will be proper to add some sweet 
spirits of nitre; and if the spirit has been properly 
distilled by a gentle heat, it may, by this addition 
only, be made to pass with ordinary judges as 
Frencli brandy. Great quantities of this spirit are 
used in adulterating foreign brandy, rum, and 
arrack. Much of it is also used alone, in making 
eheny brandy and other cordials by infusion; in 
all which many prefer it to foreign brandies. Mo- 
lasses, like all other spirits, is enti "ely colourless 
■when first extracted; but distillers give it, as nearly 
as possible, the colour of foreign spirits. 
7'o make brandy from potatoes. 
Potatoes by distillation afford brandy of the best | 
quality, not to be distinguished from that obtained 
from wine. One thousand lbs. pressed, fermented, 
and distilled daily, affords from 60 to 70 quarts of 
good brandy. The residue of the potatoe, after 
the spirit is extracted, is used as food for cattle. 
To improve British brandy. 
Take thirty gallons of fine English brandy, three 
ounces of tincture Japonica, and nine ounces of 
spirit of nitre dulci s. Incorporate these with some 
9f the spirit, and then put it into the rest of the li- 
quor, and stir it well .bout. This will make 
thirty gallons of brandy , and if it be a good clean 
spirit, it will much resemble French brandy. 
To prepare tincture .Taponica. 
Take of the best English saffron, and dissolve 
one ounce; mace bruised, one ounce; infuse them 
into a pint of brandy till the whole tincture of the 
saffron is extracted, which will be in seven or 
eight days; then strain it through a linen cloth, and 
to the strained tincture add two ounces of tartar Ja- 



! ponica powdered fine; let it infuse till the tincture 
is wholly impregnated. 

To make .famaica nun. 
Tliis is obtained from the refuse of the raw su 
gar manufactories, by taking e.^;i:!] (juantiiies of 
the skimmings of the sugar pans, of lees or returns 
as they are commonly called, and of watei': and to 
100 gallons of this wash are added ten gallons of 
molasses. This afi^ards from 10 to 17 gallons of 
proof rum, and twice as much low wines; it is 
sometimes rectified to a strength approacliing to 
spirit of wine, and is then called double distilled 
rum. 

To imitate Jamaica mm. 
To imitate Jamaica rum, it is necessary to pro- 
cure some of the tops, or other parts of the sugar 
canes, and to put them in a still, in the proportion 
of a pound weight to two gallonsof pure flavourless 
spirit, and one gallon of pure water. The distil- 
lation may be carried on by a brisk heat, pro\ ided 
there is a quantity of common salt, (in the propor- 
tion of an ounce to each gallon of liquid in tlie 
still), to prevent the mucilaginous matter from ari- 
sing with the spirit. The product when rectified 
and coloured by burnt sugar, will possess every 
character of excellent rum. 
I To obtain rum from molasses. 

i Mix two or three gallons of water with one gal- 
I Ion of molasses, and to everj' 200 gallons of this 
mixture add a gallon 'jf yeast. Once or twice^a 
day the head as it rises is stirred in, and in three 
or four days, 2 gallens more of water is added to 
each gallon of molasses originally used, and the 
same quantity of yeast as at first. Four, five, of 
six days after this, a portion of yeast is added as 
before, and about an ounce of jalap root powdered, 
(nr in winter one ounce and a half), on which the 
fermentation proceeds with great violence, and in 
three or four days, the wasli is fit for the still: one 
hundred gallons of this wash is computed to yield 
twenty-two gallons of spirit from one to ten over 
proof. ^ 

To prepare gin as in Holland. 
The grist is composed of ten quarters of malt, 
ground considerably finer than malt distillers' bar- 
ley grist, and three quarters of lye-meul; or, more 
frequently, of ten quarters of lye and three quar- 
ters of malt-meal. The ten quarters are first 
mashed, with the least quantity of cold water it is 
possible to blend it with, and when uniformly in- 
corporated, as much boiling water is added as 
forms it into a thin batter: it is then put into one, 
two, or more casks, or gyle tuns, with a much less 
quantity of yeast than is usually employed by our 
distillers. Generally, on the third day, the Dutch 
distillers add the malt or rye-meal, prepared in a 
similar manner, but not before it comes to the tem- 
perature of the fermenting wash; at the same time 
adding as much yeast as at first. 

The principal secret is the management of the 
mashing part of the business, in first thoroughly 
mixing the malt with the cold water, and in subse- 
quently adding the due proportion of boiling water, 
that it may still remain sufficiently diluted after 
the addition of the fine meal; also in well rousing 
all together in the back, that the wash may be di- 
lute enough for distilling, without endangering its 
burning to the bottom. 

Rectification into Hollands gin. 
To every 20 gallons of spirit of the second ex- 
traction, about the strength of proof, take of juniper 
berries, 3 lbs. oil of juniper, 2 oz. and distil with 
a slow tire, until the feints begin to rise, then 
change the receiving can; this produces the best 
Rotterdam gin. 
An inferior kind is made with a still les.s pro- 



DISTILLATION. 



143 



portion ot berries, sweet fennel seed, and Stras- 
ijurg turpentine, without a drop of oil of juniper; 
and a better sort, but inferior to the Rotterdam, is 
made 'UWeesoppe. The distiller's wash atSchee- 
tlam and Rotterdam, is lig;hter than at Weesoppe. 
Strasburg turpentine is of a yellowish-brown co- 
lour, a very fragrant agreeable smell, yet the least 
acrid of the turpentine. The juniper berries are 
io cheap in Holland, that they must have other rea- 
sons than mere cheapness for being so much more 
sparing of tlieir consumption than our distillers. 
To make malt sjdrit. 

Mix 60 quarters o* oarley grist, ground low, and 
20 quartei-s of coarse ground i)ale malt, with 250 
barrels of water, at about 170 degrees Fahrenheit. 
Take out 30 barrels of the wort, and add to this 10 
store of fresh porter yeast, and when the remain- 
ing wort is cooled down to 55 degrees, add 10 
quarters more malt, previously mixed with 30 bar- 
rels of warm water; stir the whole well together, 
and put it to ferment along with the reserved yeast- 
ed wort: this wash will be found to weigh, by the 
saccharometer, from 28 to 32 lbs. per barrel, more 
than water. In the course of 12 or 14 days, the 
veast head will fall quite flat, and tlie wash will 
nave a vinous smell and taste, and not weigh raire 
than from 2 to 4 lbs. per barrel more than water. 
Some now put 20 lbs. of common salt, and 30 lbs. 
of Hour, and in 3 or 4 days put it into the still, pre- 
viously stirring it well together. Every 6 gallons 
of this wash will produce one gallon oi spirit, at 
from 1 to 10 over proof; or 18 gallons of spirit from 
each quarter of grain. 

English geneva. 

'V\ie best English geneva is made as follows: 
Take of juniper-berries, 3 lbs. proof spirit, 10 gal- 
lons, water, 4 do. Draw oft" by a gentle fire, till 
the feints begin to rise, and make up the goods to 
the required strength with clear water. 
To distil spirits from carrots. 

Take one ton and eight stone of carrots, which, 
after being exposed a few days to dry, will weigh 
about 160 stone. Tlie whole being cut, put one- 
third of the quantity into a copper, with twenty- 
four gallons of water, and after covering them up 
close, reduce the whole into a pulp. The other 
two-thirds are to be treated in tlie same maimer, 
and as tiie pulp is taken from the copper, it is car- 
ried to the press, where the juice is extracted with 
great facility. 'I'be liquor obtained will amount to 
200 gallons, and will be of a rich sweet taste, rt- 
sembling wort. It is then put into the copper with 
one pound of hops, and suffered to boil about five 
hours, when it is put into the cooler^ to remain till 
the heat comes down to 66 degrees. From the 
cooler it is discharged into the vat, where six 
quarts of }easi are put to it, in the usual manner. 
Let it work forty-eight hours, or till 58 deg., when 
tlie yeast begins to fall. Then heat twelve gallons 
of unfcrmented juice, and put it to the liquor, and 
the lieat will be raised to 66 deg. Work afresh for 
twentj'-Four hours longer, the liquor gradually low- 
ering, as before, from 66 to 58°. Tun the whole 
into half-hogsheads, to work from the bung. After 
standing tliree daj's in the casks, fifty gallons may 
be drawn off, which is rectified the next day with- 
out any additional substance. Twelve gallons of 
spirit will be obtained. 

To make arrack. 

Arrack is no other than a spirit produced by dis- 
tillation from a vegetable juice called toddy, which 
flows out of the cocoa-nut tree. The operator pro- 
vides himself with a parcel of earthen pots, climbs 
up the trunk of a cocoa-tree; anu when he comes to 
the boughs, he cuts off one of the small knots or 
buttons, and applies the mouth of a bottle to the 
wound, fastening it to the bough with a bandage; 



in the same manner he cuts off others, and pro- 
ceeds till the whole number is employed: this done, 
he leaves them until (he next mo..iing, when he 
takes off the. bottles, which are mostly filled, and 
em])lies the juice into the proper' receptacle. 
When a sufficient quantity isproihiced, the whole, 
put together, is left to ferment. When the fer- 
mentation is over, atid the liquor is a little tart, it 
is put into the still, and fire being made, tiie stil! 
is suffered to work as long as that which comes ott 
has any considerable taste of sjiirit. The liquor 
thus procured is the low wine of arrack; and is dis- 
tilled again to separate some of its watery parts, 
and recHfy it to that veiy weak kind of proof-spi- 
rit in whicli state we find it 

Tungusian arrack is a spirituous liquor made by 
the Tartars of Tungusia, of mare's milk, left tc 
sour, and afterwards distilled twice or thrice be- 
tween two earthen pots closely stopped, Mhence 
the liquor runs tlirough a small wooden pipe. 
To fine spirits. 

Mix a small quantity of wheat flour in water •'» 
if for making paste, and pour the same into the 
vessel. The wliole is then to be well roused, and 
in a short time the contents will become bright. 
To extract alcohol from potatoes. 

Take 100 lbs. of potatoes well washed, dress 
them by steam, and let them be bruised to powdei 
with a roller, &,c. In the nsaii time take 4 lbs. of 
ground malt, steep it in lukewarm water, and then 
pour into the fermenting back, and pour on it 
twelve quarts of boiling water; this water is stirred 
about, and the bruised potatoes thrown in, and well 
stii-red about with wooden rakes, till every part of 
the potatoes is well saturated with the liquor. 

immediately, six or eight ounces of yeast is to be 
mixed willi twenty-eight gallons of water of a pro- 
per warmth to make the whole mass of the tempe- 
rature of from 59 to 66 degrees; there is to be 
added half a pint to a pint of good brandy. 

The fermenting back must be placed in a room, 
to be kept by means of a stove at a -temperature 
from 66 to 72 degrees. The mixture must be left 
to remain at rest. 

The back must be large enough to suffer the mass 
to risd seven or eight inches without running over 
If, notwithstanding this precaution, it does so, a 
little must be taken out, and returned when it falls 
a little; the back is then covered again, and the 
fermentation is suffered to finish without touching 
it — which takes place generally in five or sis days 
This is known by its being perceived that the li- 
([Uor is quite clear, and the potatoes fallen to the 
bottom of the back. The fluid is decanted, and 
the potatoes pressed dry. 

The distillation is by vapour, with a wooden or 
copper still on the plan of Count Rumford. The 
product of the first distillation is low wines. 

When the fermentation has been favourable, 
from every 100 lbs. of potatoes, six quarts and up- 
wards of good brandy, of 20 degrees of the areo- 
meter, are obtained; which, put into new casks, 
and afterwards browned with burnt sugar, like the 
French brandies, is not to be distinguished from 
them. 

One thousand pounds of potatoes at twice, gives 
sixty to seventy quarts of good brandy. The resi- 
due of the distillation is used as food for stock. 
To extract potash from potatoe tops. 

It is necessai-y to cut off the potatoe tops the mo- 
ment that the flowers begin to fall, as that is the 
period of their greatest vigour; they must be cut 
off at four or five inches from the ground, with a 
very sharp knife. Fresh sprouts spring, which 
will not only answer all the purposes of conduct- 
ing the roots to maturity, but tend to an increase of 
their volume, as they, (the sprouts) demand less 



144 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



nourishment than the old top. The tops may be 
sufiered to remain on the ground where cut; in 8 
or 10 days the ' are sufficiently dry without turn- 
ing, and may be carted, either home»>or to a cor- 
ner of the field, where a hole is to be dug in the 
earth, about 5 feet square and 2 feet deep, (the 
combustion would be too rapid, and the ashes cool 
too quick, and thereby diminish the quantity of al- 
kali were they burnt in the open air). The ashes 
must be kept red-hot as long as possible: when the 
fire is strong, tops that are only imperfectly dried 
may be thrown in, and even green ones will then 
burn well enough. 

Tlie aslies extracted from the hole must be put 
in a vessel, and boiling water be poured upon it, 
as then the water must be evaporated: for these 
two operations potato tops may be used alone as 
firing in the furnace, and the ashes collected. 
There remains, after the evaporation, a dry saline 
reddish substance, known in commerce un<!er the 
name of salin; the more the ashes are boiled, the 
greyer and more valuable the salin becomes. 

The salin must then be calcined in a very hot 
oven, until the whole mass presents an uniform 
reddish brown. In cooling it remains diy, and in 
fragments — blueish within, and white on the sur- 
face; in which state it takes the name of potass. 

The ashes, exhausted of their alkaline principle, 
afford excellent manure for land intended to be 
planted with potatoes. 

To make brandy from beet root. 
Fertile preparation of brandy, the water used in 
the first boiling of the roots, is boiled again, and 
poured out on the residuum from the first expres- 
sion of the pounded roots; this must stand for a 
day or two, after which it is expressed, and the re- 
maining dry pulp serves as a good food for cattle. 
The juice obtained in this way is mixed with the 
waste parts of the syrup and the mucilage which 
remains after tlie expression of the saccharine crys- 
tals, and all boiled together till half of it is evapo- 
rated. The liquor is then poured into a coop ex- 
posed to a temperature of 45 deg. Fahrenheit, and 
cooled to 65 deg. Having added a proportionate 
quantity of yeast, it is left to ferment, and in 
3 or 4 days after the distillation may be undertaken. 
y'o obtain sugar from beet root. 
The beet roots best calculated for the extraction 
of sugar, ai'e those which have a soft flesh, whitish 
towards the edges and not growing above ground 
Aftei being cleaned, they are boiled, cut into pieces 
and pounded in a v/oo<len trough with wooden 
stampers, and afterwards pressed. The juice thus 
obtained is immediately put into a polished copper 
kettle and simmered, during which time the scum 
must continually be taken off. To one hundred 
quarts of this juice add two ounces or less of slack- 
ened lime, diluted so as to have the appearance of 
milk, and continue the boiling till the juice is thick- 
ened to the half of it. Having strained it through 
a woollen cloth, thicken it to the consistency of a 
syrup, which afterwards is put into glass, stone, or 
wooden vessels. These being placed ntar a mo- 
derate fire, saccharine crystals appear, which being 
freed by expression frum tl»j mucilaginous juice, a 
very good raw su";ar is obtained. 

To make proof spirit. 
The London College mentions no proportions, 
but requires the specific gi-avity of .930; the Dub- 
lin advises the mixture of four nieasures of spirit 
with three of water, and the Edinburgh College or- 
ders equal measures of their alcohol and water, the 
specific gravity of which mixture they quote as 
.935. The chemists in London are in the habit of 
making their proof spirit, by taking half spirit of 
wine and half water, whenever it is required, as 
they seldom or never keep it in that state. 



To make tincture of snli of tartar. 

Melt 6 oz. of salt of tartar in a crucible; pcwder 
it while hot, and immediately pour upon the pow- 
der a quart of spirit of wine, and digest it for seve- 
ral days. 

Tincture of antimony. 

Take of crude antimony, 1 oz.; salt of tartar, and 
saltpetre, eacli 2 oz. Mix and throw them into a 
red hot crucible; when melted, pour them out into 
an ii'on mortar, powder the mass, while hot, and 
before it grows cold put it into a bottle with a suffi- 
cient quantity of spirit of wine. 

This and the preceding are to be considered as 
alcohol made without distillation, but they receive 
an alkaline taint, which renders them impure. 

All these spirits are stimulants, but more em- 
ployed as luxuries than medicines 



LIQL^EURS. 

To make ratafia d''a%gelique. 
Take of angelica seeds, 1 drachm; stalks of an- 
gelica, bitter almonds, blanched, each 4oz. ; proof 
spirit, 12 pints; white sugar, 2 lbs. Digest, strain, 
and filter. 

Anisette de Bourdeaiix. 
Take of sugar, 9 oz. ; oil of aniseed, 6 drops. 
Rub them together, and add by degrees, spirit of 
wine, 2 pints; water, 4 pints. Filter. 

To make real creine des barbades. 
Take 2 dozen middling sized lemons; 6 large 
citrons; loaf sugar, 28 lbs. ; fresh balm leaves, ^ lb. ; 
spirit of wine, 2^ gallons; water 3^ ditto. This will 
produce about 7 gallons, full measure. Cut the 
lemons and citrons in thin slices, and put them into 
a cask; pour upon them the spirit of wine, bung 
down close, and let it stand ten days or a fortnight, 
then break the sugar, and boil it for half an hour 
in the three gallons and a half of water, skimming 
it frequently; then chop the balm-leaves, put them 
into a large pan, and pour upon them the boiling 
liquor, and let it stand till quite cold; then strain 
it through a lawn sieve, and put it to the spiritSj 
&c. in the cask; bung down close, and in a fort- 
night draw it off; strain it through a jelly bag, and 
let it remain to fine; then bottle it. 
Ea%t de barbades. 
Take of fresh orange peel, 1 oz. ; fresh lemon- 
peel, 4 oz.; cloves, ^ drachm; coriander, 1 do.; 
proof spirit, 4 pints. Distil in a bath heat and add 
white sugar in powder. 

To make ratafia de cafe. 
Take of roasted coffee, ground, I lb.; proof spi- 
rit, 1 gallon; sugar, 20 oz. Digest for a week. 
Hatafia de cassis. 
Take of ripe black currants, 6 lbs.; cloves, ^ 
drachm; cinnamon, 1 ditto; proof spirit, 18 pints; 
sugar, Sg lbs. Digest for a fortnight. 
Hatafia des cerises. 
Take of morello cherries, with their kernels, 
braised, 8 lbs; proof spirit, 8 pints. Digest for a 
month, strain with expression, and then add l^lbs. 
of sugar. 

Hatafia de chocolat. 
Take of Caracca cocoa nuts, roasted, 1 lb. ; West 
India ditto, roasted | lb.; proof spirit, 1 gallon. 
Digest for a fortnight, strain, and then add sugar, 
1^ lbs.; tincture of vanilla, 30 drops. 
Eau divine. 
Take of spirit of wine, 1 gallon; essence of le- 
mons, and essence of bergaraot, each 1 drachm: 
Distil in a bath heat: add sugar 4 lbs. dissolved in 
2 gallons of pure witer; and, lastly, orange flower 
water, 5 oz. 

Elephant's milk. 
Take of benjamin, 2 oz.; spirit of wine, 1 pint 



DISTILLATION. 



145 



^oiling water, 2^ pints. When cold, strain; and 
iKld sugar, 1^ lbs. 

Ratafia de grenoble. 
Take of small wild black cherries, with their 
kernels, bruised, 12 lbs.; proof spirit, 6 gallons. 
Digest for a month, strain, and then add 12 lbs. of 
sugar. A little citron peel may also be added at 
pleasure. 

Marasquin de groseilles. 
Take of gooseberries, quite ripe, 102 lbs. black 
cherry leaves, 12 lbs. 13ruise and ferment; distil 
and rectify the spirit. To each pint of this spirit 
add as much distilled water, and sugar, 1 lb. 
Iluile de Venus. 
Take of flowers of the wild carrot, picked, 6 oz. 
— spirit of wine, 10 pints. Distil in a bath heat. 
To the spirit add as much syrup of capillaire; it 
may be coloured with cochineal. 
Liquodilla. 
Take the thin peel of six oranges and 6 lemons, 
steep thera in a gallon of brandy or rum, close 
stopped, for two or three days; then take 6 qiiartj 
of water, and 3 lbs. of loaf sugar clarified with the 
whites ol three eggs. Let it boil a quarter of an 
hour, then stram it through a fine sieve, and let it 
stand till cold; strain the brandy from the peels, 
and add the juice of 5 oranges and 7 lemons to each 
gallon. Keep it close stopped up six weeks, then 
bottle it. 

Fresh marasquin, a new Uque^ir. 
Advantage has not hitherto been taken of the 
fruit of the St Lucian tree, [primus mahaleb, Lin. ) 
This small black fruit is of a very disagreeable 
taste, but it may produce an excellent liqueur. JVl. 
Cadet de Vaux, recognizing in this little cherry 
an aromatic savour, thought it would serve to make 
a kind of kirschwasser. In effect, it ferments and 
furnishes by distillation a Prussic alcohol; but by 
putting it first to infuse in brandy for some time, 
there is obtained, by distillation in a bath heat, a 
spirit of a very agreeable aromatic, and which, pro- 
perly sweetened, forms a liqueur comparable to the 
best marasquin of Italy. It is necessary to braise 
the fruit and the nuts before infusing them in bran- 
dy. The spirit must also be brought back to 21 
degrees before sweetening it. Then add nearly 12 
oz. of sugar to every quart of liqueur. — Journal de 
P/iarmacie, 1821. 

Ratafia de brou de noix. 
Take of young walnuts, whose shells are not yet 
hardened, in number, 60, — brandy, 4 pints, — sugar, 
12 oz. — mace, cinnamon, and cloves, each 15 gr. 
Digest for 2 or .3 months, press out the liquor, fil- 
ter, and keep it for 2 or 3 years. 

Ratafia de noyeaii. 
Take of peach or apricot kernels, with their 
shells bruised, in number, 120, proof spirit, 4 pints, 
sugar, 10 oz. Some reduce the spirit of wine to 
proof with the juice of apricots or peaches, to make 
this liqueur. 

Creme de noyeau de JMartinique. 
Take 20 lbs. of loaf sugar, — 3 gallons of spirit 
of wine, — 3 pints of orange flower water,->l^ lb. 
of bitter almonds — 2 drachms of essence of lemon, 
and 4^ gallons of water. The produce will exceed 
8 gallons. 

Put 2 lbs. of the loaf sugar into a jug or can, 
pour upon it the essence of lemon, and 1 quart of 
the spirit of wine; stir it till the sugar is dissolved, 
and the essence completely incorporated. Bruise 
the almnnds, and put them into a 4 gallon stone 
oottle or cask, add the remainder of the spirit of 
wine, and the mixture from the jug or can: let it 
stand a week or ten days, shaking it frequently. 
Then add the remainder of the sugar, and boil it 
in the 4^ gallons of water, for three quarters of an 
txvir, taking oft" the scum as it rises. When cold, 



pat it in a cask; add the spirit, almonds, &c. from 
the stone bottle; and lastly, the orange flower wa- 
ter. Bung it down close, and let it stand three 
weeks or a month; then strain it tbrough a jelh' 
bag, and when fine bottle it off. When the pink 
is wanted, add cochineal, in powder, at the rate ot 
half a drachm, or two scruples, to a quart. 
Ratafia d'ecorces d''oranges. 
Take of fresh peel of Seville oranges, 4 oz. — 
proof spirit, 1 gallon, — sugar, 1 lb. Digest for 6 
hours. 

Ratafia defieurs d'oranges. 
Take of fresh flowers of orange-tree, 2 lbs. 
proof spirit, 1 gallon, — sugar, 1^ lbs. Digest for fi 
hours. 

Creme d'orange of superior flavour. 
Take 3 dozen middling sized oranges, orange 
flower water, 2 quarts, loaf sugar, 18 lbs. spirit of 
wine, 2 gallons, tincture of saffron, 1^ oz. water, 
4^ gallons. This will produce 7^ gallons. 

Cut the oranges in slices, put them into a cask, 
add the spirit and orange flower water, let it stand 
a fortniglit, then boil the sugar in tlie water for 
half an hour, pour it out, and let it stand till cold, 
then add it to the mixture in the cask, and put in 
the tincture of saffron. Let it remain a fortnight 
longer; then strain, and proceed as directed in the 
receipt for cremes de Barbades, and a very fine 
cordial will be produced. 

Fine brandy shrub. 
Take 8 oz. of citric acid, — 1 gallon of porter, — 
3 gallons of raisin wine, — 2 quarts of orange flower 
water, — 7 gallons of good brandy, — 5 ditto of water. 
This will produce 16 gallons. First, dissolve the 
citric acid in the water, then add to it the brandy; 
next, mix the raisin wine, porter, and orange flower 
water together; and lastly, mix tiie whole: and in 
a week or ten days, it will be ready for drinking, 
and of a very mellow flavour. 
Rum shnib. 
Leave out the brandy and porter, and add 1 gal- 
lon more raisin wine, 6 lbs. of honey, and 10 gal- 
lons of good flavoured rum. 

Currant shrub. 
Take white currants, when quite ripe, pick them 
off the stalks, and bruise them; strain out the juice 
through a cloth, and to two quarts of the juice put 
2 lbs. of loaf sugar; when it is dissolved add to it a 
gallon of rum, tlien strain it through a flannel bag 
that will keep in the jelly, and it will run off clear; 
then bottle it for use. 

Usquebaugh. 
Usquebaugh is a strong compound liquor, chiefly 
taken by way of dram; it is made in the liighest 
perfection at Drogheda in Ireland. The following 
are the ingredients, and the proportions in which 
they are to be used. 

Take of best brandy, 1 gallon, — raisins, stoned, 
1 lb. — cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and cardamoms, 
each 1 oz. crushed in a mortar, — saft'ron, half an 
ounce, — rind of 1 Seville orange, and brown sugar 
candy, 1 lb. Shake these well every day, for at 
least 14 days, and it will, at the expiration of that 
time, be ready to l>e fined for use. 

Another method. — Take of nutmegs^ cloves, and 
cinnamon, each 2 ounces; of the seeds of anise, cara- 
way, and coriander, each 4 ounces; liquorice root, 
sliced, half a pound; bruise the seeds and spices, 
and put them together with the liquorice, into the 
st^ill, with 11 gallons of proof spirit, and 2 gallons 
of water; distil with a pretty brisk fire. As soon 
as the still begins to work, fasten to the nozel of 
the worm 2 ounces of English saffron, tied up in a 
cloth, that the liquor may run througli it, and ex- 
tract all its tincture. When the operation is finish- 
ed, sweeten with fine sugar. — This li(jueur may be 
much improved by the following additions; Digest 



146 



UNIVERSAL RECEIPT BOOK. 



4 pounds of stoned raisins, 3 pounds of dates, and 
2 poiiiids of sliced liquorice root, in 2 gallons of 
water, for 12 hours. When the liquor is strained 
off, and has dpoosited all sediment, decant it gently 
into the vessel containing the usquebaugh. 
Ratafia a la violette. 
Take of Florentine orris root, 2 dr. — archel, 1 
oz. — spirit of wiue, 4 pints. Digest, strain, and 
add sugar, 4 lbs. — Liqueurs are also made by ad- 
ding Hungary-water, honey-water, eau de Cologne, 
and several other spirits, to an equal quantity of 
simple syrup, or common capillaire. 



COMPOUND SPIRITS, OR CORDIALS. 

General Mules. 

The perfection of this grand branch of distillery 
depends upon the observation of the following ge- 
neral rules, which are easy to be observed and 
practised: — 1. l"he artist must always be careful to 
use a well cleansed spirit, or one freed from its 
own essential oil. For as a compound cordial is 
nothing more than a spirit impregnated with the 
essential oil of the ingredients, it is necessary that 
the spirit should have deposited its own. 2. Let 
the time of previous digestion be proportioned to 
the tenacity of the ingredients, or the ponderosity 
of their oil. 3. Let the strength of the iire be pro- 
portioned to the ponderosity of the oil intended to 
(•je raised with the spirit. 4. Let a due proportion 
of the finest parts of the essential oil be united with 
the spirit; the grosser and less fragrant parts of the 
oil not giving the spirit so agreeable a flavour, and 
at the same time rendering it thick and unsightly. 
This